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Full text of ""The Chef" magazine; devoted to culinary art"

Announcement 



TN the publication of this magazine it is the 
-^ intention of the editor to have The Chef become 
a welcome necessity in every American house- 
hold, as well to the housewife of modest means as 
to the mistress of the wealthiest home :-: :-: :-: 

^ It will be made indispensable as a culinary 
teacher of the hygiene of the kitchen and its econ- 
omies, particularly to the young woman, the 
housewife to be, whose education in this branch 
is much too often neglected :-: :-: :-: :-: :-: :-: 

^ It will contain recipes from the most distin- 
guished Chefs in America, with menus for all 
occasions, also the latest menus from Paris :-: :-: 



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n HIS MAGAZINE being intended as 
a teacher in cooking, as well as pre- 
senting new recipes to those who are 
now efficient, there will be found 
among its pages recipes in which we enter 
into all the details of each operation, and 
while to the novice these recipes will appear 
quite long and complicated, they will be found to 
be simple in practise and successful in results, 
therefore it behooves our readers who desire 
to become efficient to follow the details 
honestly and they will thereupon produce the 
desired results for their reward. 

To our readers now efficient in the Art 
will be found recipes without the necessary 
proportions being given, as practise has 
accomplished this for them. However, atten- 
tion is called to the fact that these recipes are 
the inventions of our best "Chefs." 



I 




Volume 1 



FEBRUARY, 1910 



Number 1 



. . . TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . 

PAGE. 

A Word About Food Products, the Kitchen and Cooking 3 

Every Man Master of His Own Stomach 5 

Starving Dervish Discovered Coffee 6 

Menus for All Seasons 7 

Beef Soup 3 

Eggs a la Bash Bish q 

How to Use a Left-Over of Boiled or Roast Beef 10 

Mussels Au Gratin J0 

Sardines Prepared Country Style IO 

Parsnips with Brown Sauce n 

Rustic Soup j j 

Poulard (Capon) a la Napolitaine I2 

Recipes of Noted Chefs T r 

Poulet Etouffe Brevoort. By Bernard. Filet of Sole. By DuBois. 

Noisettes of Lamb. By Balard. Tartlettes of Rooster Kidneys. By Balard. 

How to Live a Hundred Years x 6 

How to Prepare a Quick Breakfast T 8 

How Pate de Foi Gras Is Produced x 8 

A Curious Find at the Hotel Brevoort ICj 

Old Time Living Expenses 20 

Fishes That Travel Overland 20 

The Extravagance of Lucullus 21 

A Pie with Noah's Ark Tendencies 22 

Poor Baby 22 

The King of Old Casks 23 

More Water Sold Than Liquors 23 

$200,000 For a Sack of Flour 23 

Definitions of "Home" 2 t, 

This Swan Was a Bird 24 

Similes 2 , 

Rather a Tough Dinner 2 , 

Flashes of Royal Repartee 25 

Before the Fork Was Thought of 2 6 

Sugar Plums the Patriarch of Candies 26 

Iron Rule of Hindoo Husbands 27 

A Table d'Hote Menu 28 

Recipes. By Prosper Grevillot 2 n 



Eugene F. Vacheron, President. J. B. Sabine, Treasurer. H. Herbert Vacheron, Secretary, 225 Fifth Ave 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION, $1.50 SINGLE COPY, 15 CENTS 

Copyright, 1910, by "The Chef" Publishing Co. Trade-Mark Registered 
Published Monthly by "The Chef" Publishing Co. 

Address all Communications to "The Chef" Magazine 
225 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Entered at the Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 



THE CHEF 



OUR CONTRIBUTORS 

SOME OF 

The Best Known French Chels In New York 



Mr. 


Eugene Lapperruque 


Che 


tt 


Emile Bailly 


tt 


« 


J. Balard 


it 


n 


E. Gigoux 


ii 


u 


Leony Derouet 


ii 


u 


J. Colombin 


it 


ii 


J. Bent 


ii 


it 


Jules Biron 


ti 


ii 


Prosper Grevillot 


ii 


a 


Henri Rosier 


it 


n 


X. Kuzmier 


tt 


it 


Henri Dousseau 


ii 


tt 


Lucien Bernard 


it 


ti 


Teilliaud 


it 


u 


Negre 


a 


tt 


Valta 


u 


a 


Drederick 


u 


tt 


Adams 


u 


a 


Rhiel 


it 


tt 


Ribeyre 


u 


tt 


Labeille 


a 



Chef Plaza Hotel, N. Y. 

St. Regis Hotel, NY. 
Cafe Martin, N.Y. 
NewGrandHotelN.Y. 
Grand Union Hotel, 

New York 

Belmont Hotel, N. Y. 
Cafe del'Opera, N.Y. 
St. Denis Hotel, N. Y. 
Delmonico's 

For 35 Years, New York 

Windsor Hotel, 

Montreal, Canada 

Gotham Hotel, N. Y. 
Metropolitan Club, 

New > ork 

Hotel Brevoort, N.Y. 
of Col. J. J. Astor, 

New York 

of D.O.Mills, N.Y. 
M.OrmeWilson,N.Y. 
of George Widener, 

Philadelphia 

of Robert Goelet 



of Clarence Mackay 
of H.McKayTwombley 
of Mrs. Sloan 



"THE CHEF" MAGAZINE 



Vol. 1. No. 1 



FEBRUARY, 1910 



15 CENTS 




A WORD ABOUT FOOD PRODUCTS 

The Kitchen and Cooking 



OF all the subjects susceptible to tempt the pen of 
the French writers none have been more so than 
that of the subject of food products, the kitchen and 
cooking, and the number of such works, treating on 
the above subjects either in part or as a whole, form 
volumes too numerous to mention. 

Many have made food products a study of the 
greatest importance from the standpoint of economy, 
both philosophical and social, while others have started 
and stopped at the inception of all its ramifications, 
"the kitchen," while others again in prose and verse, 
have with the old gaul spirit sang the praises of a 
good table, which is the philosophic essence of the 
kitchen. 

And whatsoever may be the intrinsic value of each 
of these works, we must arrive at the one conclusion, 
that taken as a whole, they constitute and irrefutably 
establish the preponderant part that has always been 
taken by France in the development and intent to per- 
fect the art of eating well and properly, and which, 
it is not paradoxical to say, good eating has always 



followed, and even sometimes led in the march of 
human progress and of civilization. 

Each of these works are a signpost marking the 
years that have passed, the history and the aspirations 
of an epoch, the tastes of a generation. 

And yet, as numerous and various as are these 
works, there can never be too many, and the more 
of these works there are produced, the greater will 
be the emulation to study and spread their scientific 
teachings, which should be a balance wheel for a 
reasoned out treatment of food product, and much 
sooner then will the procedure of practical cooking 
become common and more firmly will be established 
the desire for progress, and a general knowledge of 
the utility of food products in all its branches. 

And while these works are very often dry read- 
ing and difficult to understand, yet we find the public 
interested in them because in their study are recog- 
nized a necessity, and the subject which they treat, 
most predominant and necessary for the existence of 
all, be they rich or poor. 



THE CHEF 



And therefore as the function of eating is of such 
vital importance, and which culinary science has en- 
deavored to make a pleasure, let us bow to culinary 
art and its promoters and recognize in them the civil- 
izer and most invincible factor of our social life. 

"To Dine" is the goal of all human actions, so has 
said an old humorist, and Rabelais, in his most en- 
ergetic language has stated that it was "The tyrannic 
power of 'Mester Gaster.' " 

We all may plan as we will ; we may have very 
high ideals, and such fads as would make us look 
with disdain upon or forgetful of all that makes up 
the charms of our existence, but it nevertheless re- 
mains a fact that the best and greatest of us must 
respond to the imperious call of the dining room: 
We must eat. 

And besides to what purpose tends this continuous, 
eternal and never weakening strife of ours ! This 
persevering in our efforts for success ; is it not for 
food? And again if you stop for an instant and ex- 
amine the multiplicity of industries engaged in the 
manufacture of food products you will find that they 
outnumber other industries and professions one hun- 
dred to one which verifies at once, if by no other 
way, the statement that food is the "ALL" and 
"ONLY" of life. 

Therefore this question of food is justly consid- 
ered life's prime factor, inasmuch as it alone assures 
with the refection of dispensed forces, the suppleness 
of the muscles, the vigor of the body, the balancing 
of the mind. 

But to realize the problem of the culinary art you 
must necessarily understand the properties good or 
bad, contained in food to be cooked. That you may 
connect and treat them following the hygienic and 
practical rules of culinary practice you must also un- 
derstand the proper value, and usages of the different 
seasonings and other condiments which are an indis- 
pensable adjunct to nutrition and without which can- 
not be obtained a savory dish. 

Where find this necessary information? These 
precise and certain processes sanctioned by practice, 
which joined to scientific ideas, permit one to discern 
without effort how to prepare food to meet the .tastes 
and temperament of the majority, according to climate 
and season? 

It is in the study of good books, of which it is our 
intention to make this one, wherein will be gathered 
the best receipts, formulas, advice and precept, plac- 
ing before the reader all that is used in the art of 
maintaining good health by proper and tasteful nour- 
ishment and who will appreciate from reading these 
pages the "utile duke" (the useful with the agreeable) 



of the good Horace and other Greek writers. 
The Chef will endeavor to give to its readers 
from time to time all the most useful and interesting 
matter connected with this subject; we will endeavor 
to make it the "Yade Mecum" (the constant com- 
panion) of every household, be the same modest or 
wealthy. 

In life everything is relative. While the ordinary 
or common household is not to be compared with 
the wealthiest, it is certain, however, that the same 
care must be taken in the preparation of food, which 
in the former case may not be elaborate as to variety 
but by knowledge and care can be as tasty. 

It is said that the body is compared to a boiler of 
which the combustibles therefor are good and proper 
nourishment. If that is a fact, all that remains for 
us is to properly prepare the nourishment required to 
feed it. It is therefore extremely necessary that our 
readers understand the fundamental truths of eating, 
beginning with the understanding of the why and 
wherefore of the raw materials, of which this maga- 
zine will treat from time to time. 

It is a natural conclusion that this magazine will 
be more for women than for men, but ultimately 
for their benefit, but it is our intention to particularly 
interest the daughter of the family, young girl to-day, 
to-morrow housekeeper in her own home, either do- 
ing her own work or supervising others, but in either 
case be convinced that the young wife who can cook 
or who can directly assist her cook does not lose caste 
by giving such time as may be necessary in her 
kitchen ; on the contrary there is nothing more noble 
in the housewife, than she who has the discernment 
to watch over the welfare of her home, as she does 
while supervising the cooking of that which is to be 
eaten by her family. 

And the wife with these qualifications perforce 
must have a happy home. 

Show me the unhappy home and in nine cases out 
of ten I will show you the poor cook. Therefore it 
behooves every young woman to prepare herself to 
dignify the position of wife by learning how to cook. 
Is it not true, that around the well set table, the 
appetizingly served or well cooked dish or dishes, we 
find a cheerful and contented family engaged in the 
most spirited conversation and story telling, it is 
around such tables that the destiny of nations have 
been amicably settled and it is the clever house wife 
that has always made it attractive by that exquisite 
delicacy of taste of which she holds the secret ; by 
her charming manners, her instinctive intuition of 
arrangement of what is most beautiful and good, to 
tempt the palate of her family and their friends. 




THE CHEF 5 

EVERY MAN MASTER OF HIS OWN STOMACH 

Instinct Best Determines What You Should Eat, So Eat What Your 

Normal Instinct Tells You. 



IN that series of compromises which we call life 
there is no compromise more perplexing than the 
compromise with the stomach. No problem requires 
more earnest thought than the food problem. It is 
the stomach that makes men work. There would be 
no produce exchange were it not for the stomach — 
no yellow fields of wheat and corn, no grazing herds 
of cattle, no fleets of white-sailed fishing-vessels. 
Clothing and shelter are secondary demands. The 
stomach is master ; and, as is ever likely to be the 
case with autocrats, it is selfish — wherefore we humor 
it — we hold out crutches to it — we offer it tempting 
inducements to be lenient with us. 

A sense of relief, therefore, is produced by reading 
Dr. Woods Hutchinson's article, "Some Diet Delu- 
sions," in McClure's; for therein is advanced the 
doctrine of "intelligent omnivorousness." Says Dr. 
Hutchinson : 

"Every imaginable experiment upon what would 
and what would not support life must have been tried 
thousands of years ago, and yet our most striking 
proofs of how highly men value their 'precious right 
of private haziness,' as George Eliot shrewdly terms 
it, are to be found in the realm of dietetics. The 
'light that never was on sea or land' still survives for 
the most matter-of-fact of us in the memory of 'the 
pies that mother used to make,' and nowhere else do 
we find preferences so widely accepted as evidence, 
and prejudice as matters of fact, as in this arena. In 
fact if we were merely to listen to what is said, and 
still more to read what is printed, we would come to 
the conclusion that the human race had established 
absolutely nothing beyond possibility of dispute in this 
realm. 

WHEN THE DOCTORS DISAGREE. 

"Every would-be diet-reformer, and we doctors are 
almost as bad as any of them, is absolutely certain 
that what nine-tenths of humanity find to be their 
food is a deadly poison. One philosopher is sure that 
animal food of every description, especially the kind 
that involves the shedding of blood, is not only abso- 
lutely unfit for human food, but is. the cause of half 
the suffering and wickedness in the world. Another 
gravely declares that the only thing which above all 
things is injurious is salt. Another takes up his par- 
able against pork. Still another is convinced that half 
the misery of the world is due to the use of spices ; 
and one dietetic Rousseau proclaims a return to very 
first principles by the abolition of cooking. 

"Another attacks the harmless and blushing to- 
mato, and lays at its doors the modern increase of 
cancer, insanity and a hundred kindred evils ; while 



Mrs. Rohrer has gently but firmly to be restrained 
whenever the mild-eyed potato is mentioned in her 
presence. 

"There is almost an equally astonishing Babel when 
one comes to listen to the various opinions as to the 
amount of food required. Eighteen grave and rever- 
end doctors assure us that overeating is the prevalent 
dietetic sin of the century, while the remainder of 
the two dozen are equally positive that the vast ma- 
jority of their patients are underfed. One man 
preaches the gospel of dignified simplicity on one meal 
a day and one clean collar a week, while the lean and 
learned Fletcher declares that if we only keep on 
masticating our one mouthful of food long enough, 
we shall delude the stomach into magnifying it into 
ten, and can dine sumptuously on a menu card and 
a biscuit. 

INSTINCT FAR SUPERIOR TO REASON. 

"Fortunately, when it comes to practise, philoso- 
phers, reformers and doctors alike have about as 
much influence here as they have over conduct in 
other realms — and that is next to none at all. The 
man in the street follows his God-given instincts and 
plods peacefully along to his three square meals a 
day, consisting of anything he can find in the market, 
and just as much of it as he can afford, with special 
preference for rich meats, fats and sugars. 

"Here, as everywhere, instinct is far superior to 
reason, and a breakfast diet of sausage and buck- 
wheat cakes with maple syrup and strong coffee has 
carried the white man half round the world; while 
one of salads and cereals, washed down with a post- 
prandial subterfuge, would leave him stranded, gasp- 
ing in the first ditch he came to. 

"All the basal problems of dietetics were, by the 
mercy of heaven, settled long ago in the farmhouse 
kitchen, in the commissary department of the army 
in the field, in the cook's galley amidships and in the 
laboratory. 

"There is little more room for difference of opinion 
upon them than there is about the coaling of engines. 
Simply a matter of size of boiler and fire-box, the 
difference in heating power and ash between Welsh 
and Australian, and the amount of work to be got 
out of the machine, multiplied by the time in which 
it is to be accomplished." 

Dr. Hutchinson proceeds to give reasons why spices 
do not heat the blood, why pork is a most excellent 
food, why fish is no better for the brain than other 
things, why vegetarianism is a mistake and so on. 
His principal caution is not to eat in a hurry; his 



THE CHEF 



principal advice is, virtually, to eat whatever seems 
to agree with you. 

All of which brings to mind the story of the old 
dyspeptic who, after a long term of misery, one day 
apostrophized his stomach thus : "I have humored 
you for many years. I have coaxed you, coddled you, 
petted you. I have gone hungry to please you. I 
have swallowed bad-tasting medicines on your ac- 
count. I have been your servant — but now I am 
through. 

"From this time I will eat what I please and drink 
what I please. If you protest I shall ignore you. 
Hereafter you are the servant, I am the master. Xow 
make the best of that!" 

This brave man's stomach, we are told, was so 
thoroughly cowed by the words that it never again 
demanded a milk diet. 

STARVING DERVISH DISCOVERED 
COFFEE 

History of the Favorite American Beverage Is Surrounded 
by Legendary Lore of Ages Ago 

THE discovery of coffee is surrounded by many 
legends. In 1285, so one story runs, Hadji 
Omar, an Arabian dervish, when almost dying of 
hunger in the wilderness, stumbled upon some curious- 
looking berries growing on a small shrub. He pulled 
some of them, and, removing the outer shell, he began 
to eat them, but finding they were bitter, he quickly 
desisted. 

As a last resource to satisfy the pangs of hunger, 
he made a fire and roasted some of the berries and 
tried to soften them in water. Finding this too tedi- 
ous, the dervish eagerly drank the water, and to his 
great surprise found it both nourishing and refresh- 
ing. 

Returning to Mocha, in the district of Yemen, on 
the Red Sea, he told the wise men of his discovery, 
and after brewing and serving some of the wonderful 
beverage he was feted. So popular did his discov- 
ery cause him to become that he was made a saint. 

Another legend is that five hundred years ago a 
ship from the Indies cast anchor off the shore near 
Mocha and sent a boat ashore. On the beach the 
crew met a hermit named Sheik Schoedeli, who of- 
fered them a dark-colored liquid to drink. It was the 
first time they ever had tasted coffee, and thinking 
that they had found in it a cure for the plague, they 
took some of it with them when they returned to the 
Indies. Later, other voyagers came to get some of 
the berries that warded off disease, and thus the use 
of coffee spread to the East Indies, and then, gradu- 
ally, over the whole world. 

There is an old story that coffee was introduced 
into the West Indies by Chirac, a French physician, 
about 1723. It is said that this man gave a single 



coffee-plant to an army captain named De Clieux, 
who was on his way to Martinique. During the voy- 
age a fierce storm arose, and the ship was delayed so 
long that the water-supply began to get so low that 
it was dealt out in rations. 

De Clieux, who seemed to have formed a peculiar 
fondness for the little coffee-plant, shared his allow- 
ance of water with it. In this way the plant was 
preserved, and when the ship reached port De Clieux 
planted the shrub, and at the end of a year gathered 
two pounds of coffee from it, which he distributed 
among the inhabitants to plant. 

From Martinique, coffee was taken to other islands, 
and soon it was grown extensively in the Indies. 

Still another legend has it that about the middle 
of the fifteenth century a poor Arab who was travel- 
ing in Abyssinia paused to cook his mid-day meal, 
and finding no fuel at hand, he cut down a small tree 
with which to start his fire. As he heaped the twigs 
on the blaze he found that they were covered with 
berries, from which, as the fire burned them, arose 
a fragrant odor. Gathering some of them in his hand, 
he was examining them, when they slipped from his 
grasp and fell into a can which contained some wa- 
ter. The color of the water at once changed, and 
touching it to his lips, the Arab found that the liquid 
was most refreshing. Taking some of the berries 
with him, he set out for Aden, where he announced 
his discovery. 

The stories of the origin of coffee are so conflict- 
ing that it is difficult to determine just when ii was 
first used ; but in all probability it originally was 
taken to Arabia from Africa about 1470 A. D. 
Shortly after it was introduced, the Mohammedan^ 
employed it to keep them awake during their long 
religious services. Later, it was coi>;idered an intoxi- 
cating liquor, and hence belonging to the class of bev- 
erages prohibited by the Koran. 

Still it continued to be used, however, and though 
it took a long time for its use to extend outside 01 
Arabia, it finally came into favor at Constantinople, 
where coffee-houses were opened in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Attempts also were made to suppress its use 
there, but in spite of them, the berry held its own, 
and in 1652 the first coffee-house in England was 
opened by a Greek named Rossie. 

Down to 1690 the only source of coffee supply was 
Arabia, but in that year Governor-General Van 
Hoorne, of the Dutch East India Company, received 
a few coffee-seeds from traders who plied between 
the Arabian Gulf and Java. These seeds were 
planted, and grew so well that the industry of coffee- 
growing in Java was at once started, and one of the 
first plants grown there was sent to the governor of 
the Dutch East India Company. It was planted in 
Holland, and seeds from it were sent to the West 
Indies, and then to other parts of the world. 



THE CHEF 



MENUS FOR ALL SEASONS 

From Well-Known Hotels 



MENU 
& j* 

Huitres Buzzard Bay 
Potage 

Consomme Orleans 
Barsch a la Polonaise 

Hors d'oeuvre 

Radis Olives Celeri 

Poisson 

Aiguillette de Bass au gratin 
Pommes Duchesse 

Releve 

Chapon farci aux marrons 
Ponds d'Artichauts, Mikado 

Entree 

Asperges nouvelles, Sauce Hollandaise 
Sorbet Young America 

Roti 

Becasse au Cresson 
Salade Alma 

Entremets de Douceur 

Glace Fantaisie Gateaux Assortis 

Fruits 

Fromage 

Cafe 

Cigars 



MENU 



Canapes de Caviar Moscovite 



Essence de Tomatoes Excelsior 

Radis Olives de Lucque Celeri 

Xoix salees 



Eperlans a la Mantoue 

Pommes de terre Persillade 



Quartier d'Ours Lithuanienne 
Celeri-rave au jus 



Champignons sous cloches 



Cailles a la Caprea 

Salade Laitue et Avocats 



Omelette Souffle en surprise 
Petits fours 
Bonbons 

Fruits 



Cafe 



MENU 

Oysters 

Soups 



Consomme Sevigne 



Green Turtle 
Sherry, Amontillado 

Side Dishes 

Timbales Rothschild 
Celery Olives Radishes 

Fish 

Aiguillettes of Kingfish, Meuniere 

Marquise Potatoes Piesporter 

Cucumbers 

Remove 

Saddle of Canada Mutton, Colbert 
Stuffed Tomatoes 

Entrees 

Breast of Chicken, Genin Fashion 



French Peas Champagne 

Terrapin, Baltimore 
Sherbet with Maraschino 

Roast 

Canvas Back Duck 
Fried Hominy Currant Jelly 

Cold 

Small Aspics of Foie Gras 

ChirTonnade Salad Liqueurs 

Sweets 

Fancy Ice Cream Assorted Cakes 

Cheese Coffee White Rock 



MENU 

Huitres Bluepoint 

Potages 

Consomme Renaissance 
Bisque de Homard a la Peary 

Hors d'oeuvre 

Mousse de Jambon a la Viennois'e 

Poisson 

Pompano au vin blanc 
Pommes Duchesse Concombres 

Releve 

Filet de Boeuf Forestiere 
Endive braise au jus 

Entres 

Ris de Veau a la Toulouse 
Petits pois Framcais 



Artichauts a la Florentine 



Sorbet au Kirsch 

Roti 

Poussin farci aux marrons 
Salade Kuroki 

Entremets de Douceur 

Glace Half Moon , Petits fours 

Pieces montees 

Cafe 



THE CHEF 



BEEF SOUP 

Known by the French Housewife as Pot-au-Feu and Being the Most 
Economical and Healthful of All Soups 



HOW TO USE SOUP BEEF, BETTER KNOWN AS FLAT 
RIB OR PLATE. 

T N the first place it is known that many housewives 
-*-who make beef soup, throw the beef away after 
the soup has been made and I assure you, the house- 
wife that does this does not know how to make soup, 
and curious as this may seem, this will be found to 
be done more among the laboring and middle classes 
than by those of more wealth who have and do take 
more pains to economize than the former. 

This being due probably to the fact that the wealth- 
ier class study economy much more than those who 
find it hard to make both ends meet. 

It is nevertheless a fact, that they who have studied 
economy in the matter of making beef soup have dis- 
covered what the housewife of France has long 
known that many palatable dishes can be made from 
the self same soup meat. 

Of course it must be remembered that one must 
begin right to obtain the best results and where is 
the housewife, young or old, who does not wish to 
please the palate of her husband? They are, in my 
mind ; but very few and far between, and how pleas- 
ing it is to a husband to find in his home that treasure, 
economy. 

However, let us begin and see what we can do 
with our soupmeat. First we will start right and make 
the soup. We will begin, this being for four persons, 
by purchasing about four pounds of what is commonly 
known as plate or flat rib. Of course here you must 
begin to use judgment. You must not take a piece 
that has too much or too little fat. You must get a 
piece about half and half, or not less than one-third 
fat and three-fourths lean. Either will do. After 
having obtained the same, wash it well in a pan of 
cold water, that same may be clean before using. 

You then take your meat and place it in a fairly 
good sized cooking pot (have an iron or earthenware 
pot if possible), that will hold at least six quarts of 
water. You cover the meat with about one gallon of 
water which is placed on the stove and permitted to 
boil, and after it has boiled for about fifteen minutes 
you then place it on the back of the stove where the 
pot is uncovered and you proceed to skim from the 
top the scum that has been brought there by the boil- 
ing. You then recover the pot leaving it over a slow 
heat, to cook slowly, in other words, simmer. I might 
here mention that the best beef soup made takes 
about five hours to cook. In other words, if you are 
to have your dinner in the middle of the day set your 
beef on to boil at 7 A. M., and let it cook slowly or 
simmer until 12, or if you have dinner at night, set 
your meat to cook at 1 o'clock and allow it to cook 



until 6 P. M. This will seem giving a long time for 
a plate of soup, but then when it is ready it will be 
soup and you will be well repaid for you will also 
have saved your meat, which will then be an excel- 
lent and tasty piece of boiled beef. To continue : 
After having placed your beef on to cook you then 
begin to prepare your seasoning. Oh, you say, How 
about breakfast if I must do this at 7 A. M.? Well, 
go on and get breakfast and have it too. No harm 
will be done by leaving your meat cook as above, but 
immediately after breakfast, which will be probably 
about from one-half to three-fourths of an hour from 
the time you set your meat on, begin by peeling an 
average sized onion around which you stick four 
cloves, peel a turnip which you cut lengthwise in four 
or six pieces, a carrot which you likewise cut. Then 
take six or eight sprigs of parsley, two or three sprigs 
of celery ; called celery for soup when you buy it at 
the grocers ; one average sized leek, one-half of a 
small cabbage and one bay leaf. You now have your 
seasoning all ready with the exception that you should 
take your parsley, celery and leek and make a bouquet 
of them by tying them together with a piece of white 
thread so that when you put them in the soup they 
will be easily taken out when your soup is cooked. 

You will now have had your meat cooking for 
about an hour or more. You uncover the pot and 
you again skim a light brown scum which will again 
appear. After having done this thoroughly you will 
have taken a minute or so, then take your onion, 
turnip, carrot, cabbage and bouquet composed of 
parsley, celery and leek and place them in the cook- 
ing pot with the meat. Then you leave the whole 
cook together slowly or simmer until the end. How- 
ever, you may skim it occasionally, in fact as often 
as it may seem necessary which will be as often as 
you find any scum or particles floating on top of the 
water. Also before taking the pot off the stove you 
must with a spoon take off some of the fat which will 
be floating on the top so that your soup will not be 
too rich in fat. It is now 12 o'clock and all that re- 
mains for us to do now is to salt the soup. Judgment 
must be used in the quantity of salt necessary which 
can only be done by tasting, not putting too much 
salt at the time. Our soup is now done and we re- 
move the pot from the stove and we proceed to remove 
the meat which we set on a cutting board or platter. 
We then remove the bouquet, which can be thrown 
out, it having served its use. We then take out the 
cabbage, turnip and carrot, placing them on another 
platter. Let us replace the soup on the back of the 
stove for a moment, while we turn again to the meat. 
We proceed to take away the short flat bones, which 



THE CHEF 



are always a part of flat rib, proceed to cut your meat 
in slices about one-half inch thick, lay them nicely 
and tastefully on a platter containing the cabbage and 
garnish the platter with your turnip and carrots 
around the edges which will look appetizing, and put 
it where it will keep warm until you have eaten your 
soup. 

Now take your soup and strain it through a soup 
strainer into a soup tureen into which you have cut 
about two slices of toasted bread into eight pieces, 
upon the accomplishment of which you are ready to 
sit down and eat a most delicious soup after eating 
which your meat is served which you will find like- 
wise delicious and to which can be added horse-rad- 
ish or tomato sauce if desired. However, eaten with 
mustard it is just as good. Upon having eaten your 
boiled beef with your vegetables to which may have 
been added four or five potatoes which you have boiled 
on the side you will have had a most delicious, healthy, 
invigorating and enjoyable dinner for four persons 
all for the sum of not more than 45 cents. 

Of course, if you are more in the family, you might 
use two pounds more of beef, another carrot and 
turnip, a whole cabbage instead of a half, etc. But 
remember the chances are that you will have soup 
left for to-morrow, which having been strained and 
placed in a cool place until next day and which before 
being used again the fat which has settled on top hav- 
ing been removed, the soup upon being warmed and a 
handful of rice added thereto, which you leave boil 
until the rice is cooked, will give you a delicious con- 
somme with rice. 

In the event that you have taken a larger piece of 
meat than you could finish at one meal, you will then 
have "a left-over.'' In the next issue I will tell you 
just how to use this in making the most palatable 
dishes pleasing to your husband and fit for a king. 
As a final let us sum up the proceedings as follows : 

4 to six pounds of plate or flat ribs. 
I to ^> gallons of water. 

z / 2 to 1 cabbage. 
1 or two turnips. 
1 or 2 carrots. 

5 cts. worth of soup green (parsley, celery, leeks). 
An onion with four cloves. 

One bay leaf. 

Cook slowly. (Let simmer 5 hours). 

EGGS A LA BASH BISH 

' I v HIS style of cooking eggs, though not quite new 
-*- in French families, is certainly an excellent style, 
and much enjoyed for a lunch, but it must be said 
among the many styles of cooking eggs there are none 
better than the following one which will tempt the 
most particular, and while there are many who dislike 
onions, which are used in preparing this dish, the 
able housewife eliminates their taste by her able man- 
ipulations of the several ingredients used. 



PROPORTIONS FOR SIX PERSONS. 

9 or 10 eggs. 

3 onions, medium sized. 

3 oz. butter. 

1 oz. flour. 

1 pint boiled milk. 

3 or four branches parsley tied together. 

Salt, pepper, nutmeg. 

Time necessary to cook, from 50 minutes to 1 hour. 

SUMMARY OF OPERATION. 

Peel, pare and cut onions in thin slices, bleaching 
them in boiling water. Let brown in butter for about 
twenty minutes. Add flour, then the milk, cook slowly 
for twenty minutes. Boil the eggs until hard, remove 
the shells, cut in round pieces about six pieces to each 
egg- 

BLEACHING THE ONIONS. 

After peeling, cut in half and pare from each end 
the thickness of one-eighth of an inch, thereby re- 
moving the hard root end and the thin stalky end. 
Cut into as thin slices as possible the rest of the onions 
and set them into a casserole containing about three 
pints of water which set to boil while preparing the 
onions. Salt the water with about one-half oz. of salt, 
there should be sufficient water to cover them, which 
will prevent the air reaching them and thereby turn- 
ing them black and which would result in giving the 
gravy a bitter taste. Allow to boil well for about 
eight minutes, to be counted beginning from the time 
the boiling recommences, after having placed the on- 
ions in the water. Thereupon pour them into a col- 
ander, drain them well, let cold water run on them, 
shake the colander well to remove as much of the 
water as possible. Then spread them out on a dry 
cloth and proceed to dry them as completely as pos- 
sible. (The older the onion the more necessary it is 
to bleach them as above, this being clone to remove 
the bitterness that onions always contain). 

So long as we have new onions this bleaching is 
not necessary, but must be done from the moment that 
the onion has matured, when the juice of the onion 
has become bitter, which is one of its characteristics. 

Then place them in a low casserole or frying pan 
into which you have melted the butter over a moder- 
ate fire (the butter must be melted only, not browned), 
and stir them with a wooden spoon for four or five 
minutes, which will completely evaporate their sur- 
plus humidity. Now set the casserole on the side of 
the stove, cover it and allow the onions to cook slowly, 
simmer in the butter, carefully stirring them from 
time to time with a wooden spoon, not letting them 
brown, however. For this cooking take about twenty 
minutes. 

THE SAUCE. 

The onions now being about cooked, or nearly so, 
that is to say well softened with the butter penetrating 
same throughout, sprinkle with flour (1 oz.), stir 
them for a few moments with the wooden spoon over 



10 



THE CHEF 



a slow fire for the purpose of slightly cooking the 
flour, in fact just enough to take away its raw taste. 

Then add the milk, little by little (particularly if it 
is boiling), and stir vigorously with a spoon or with 
an egg beater, to avoid lumps forming. The milk can 
have been placed to boil while preparing the onions, 
or even before, but under no circumstances use the 
milk unless it has boiled. 

Then season with a pinch of salt, a pinch of pepper 
and the least bit of nutmeg. Then set it on again 
until it comes to a boil, without ceasing to stir it with 
the spoon, then add the bouquet of parsley, then re- 
move the casserole to the side and so place it that it 
will continue to boil very slowly for twenty minutes. 

THE EGGS. 

As soon as this is done, set the eggs to boil, first 
being assured that there are none cracked. When it 
is possible, it is best to set the eggs in a cup-shaped 
skimmer, or any other receptacle which will allow 
depositing the eggs to boil at one and the same time, 
thereby having them all cooked equally well, which 
is not the case when dropped one after the other, with 
the chances of breaking. 

After having set the eggs to boil, as soon as the 
water resumes to boil, which has been cooled by the 
eggs, count ten minutes therefrom and remove. Cool 
them in cold water, enough to handle, remove the 
shell carefully and place them in a casserole or tureen 
containing lightly salted hot water. 

TO SERVE. 

Five minutes before serving, remove them from the 
salt water, dry and cut them in pieces ( six or seven 
pieces to each egg). Remove the parsley bouquet 
from the sauce, add then the eggs, shake the casserole 
so that the sauce mixes well with the eggs, and let 
them simmer over the fire for a few minutes. Then 
when ready to serve, pour the whole into a vegetable 
dish which has been previously warmed. Serve. 

MUSSELS AU GRATIN 

Gratined Mussels for 4 Persons 

r~V\KE about four dozen mussels, clean the outer 
-*- shells thoroughly in cold water. When cleaned 
place them in a pan of cold water, into which put two 
good handsful of salt, leave them stand about one hour. 
This will tend to make them disgorge and become 
sweet, this being done set them again into clean fresh 
water, changing the water three or four times. Drain 
them by pouring into a colander. 

Set a small casserole on the stove into which you 
place a tablespoonful of butter, which you allow to 
melt over a slow fire, to this add a tablespoonful of 
finely chopped shallots (a species of onion of the higher 
grade), and stir for a few moments until the shallots 
and butter are well mixed, thereupon add the mussels, 
about one-half teaspoonful pepper and one tablespoon- 



ful of chopped parsley. Then cover the casserole and 
set it on the open fire and allow to cook for about 15 
to 20 minutes, in the meantime the shells will have 
opened and the mussels will drop into the gravy. 

Then take a small casserole into which place a 
tablespoonful of butter, to which, when melted, add 
two tablespoonfuls of flour, moisten with about one- 
half pint of the gravy which is taken from the casse- 
role containing the mussels, and mix well by stirring 
with a wooden spoon, until it has thickened. Then 
add a pinch or two of chopped parsley, with the juice 
of one-half a lemon, or in place of lemon a teaspoonful 
of vinegar. Then take a small earthenware casserole 
the bottom and sides of which are buttered into which 
pour one-half of the sauce, into this set the mussels, 
which have been freed of their shells, cover with the 
rest of the sauce on the top of which sprinkle with 
dried rolled bread crumbs or cracker dust, on which 
place five or six pieces of butter the size of a hazel nut. 
then place in a hot oven until the top has become a 
light brown. Then serve. 

Another way to serve them is to place them, divid- 
ing them equally, into large shells, shells which come 
for that purpose and which are large scallop shells. 
and after preparing them as above, serve a shell so 
prepared to each person. This latter way is prefer- 
able for its daintiness. 

HOW TO USE A LEFT OVER OF BOILED 
OR ROAST BEEF 

Vinaigrette of Beef 

CUT the beef in small oblong pieces of about one 
inch, and let it lay in a marinade made as follows: 

In a fairly large bowl or salad dish place one-half 
teaspoon of English mustard, one large tablespoonful 
of vinegar, two tablespoonsful of olive oil, add salt and 
pepper, a good pinch of finely chopped parsley and 
the same of taragon if the same is at hand. 

Add the pieces of beef, mix thoroughly, and let 
stand for about one-half hour before serving. 

There can be added, according to the taste, chopped 
chives or gherkins. 

SARDINES 

Prepared Country Style 

CHOP fine two or three onions which cook in boil- 
ing water for about three minutes for the purpose 
of bleaching. Drain off the water, add a tablespoon 
of butter and cook until they become a light brown, 
add a bay leaf and one glass white wine. Let cook 
for about 15 minutes on slow fire. 

In a frying-pan in which has been placed one-half 
tablespoon of butter add one-half can ( 1 pint) of to- 
matoes which have been strained to avoid the seeds, 
ami cook on open fire for about five minutes, stir vig- 
orous!)' with spoon. Then add this to the casserole 



THE CHEF 



ii 



containing the onion, and allow the whole to cook for 
about 15 minutes. Season with salt and pepper and 
pour into a platter, around which arrange about a 
dozen large sardines. Sprinkle with dried rolled bread 
crumbs, mixed with cracker dust and with about one 
dozen pieces of butter as big as a hazel nut strewn on 
the top. Place in oven until it browns, then serve. 

PARSNIPS WITH BROWN SAUCE 

PEEL three or four medium-sized parsnips, cut 
them lengthwise in four or six pieces, if very long 
cut these in halves, place them in a casserole contain- 
ing sufficient cold water to cover them, and into this 
put a tablespoonful of salt. Boil until parsnips be- 
come fairly well cooked. 

Into another casserole place a tablespoonful of but- 
ter, to which add the parsnips, and set on slow fire, 
and when the butter is well melted sprinkle with a 
tablespoonful of flour, stir slowly and carefully until 
the flour is browned, then moisten with one glass of 
hot water, season with salt and pepper and what 
would be equal to a pinch of nutmeg. 

Set aside on the stove on slow fire and let it simmer 
for about 15 minutes. Place in a vegetable dish, 
sprinkling the top with a little chopped parsley and 
serve. 

REAL PHILANTHROPIQUE ART 

THE Societe Culinaire Philanthropique of New 
York will hold their forty-fourth annual ball on 
Thursday, February 3, 1910, at Terrace Garden, 
Fifty-ninth Street, New York. 

The proceeds of this ball are devoted for the care 
of the widows and orphans of the society. 

On the afternon of this day at the above hall, be- 
tween the hours of 2 and 6 P. M., there will be the 
annual Culinary Exhibition, which will consist of beau- 
tiful made dishes and artistic pieces made by the best 
cooks of America. This will really give one an idea 
of what is meant by Culinary Art in its fullest term. 

RUSTIC SOUP 

r^HIS is not such a soup that requires the use of 
-*■ every cooking utensil at hand in its making, but 
it is a soup absolutely simple and healthful, the ingredi- 
ents used therein retaining their rustic characteristics. 

PROPORTIONS FOR EIGHT PERSONS. 

1 pint of lentils. 
'4 lb. carrots. 

54 lb. of onions. 

Small bouquet of celery, parsley; 1 laurel leaf. 

!4 lb. fat salt pork. 

Va lb. lean bacon. 

2 oz. toasted pieces of bread. 
2 quarts water. 

Salt and pepper to suit. 

Time necessary to cook, 2 hours, not including soak- 
ing of lentils. 



SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS. 

Cook the lentils in water, with carrots and onion, 
which are first boiled in the salt pork, then add the 
bacon, also the small kitchen bouquet. - Remove the 
bacon after three-quarters of an hour of cooking. 

Strain the lentils and vegetables in fine strainer, 
serve with toasted pieces of bread, and bacon cut in 
small oblong or square pieces. 

THE DIVERS PREPARATIONS. 

(1) Take a pint of lentils, spread on table and 
proceed carefully to sort therefrom small stones, 
which, due to their manner of growing, are usually 
picked up in the gathering thereof. Place them in 
a dish and cover with luke warm water and allow to 
soak for about twenty-five minutes. To soak them use 
soft water, as water containing too much mineral sub- 
stance is apt, in fact does, harden the lentils in 
cooking.' 

(2) Remove tlie rind from the bacon, set it in a 
casserole and cover the bacon well with cold water. 
Set it on the stove and have it boil slowly for about 
one-half an hour. This will remove the excess of 
salt and smoky taste from the bacon before the same 
is set to its final cooking. 

(3) Take the salt pork and chop as fine as possible. 

(4) Cut the carrots and onions into small pieces of 
about one-fourth inch. 

(5) With three or four branches of parsley and 
celerv. one laurel leaf and a small piece of thyme, tie 
all together and have the kitchen bouquet for sea- 
soning. 

COOKING THE LENTILS. 

Take the lentils from the dish pan with your hands, 
which will tend better to drain them, and set them in 
a casserole with about one quart of water, add salt 
to suit taste, and allow it to come to a boil. Skim 
from off the top a scum that has been produced from 
boiling, draw the casserole to one side of the stove 
where it can continue to boil slowly and evenly, in 
fact almost imperceptibly. 

Set in a frying pan on the open fire one-half of the 
chopped salt pork, also the carrots and onions, and 
allow them to fry until they become lightly browned, 
remove the fat from the carrots and onions, which 
can be done by pouring it off from the frying pan 
while holding and pressing the vegetables with a 
skimmer, this done, pour the vegetables into the cas- 
serole containing the lentils. 

At the same time add the other one-half of the 
chopped salt pork to the lentils, also the bacon and 
the kitchen bouquet. Cover the casserole and con- 
tinue the cooking as before on slow fire for about one 
and one-half hours, that is to say until the vegetables 
are well cooked. At the end of about forty-five min- 
utes remove the bacon, which should not be cut until 
it has slightly cooled, which will tend to retain its 
firmness. 



12 



THE CHEF 



GARNISHING THE SOUP. 

This is done with the toasted pieces of bread and 
the bacon. While the lentils are cooking, cut four 
slices of bread in small squares the size of a dice, 
place them in a frying pan with a little butter, set on 
the stove and allow to brown. Cut the bacon in 
squares, same size as the toasted bread, and place 
them in between two hot plates to keep them warm 
until used. 

TO FINISH THE SOUP. 

The lentils and other vegetables now being well 
cooked, remove the kitchen bouquet, then remove the 



lentils with a skimmer into the colander, together with 
other vegetables which is reset on the casserole con- 
taining the soup, and with a potato-masher press the 
lentils, etc., through colander back into the casserole 
containing the soup. Stir well, add about one pint 
of water, set on stove until it comes to a boil. In the 
meantime stir vigorously, taste and add more salt and 
pepper if necessary. 

Pour the whole into a soup tureen, and add the 
toasted pieces of bread and bacon and serve immedi- 
ately. The whole has produced a nourishing, appetiz- 
ing and healthful soup for eight people at a total cost 
of not over thirty cents. 



POULARDE A LA NAPOLITAINE 



or (Capon, Neapolitan Style) 



THIS recipe which is given hereunder wnile not 
very well known, is very apt to attract the atten- 
tion of the "gourmet." This entree constitutes a dish 
which is both substantial, appetizing, and presents an 
agreeable and tasteful appearance when set on the 
table. In its preparation there are many details re- 
quired, which are not necessarily irksome to those who 
have a taste for cooking. 

To give you an idea of this dish let us imagine a 
plump young chicken, nicely browned a golden brown, 
filled with macaroni, sweetbread, etc., and the dish 
when served decorated with prettily moulded timbales 
of macaroni, equally filled with an appetizing morsel. 

PROPORTIONS FOR EIGHT PERSONS. 

A capon, weighing from four to five lbs. 
I quart of bouillon or gravy. 
V2 pint tomato (canned). 
1 gill white wine. 
1 carrot. 
I onion. 

1 thin slice salt pork. 

1 vegetable bouquet, composed of a little thyme, I 
bay leaf, 1 sprig of parsley, 1 sprig of celery. 

1 teaspoon corn starch. 

Proportions necessary for the minced meat to be 
used for filling the timbales : 

l /z lb. uncooked veal. 

2 oz. flour. 

Y?_ glass water. 
Yt lb. butter. 
2 egg yolks. 
1 whole egg. 

Proportions necessary for the chicken dressing, part 
to be used for filling the timbales : 

1 sweetbread. 

l /> lb. macaroni (small size). 

54 lb. cooked ham. 

J4 lb. box mushrooms. 

2 oz. truffles. 
J /4 lb. cheese. 
% lb. butter. 

Salt, pepper and nutmeg to suit taste. 
I teaspoon cornstarch. 
8 small croquette moulds. 



SUMMARY OF THE OPERATIONS FOR COOKING THE ABOVE. 

Preparing the hashed meat, cook the macaroni, cool 
it, drain, set one half aside, the largest ones to be 
used for the timbales, cut the other half in pieces 
about an inch and a half in length. Cook the mush- 
rooms, also the sweetbread. 

Prepare the dressing. Place one-half of the bouillon 
in a casserole, which is reduced slightly by cooking, 
after which add one-half of the tomatoes, and add 
the cornstarch to give it consistency, set aside about 
one gill of this sauce, in the rest add the butter, mush- 
rooms, truffles, ham, sweetbread, the small pieces of 
macaroni and as a binder add the grated cheese and 
allow the whole to cool. Prepare the chicken, fill it, 
sew and tie it, and place the slice of salt pork on the 
breast. Place in a casserole at the bottom of which 
has been placed small pieces of salt pork, about two 
ounces each of carrot and onion, which has been cut 
in round pieces, cover, allow to cook slowly, then add 
the white wine, the rest of the tomato, put in the 
oven and allow to cook for 50 minutes, basting fre- 
quently. During the cooking of the chicken prepare 
the macaroni timbales. The chicken being cooked 
place on a dish, strain the gravy and after remov- 
ing the surplus fat therefrom, thicken or bind with 
cornstarch. When the moment arrives to serve the 
chicken, place it on the platter, around which set the 
timbales which have been removed from the moulds. 
Pour part of the gravy on the chicken, and serve the 
rest in a gravy dish. Time necessarily spent in the 
preparation of the above, two hours maximum. 

PREPARATION AND COOKING OF THE MINCED MEAT FOR 
THE TIMBALES. 

Place to boil in a small casserole one-half glass of 
water with about one oz. of butter. As soon as it 
comes to a boil, draw the casserole aside, then imme- 
diately and at once pour in two ozs. of sifted flour, 
then with a wooden spoon stir vigorously to obtain 



THE CHEF 

a perfect blend. Thereupon place the casserole on a 
slow fire and continue to stir the mixture until it is 
comparatively dry, and neither attaches to the spoon 
or the bottom of the casserole. This takes in all a 
matter of three or four minutes. Thereupon it is 
spread on a plate the bottom of which has been but- 
tered to prevent it from sticking, and proceed to butter 
the top, which will prevent it from becoming hard 
upon cooling. This preparation constitutes that which 
is called a Panade. While this is cooling prepare the 
veal. Begin by removing carefully all fat and ten- 
dons or nerves. Cut in small pieces and run it 
through the chopping machine, cutting it fine. 

Place this minced meat in a bowl and with a spoon 
work it well for a few moments, add the Panade, 
which must be cold, and work the whole as before 
that same may be thoroughly mixed. Then add the 
butter, then the two egg yolks, then the whole egg 
in the meanwhile mixing the whole as before. Season 
with salt, pepper and nutmeg. Set it aside in a cool 
place until ready to use. 

THE MACARONI. 

Inasmuch as the macaroni should be almost cold 
before using for the dressing it is therefore necessary 
to give immediate attention to its cooking. Place 
about three quarts of water to boil in a fairly good 
sized casserole, add a tablespoon of salt. The maca- 
roni, which will serve for the outer part of the tim- 
bales, should be quite long or unbroken, as they are 
to be placed first in the mould in the shape of a tur- 
ban, care therefore should be taken not to break them. 
Therefore take four or five sticks of macaroni at a 
time, plunge one end in the boiling water and little 
by little as the action of the boiling water softens 
them, curl them in around the casserole ; it is very 
easily and- quickly done. As soon as the water boils 
again, which has temporarily cooled while inserting 
the macaroni, remove the casserole to the corner or 
side of the stove and cover it, allowing it to cook 
slowly without boiling for about 25 minutes, after 
which turn them into a colander, which you plunge 
into cold water and drain well. Then proceed to 
spread one-half of the macaroni on a dry, clean cloth 
which has been folded and placed on the table, taking 
the longest and laying them out straight that they 
may not assume irregular forms. This portion will 
be reserved for the timbales. 

Cut the other half in pieces about one and one-half 
inches long, this being reserved to add to the dressing 
for the chicken. 

PREPARATION OF THE DRESSING — COOKING THE 

MUSHROOMS. 

Clean them carefully, place them in a casserole with 
three tablespoonfuls of wafer, a piece of butter the 
size of a walnut, the juice of one-half of a lemon and 
a pinch of salt, cover the casserole, cook on open fire 



13 

for about four minutes and remove them, placing them 
in a bowl and keeping them warm. 

THE SWEETBREAD. 

Soak well in water and clean thoroughly, after 
which place it in a casserole in cold water enough to 
cover. Place it on the fire, allow to boil for three 
minutes which is sufficient. Remove and plunge the 
sweetbread in cold water, allowing it to remain for 
a few minutes. Cut in three or four slices and place 
in a frying-pan with a piece of butter the size of a 
walnut, after the slices have become a light brown on 
each side, remove them, place them aside after having 
lightly salted and peppered them. 

THE SAUCE. 

Place in a casserole, one pint of bouillon and allow 
it to boil until reduced to about three gills and add 
one-half of the tomato sauce, binding the whole with 
a tablespoonful of cornstarch, adding a small quantity 
of the mushroom gravy. This being done on a slow 
fire, and being stirred with a spoon to avoid the for- 
mation of lumps, when so done set aside on stove 
and keep warm. Reserve in a small casserole about 
one gill of this sauce, which will be used to bind the 
filling for the timbales. 

THE FINAL MIXTURE. ,. 

Now we gather together the mushroom,, truffles, 
ham and veal, one-fourth of which we set aside for 
filling the timbales, and we then .proceed as. follows: ... 

The three-fourths which is now left are for the 
chicken dressing, proceed to cut these into pieces about 
one-half by one-fourth inch and set aside eight pieces 
of truffles, which have been cut in rounds for the pur- 
pose of garnishing the bottom of the timbale moulds. 
In the sauce which has been set aside and kept warm 
add one-quarter lb. butter, divided in small pieces. 
That it may melt, shake the casserole well while on 
the stove to produce a complete mixture of the butter 
in the sauce. Then to this sauce add the chicken dress- 
ing, and allow the whole to simmer for not more than 
three minutes. Add the macaroni which you have 
already cut in small pieces. Then the grated cheese, 
which acts as a binder. This dressing should remain 
well dampened with the sauce without, however, be- 
ing covered thereby. Then set it aside to cool. 

PREPARATION OF THE CHICKEN. 

The butchers, as a rule, being quite accommodating, 
it is just as well to have the chicken cleaned by them. 
However, it should be stated to them the purpose for 
which it is to be used, to wit : for roasting with dress- 
ing. After receiving the chicken so prepared, you pro- 
ceed to fill the chicken with the prepared dressing. 
Then sew both ends and tie the legs and wings with 
string that it may retain its shape while cooking, and 
on the breast of which a piece of salt pork has been 
laid. 



M 



THE CHEF 



THE COOKING. 

Place the chicken so prepared in a cooking pot, in 
the bottom of which you have placed about ten small 
pieces of salt pork about an inch square, the carrot 
and onion which has been cut in their rounds, and the 
bouquet composed of thyme, bay leaf, parsley, etc. 

Place the cooking pot over a slow fire and cover 
and allow same to cook slowly, shaking the pot occa- 
sionally but gently to disengage the fowl and vege- 
tables which might be apt to adhere, and to prevent 
it likewise from burning. Upon the vegetables begin- 
ning to simmer, sprinkle the fowl with a glass of 
white wine, and allow the whole to cook until the wine 
has been reduced to about one-half the quantity. 
Thereupon add the rest of the tomato and pour the 
rest of the bouillon or gravy over the chicken, allow 
same to cook again until it begins to simmer. 

Then place the cooking pot in the oven, and from 
time to time baste, the oftener the better, which will 
give the chicken a golden brown color which is so 
appetizing. Give about 50 minutes to cooking from 
the time it has been placed on the stove until taken 
from the oven. 

When nearly cooked remove the salt pork which 
has been laid on the breast that the breast may likewise 
become browned. The chicken being then cooked, re- 
move carefully from the pot, inasmuch as it is a young 
chicken and is naturally tender, and from the nature 
of the dressing it is particularly so. Then being so re- 
moved, and the strings tying the wings and legs hav- 
ing also been removed, place it on a dish and keep 
warm either in the open oven or otherwise. Strain 
the gravy through a gravy strainer into a small pot or 
casserole, removing therefrom the surplus fat which 
will float on top. Place on the stove and add one-half 
tablespoon of cornstarch and a small quantity of the 
mushroom gravy which has been set aside. Stir well 
and you will have produced a gravy that will be both 
clear and succulent. 

THE SMALL TIMBALES. 

Prepare Filling While the Chicken Is Cooking. 

The one-quarter of the sweetbread, veal, ham. 
mushrooms, etc., which was previously set aside, we 
now take and cut into small dice-like pieces of about 
one-fourth inch square, place this in the small casse- 
role, in which we have the sauce, which we had like- 
wise set aside, and mix well together. 

TO MOULD THE TIMBALES. 

Now take the moulds, which must be well buttered 
to avoid sticking, at the bottom of each mould insert 
a piece of truffle cut thin and round, and covering not 
more than three-fourths of the bottom. Take a maca- 
roni, shake it gently to make sure that there remains 
no water therein, and proceed to roll it against the 
sides of the mould (in the shape of a turban, pressing 
it gently in -;o doing, that the macaroni mav adhere 



to the buttered side). If one macaroni is not sufficient 
to cover the sides, use as much as necessary to com- 
plete, but carefully connecting the joints to make it 
look well when served. All the moulds being com- 
pleted as above, proceed with a knife or the handle of 
a fork and apply against the sides of the macaroni 
about one-half an inch thick, the preparation of 
minced meat, prepared for this purpose. This opera- 
tion can be completed much easier by wetting the knife 
or fork in cold water from time to time. 

This now leaves a hollow, which is then filled with 
the filling of veal, ham. mushroom, etc., which has 
been prepared in the small casserole. The timbales 
being so filled to within an eighth or quarter inch 
from the top. Add the rest of the minced meat on 
the top. which completes same and makes a finish. 
The macaroni are therefore well held in place by the 
hashed or minced meat, likewise the filling. 

POACHING THE TIMBALES. 

Set the moulds in a baking or roasting pan, pour 
boiling water to within one-fourth of the top of the 
moulds. Place the roasting pan into an oven moder- 
ately hot, cover same, not to tight, however, so that 
the steam may escape, a very good way is to butter 
a piece of brown paper lightly and place over moulds 
instead of covering otherwise. 

During the poaching care should be taken that the 
water does not boil during the time of cooking, which 
requires from 30 to 40 minutes, but that it continually 
simmers or near boils. The poaching being completed, 
remove the moulds and allow them to stand two or 
three minutes before removing the timbales from the 
moulds. 

TO SERVE. 

Now set the chicken on an oval dish, around which 
you arrange the timbales. sprinkle the chicken with 
part of the sauce, pouring the rest into a sauce or 
gravy dish and serving the whole at once. 

TO SERVE THE CHICKEN CARVED. 

Remove the wings, which include part of the breast, 
remove the legs, which includes the second joint. Cut 
each of these into three pieces, from the remaining 
part you have four pieces of breast, or white meat. 
Set the dressing in the centre of the dish surrounded 
by the chicken alternating with pieces of wing, white 
meat and leg. sprinkle each piece with part of the 
sauce, around the whole set the timbales and serve 
with rest of the sauce in the gravy dish. 

To many these dishes may appear "fussy," but the 
housewife with ambition and the love of home 
and family at heart, will find herself well repaid for 
the pleasure she can give by the preparation of a de- 
lightfully appetizing dish which has not taken more 
than two hours to prepare, and the cost of which, as 
in this case is but slightly over that of simply "shoving a 
chicken in the oven, trusting to fate, and letting it go." 



T.HE CHEF 



15 



RECIPES OF THE NOTED CHEFS 

BALARD-BERNARD-DUBOIS 



POULET ETOUFFE BREVOORT 

Chicken Brevoort Style 

By Lucien Bernard. 
Chef Hotel Brevoort. 

TAKE a nice fresh chicken, cut in six parts, sea- 
son with salt and pepper. 

Into a stew-pan pour melted butter, set on stove 
and when the butter has become hot, place the pieces 
of chicken therein, to remain until they have become 
nicely golden brown on both sides ; then set aside tem- 
porarily. 

Prepare onions, carrots, celery, leek, green peppers, 
one fresh tomato and small quantity of lean ham, cut 
these into small dice-like pieces, add one laurel or bay 
leaf, a little thyme and a small fragment of garlic, 
and parboil the whole in the stew-pan containing the 
butter, and from which the pieces of chicken have been 
removed, moisten with chicken gravy if some is at 
hand, and add ten small potatoes cut in the shape of 
an orange section. 

And when parboiled turn the whole, including the 
pieces of chicken into an earthen cooking dish (cocotte 
en terre), and set in a hot oven to cook 15 minutes, 
remove from oven, sprinkle finely chopped herbs, pars- 
ley, etc.. over top. and serve in earthen dish in which 
it was cooked. 

NOISETTES OF LAMB 

"Favorite Style" 

By Balard. 

Chef Cafe Martin. 

LAY the noisettes on toast, on each noisette a small 
escalope of fresh foie gras saute in butter, on the 
foie gras a nice slice of truffle. 

(iarnish the center of serving dish with asparagus 
tips, around which set the noisettes, over which pour 
lightly of well reduced half glazed (demi-glace) 
sauce. 



FILET OF SOLE 

Admiral Style 
By Alex DuBois. 

pi-ACE one dozen filet of sole in a casserole, at the 
-*■ bottom of which the trimmings of the fish have 
been placed to make (a fond de poisson). 

-Moisten the filets with a glass of good chablis wine, 
add a small quantity of essence of fish, and a handful 
of mushroom peels, and a kitchen bouquet. 

Poach ; then cover the casserole, place in a hot oven 
three minutes. 

Strain the gravy, reduce to one-half. Add a spoon- 
ful of lean veloute, one pint of thick cream, the add- 
ing of which will thicken and reduce, pass through a 
strainer, and finish the sauce by adding perfumed 
shrimp butter with a small glass of brandy (fine 
champagne ) . 

TARTLETTES OF ROOSTER KIDNEYS 

a la Mont Rouge 

By Balard. 

1)OACH the kidneys and allow to drain on a dry 
cloth. 
Cover each tartlette oval with a puree of mushroom. 
Lay kidneys on each tartlette, and to each add a 
cock's comb and a slice of truffle. 

Moisten the kidneys on each tartlette with a sauce 
supreme, cover same with grated cheese, place in hot 
oven to brown (to become gratiner.) Serve on a 
napkin. 

THE COOK 

"The master likes to call himself "The Host.' 
But who beside the cook may rule. The Roast." 

Pay court to me betimes ; 'tis I that can 
Purvev the food that cheers the inner man. 




l6 THE CHEF 

HOW TO LIVE A HUNDRED YEARS 

BY ALLAN L. BENSON 

Many Scientists Have Declared that Our Normal Length of Life Should Not Be Less than a 
Century— Few Agree in Their Directions for Attaining Longevity. 

An original article written for The Scrap Book. 



AGAIN we have the word of a scientist for it that 
man should live a hundred years, and that so far 
as he falls short of the century-mark, he has been cut 
off before his time. 

This statement, so often made by scientific men. is 
repeated by Sir James Crichton-Browne, a well-known 
London physician, and an official of the Royal Insti- 
tution. 

"In my opinion," says Sir James, "every man is 
entitled to his century, and every woman to a century 
and a little more, for women live longer than men. 
Every child should be brought up impressed with the 
obligation of living to a hundred, and should be taught 
how to avoid the irregularities that tend to frustrate 
that laudable ambition." 

But Sir James differs from all other scientists who 
have expressed similar vie\vs concerning longevity, in 
that he believes the physician to be practically help- 
less. He believes the statesman and the political eco- 
nomist must do their duty before the doctor can do his. 

In other \vords, Sir Jahles finds that modern condi- 
tions are not conducive to long life. The struggle for 
existence, especially in the cities, is too hard. Nearly 
everybody is worrying about something. Nerves are 
stretched to the breaking-point. All of which consti- 
tutes an invitation to death to come — to hurry. Yet 
the physician's hands are tied. 

"Certain great measures," says Sir James, "that lie 
beyond the scope of medicine are first of all neces- 
sary if we Would prolong the days of the masses of 
the people. Regular employment must be secured and 
poverty diminished by our statesmen and economists, 
so that we may no longer have among us thirteen mil- 
lions on the verge of hunger and dying in multitudes 
before their time." 

' THE NO-BREAKFAST THEORY. 

While hygienists agree that the average duration of 
human life is Unnecessarily short, there is the greatest 
diversity of opinion among them concerning the best 
methods of prolonging life. The late Dr. Edward 
Hooker Dewey, for instance, of Meadville, Pennsyl- 
vania, attained a following on both sides of the Atlan- 
tic by advocating the fasting cure for disease and the 
no-breakfast plan for maintaining health. Dr. Dewey 
contended that in case of sickness the digestive or- 
gans are in no condition to perform their natural func- 
tions ; that the introduction of food into the stomach 
at such a time merely results in the creation of poi- 
sons which retard the work of nature; and that feed- 



ing the sick "to keep up their strength" is therefore 
not only a delusion, but almost a crime. 

Dr. Dewey advocated the no-breakfast plan on the 
theory that upon arising in the morning the system 
has the benefit of all the stored-up energy from the 
evening meal of the day before, and that until this 
energy has been exhausted the eating of another meal 
burdens the digestive organs, brings on headaches, and 
leads to more serious diseases. 

Dr. Dewey's views were accepted, in whole or in 
part, by many educated persons on each side of the 
Atlantic. Dr. Andrea Rabagliati — who is an English- 
man, in spite of his Italian name — in an exhaustive 
work on "Air, Food and Exercises," repeatedly speaks 
in the highest terms of Dr. Dewey's theories, and in 
writing the introduction to one of the Meadville phi- 
losopher's books, George F. Pentecost, the well-known 
American preacher and author, testified that both he 
and his family had practised the no-breakfast plan and 
the fasting cure for many years with good results. 

Nevertheless, the fact remains that Dr. Dewey's 
theories did not enable him to live to be old. He died 
of paralysis, in 1904, without having quite reached 
threescore and ten. 

A FOE OF "DRUG DOCTORS" AND "sTUFFERS." 

Another American physician who has original views 
concerning the maintenance of health and the cure of 
disease is Dr. J. H. Tilden, of Denver. Dr. Tilden 
believes that the volume of food consumed by the av- 
erage individual should be reduced, and therefore sym- 
pathizes with the no-breakfast plan, or any similar 
plan that promises to bring about such a reduction. 
Dr. Tilden also agrees with Dr. Dewey that little 6r 
no food should be given during sickness. He is very 
bitter against what he calls the "drug doctors" and the 
"stuffers" — names by which he designates the physi- 
cians who prescribe medicine and food in copious 
quantities for the sick. 

As the best method of keeping well, Dr. Tilden 
advocates, first of all, fresh air. He says no person 
should ever sleep in a room in which one large win- 
dow is not wide open — and this at all times of the year. 
He holds that sleeping thus almost in the open gives 
practical immunity from colds, provided woolen un- 
derclothing be not worn. Wool, he thinks — thereby 
differing from many other authorities — irritates the 
skin, holds moisture, and is unsanitary. Linen under- 
clothing, according to the doctor, should be worn both 
in winter and in summer. 



THE CHEF 



17 



Concerning foods, Dr. Tilden is not an extremist in 
any direction, unless it be in the value that he attaches 
to raw vegetables. Cooking, and particularly boiling, 
harms most vegetables, according to this Western phy- 
sician, who would steam such vegetables as were not 
prepared in the form of salads. And there is this to be 
said about Dr. Tilden — he has a large following 
throughout the United States, who declare that ex- 
perience has taught them the value of his theories ; 
and he himself is hale and hearty, though nearing 
seventy. 

THE FAMOUS CASE OF LUIGI CORNARO. 

But no one who has ever consciously gone about it 
to solve the problem of how to live long has ever met 
with the success that came to Luigi Cornaro, a Vene- 
tian of the fifteenth century, who was a physical wreck 
at forty, yet lived to one hundred and three. Cor- 
naro's story, of course, has been told and retold with 
more or less accuracy for more than three hundred 
years, but it never becomes old, because in so many 
respects k is still, abreast, or indeed ahead, of the best 
hygienic thought of the day. 

Cornaro was wealthy, and until he was forty lived 
the life of the rich Italians of his period. He ate too 
much, drank too much, and slept too little, with the 
result that in his prime he was suffering intensely 
from various ailments and seemed about to die. At 
this point, his physicians told him that his only chance 
lay in the adoption of the "temperate and orderly life,' 
to use his own words. Cornaro adopted the sugges- 
tion, and at the age of eighty-three wrote a pamphlet 
telling about it. At eighty-six he wrote another ; at 
ninety-one another, and still another at ninety-five. 

Nothing more vital exists in all the history of hy- 
gienic effort than this year-to-year narrative of an 
intelligent veteran, noting down the means by which 
he had built up his body and kept it alive. His first 
step was to confine himself to such foods as invalids 
might eat, and to take these only in small quantities. 
Incredible as the fact may seem, he says that at the 
end -of a year he found himself cured. 

Then he began to experiment to find out what kinds 
of food-agreed with him, as he wished to eniarge his 
diet. On testing the proverb that "whatever tastes 
good will nourish and strengthen," he quickly discov- 
ered that the palate is a poor guide. Cold wine, cold 
melons, pastries, pork, and many other things tasted 
good to him, but distressed his stomach. Gradually 
he eliminated from his fare everything that disagreed 
with him, and he always made it a point to leave the 
table with his appetite both for food and drink not 
quite satisfied. 

Cornaro believed it important to guard against ex- 
tremes of heat and cold, never to become excessively 
fatigued, never to remain long in a poorly ventilated 
room, and never to permit anything to interfere with 
the enjoyment of a proper amount of rest and sleep. 
He also believed it best to avoid melancholv, hatred 



and anger, though he admitted that he was not always 
able to keep calm. 

CORNAROS STURDY OLD AGE. 

Cornaro's belief in the immunity that he enjoyed 
because of his temperate life at the table carried him 
to ludicrous extremes — at least in one example. He 
believed that accidents could do him little damage, 
and told of an occasion when he was seriously bruised 
about the head and body in a runaway. On account 
of his age — seventy — the physicians were convinced 
that he could not live more than three days. They 
gave it as their professional opinion that bleeding or 
purging offered the only possibility of saving the old 
man. But Cornaro, firm in the faith that moderation 
in eating and drinking had made him immune against 
the effects of so trifling an accident as a runaway, re- 
fused either to be bled or purged, with the result that 
he quickly recovered, much to the amazement of his 
physicians. 

The Venetian sage was strong in body and mind 
and composed in soul when he wrote his last treatise 
at the ag^'tif ninety-five-. Speaking of those who held 
old age to be useless, and the desire for it a mistake, 
Cornaro said : 

"I never knew the world was beautiful until I 
reached old age." 

In his last treatise, he made the humorous statement 
— though it was uttered in all seriousness — that be- 
cause he was born with a "poor constitution" he did 
not expect to live much more than a hundred years. 
As a matter of fact, he lived three years beyond his 
century, dying peacefully at his home in Padua, April 
26, 1566. Cornaro's wife, who survived him, died al- 
most at the same age and is buried beside him. 

An interesting fact in Cornaro's family life shows 
one advantage that he derived from his great age. 
Cornaro's first and only child — a daughter — was born 
when he and his Wife were approaching old age. Yet 
they both lived to see this daughter grow up and 
become the mother of eleven children. 

THE GOLDEN RULE OF MODERATION. 

So it will be seen that in this case, as in many others, 
the "doctors disagree." What, then, is the proper 
course for one who wishes so to regulate his habits 
that he will reach the full measure of his years? Pos- 
sibly no general advice would be more likely to be 
correct than this : 

. Be temperate in all things pertaining to diet ; never 
permit anything to worry you. unless what you are 
worrying about is worth more to you than your health ; 
ventilate your sleeping-room so well at all seasons of 
the year that the air in the room will be approximately 
as pure as the air outside ; take a reasonable amount 
of moderate exercise ; be cheerful ; and avoid extreme 
plans of all kinds either for maintaining or recovering 
your health. 

It may seem like leaping into the chasm of dull 



.18 



THE CHEF 



mediocrity to advise against extreme measures when 
one's health is at stake. It is of course true that most 
of the progress in medicine has been made by ex- 
tremists, but it is not true that most of the extremists 
have contributed to the advancement of the science of 
medicine — if it be a science, which some will dispute. 
The middle course is probably more nearly safe ; 
don't be a vegetarian, or exclusively a meat-eater. Use 
your common sense. Eat meat moderately in winter, 
when such food is needed to enable the body to with- 
stand the cold : and the rest of the year heed the sug- 
gestion of Nature, and live mostly on the fruits, vege- 
tables and cereals that she provides in such abundance 
in the spring, summer and autumn. Probably you will 
be wise to eat three times a day, not because much 
food is required to keep up your strength, but to keep 
you from becoming so hungry that you would over- 
load your stomach at any one meal. And whenever 
your stomach is distressed by anything you have eaten, 
find out what that thing is and eliminate it from your 
bill of fare. 

HOW TO PREPARE A QUICK BREAK- 
FAST, LOOK NEAT, AND HAVE 
EVERYBODY HAPPY. 

WHAT a wonderful thing is system ! "Why," 
said the inexperienced young housekeeper re- 
cently, "I can get my breakfast and dress at the same 
time without the least inconvenience." This is how 
the clever planner works out her scheme : 

She and her husband live in the suburbs of a large 
city, and the head of the house must leave for busi- 
ness at 8 o'clock in the morning. Incidentally he 
does not approve of negligee costumes outside of the 
bedroom, so no time saving in easy dressing can be 
indulged in. 

Milady's way of getting around the difficulty is to 
array herself in a dressing gown as soon as she gets 
up ; then she goes to the kitchen, puts the kettle on to 
boil and returns to her room to dress. When her 
toilet is almost finished she slips into a dressing 
jacket and returns to the operation of getting break- 
fast. By this time the kettle is boiling, so she puts 
on the oatmeal, using the inner vessel of a double 
boiler. It takes five minutes for the oatmeal to cook 
sufficiently to permit of the upper portion being put 
into the lower part of the boiler. Then while the 
upper portion is cooking on the direct heat she pre- 
pares the fruit for breakfast and lays two places at 
the table. That done, the double boiler goes on the 
heat, and the young housekeeper returns to the duties 
of her toilet. 

When next she gets to the kitchen, in about ten 
minutes, the oatmeal is usually done, and, thanks to 
its jacket of boiling water, she can remove it and still 
have it hot. Then she makes the toast by putting a 
few slices of bread on the hot iron. When they are 
off the kettle goes on again for the eggs and tea. 



The latter part of the work takes not more than six 
minutes. 

The fruit, of course, is on the table when the mas- 
ter of the house sits down to table, and when they 
have finished eating the fruit she takes away those 
plates and brings in two dishes of oatmeal. After 
she removes these dishes the eggs are brought on 
with the toast and tea. 

The voting housekeeper discovered the other morn- 
ing that it took but five minutes longer to cook bacon, 
to fry instead of boil the eggs, and also that to scram- 
ble eggs is the work of only three or four minutes. 
The whole process of breakfast and dressing at the 
same time by actual count of time was found to be 
just seven minutes longer than is necessary for dress- 
ing alone, with the result that her appearance made 
her husband happy. 

HOW PATE-de-FOIES-GRAS IS 
PRODUCED. 

Geese Are Bound to Slabs of Stone and Crammed With 
Specially Prepared Food Every Two Hours. 

FEW persons who regard pdtc dc foics gras as one 
of their favorite delicacies appreciate the fact that 
it is the product of a series of tortures that are almost 
diabolical. They know, of course that pdtc de foies 
gras consists of the fattened livers of geese, but of 
the method of production they are, for the most part, 
ignorant. 

When the geese are about nine months old the}' 
are taken from the pastures and placed in a cellar, 
where broad, slanting slabs of stone are arranged in 
rows. The birds are bound to these stones with their 
wings and legs spread out so that they can move only 
their necks. As may be imagined, they struggle with 
all their might against this stretching, until, after 
days of vain endeavor to free themselves, their pow- 
ers of resistance are overcome and a dull resignation, 
broken only by their low cries, takes possession of 
them. 

The birds are meanwhile crammed with dumplings 
made of buckwheat, chestnuts and stewed maize. 
Every two hours, six times a day, they receive from 
three to five dumpling pills, which in time become so 
welcome to the tortured creatures that they stretch 
their necks to be crammed. 

The most difficult task is to determine the right 
moment for death. Those who die of their own 
accord are lost to the liver-factory ; therefore, a kind 
of study is needed to see when the cup of agony is 
brimming full and the liver is ripe for taking. The 
bodies of such ripe ones are like pumpkins. Where 
ordinarily fingers are buried in flesh and fat, nothing 
but skin and bone are found. The livers have ab- 
sorbed all the strength and juices. 

The cook thereupon takes these livers and proceeds 
with great care, much time and many operations to 
make a cruelly expensive delicacy. 



T H E C H EF »9 

A CURIOUS FIND AT THE HOTEL BREVOORT 

(Formerly The Brevoort House) 

A MENU OF NOV. 7th, 1867 



WHILE renovating the Hotel Brevoort last fall, 
there was found in a box snugly fitted in the 
wall, several coins and newspapers, also the follow- 
ing letter, and menu, dated November -th, 1863. 

Old New Yorkers knew then how to eat, and that 
their taste in that direction has improved can best be 
attested by a call at that renowned hotel, and com- 
pare the present menu card with this one. To Mr. 
Raymond Orteig, the present proprietor, we are in- 
debted for the privilege of publishing these old papers : 



BREVOORT HOUSE, 

Fifth Ave... Cor. of Clinton Place, 



jn 



New York, ^.l..V.ML.'.. 4 J... 186 1 









BREVOORT HOUSE. 
DINNER. 

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 1867. 
Mill Pond, Blue Point and .Massachusetts Bay Oysters. 



Ris de Veau a PAUemaude. 
Mock Turtle. Printanier. 



SOUP. 

Ox Tail. 
Julienne. 



Green Turtle. Terrapin. 

Pea. Consomme aux Macaroni 



FISH. 

Clams, Crabs and Lobsters stuffed. 
Filet de Sole au Vin blanc. Bass aux fines Heibes. 

Salmon, Lobster sauce Brook Trout, Hollaudaise sauce. 

Codfish, Egg sauce. Smelts, Tartar sauce. 

Scollops. Eels. Blue Fish. 



ENTREES. 

Beef Marroiv on Toast. 
Petites Bouchees a la Victoria. 

t'uisses de Volaille en Canetons a l'Orldans. 
Ris de Veau pique a. la Financiere. 
Venison Steak on a Chafing-Dish 
Frog's Legs sautes aux fines Herbes 
Filet of Canvas-back Duck aux Champignons frais. 
Cotelette a, la Maintenon. 

Broiled Squabs with French Peas. 

Fresh Mushrooms, stewed or fried on Toast. 
Roast Turkey, Cranberry sauoc. 
Lima Beans sautes a la Lyonnaise. 



Lobster. 



MAYONNAISE. 

Salmon. 



Chicken. 



GAME. 

English Partridge. Red Head Duck. Quails. 

Grouse. Cauvas-back Duck. Partridge. Squabs. 



Mallard Duck 
Woodcock. 



VEGETABLES. 

Boiled Rice. Preserved Asparagns. Oyster Plant. 

Fried Parsnips. Fried Sweet Potatoes. Spinach. Stewed Parsnips. 
Sweet Potatoes. Stuffed Egg Plant. Stuffed Green Pepper. Fried Egg Plant 
Cauliflower. Lima Beans. Sweet Corn. Boiled Onions, Cream sauce. 

Beets. Turnips. Squash. Stuffed Tomatoes. String Beans. 

Irish Potatoes. Sl*wed Tomatoes. French Peas. Flageolets. 

Potatoes a la Paiisienne. Potato Croquettes. Succotasu 



Celery. 



SALAD. 

Water Cresses. 



Chicoree. 



Lett 



uoe. 



COLD DISHES. 

Game Pie. Terrino de foie gras. Boned Capon with Truffles. 

Chicken. Roast Beef. Tongue. Corned Beef. 



Ham. 



RELISHES. 

Spanish Olives. Sardines. Anchovies. 



Pickle*.. 



CHEESE. 

Roquefort, Neufchatel, Gruyere, Stilton, and Cheshire. 
PASTRY AND DESSERT. 

Squash Pic Apple Tart. Whortleberry Tart. Quince Tart. 

Indian Pudding, Brandy sauce. Farina Jelly. Cream aauoe. 

Tapioca Pudding. Pouding dc Pommes glacv. Raspberry Jelly. 

Vanilla fXisses. 



VanHla. Chocolate, Pisiacue, Coffee and Napolitain Ice Creams, 

Biscuit glace. Tutti Frutti. 

Orange, Lemon and Straw berry Water Ices, and Roman Punch. 

Preserved Peaches, Strawberries, Raspberries, and Uuinces 

Baked Apples. Apple sauce. Cranberry sauce. 
Brandy Peaches. Stewed Prunes. Stewed Pears. 

Bananas. Apples. Figs. Raisins. Nuts. Hot-house Grapes. 

Havana Oianges. Duchess Pears. Malaga Grapes. Catawba Grapes. 

An no Wines can be told on Sunday, Guests are tequetted to order them/or 

that day on Saturday 



20 



THE CHEF 



OLD-TIME LIVING EXPENSES. 

Figures Which Must Convince the $10-a-Week Clerk That He Came Too Late— Had 

He Flourished in England Several Centuries Ago He Might Have Cut 

as Wide a Swath as a Present-Day Millionaire 



IT makes the ordinary, hard-working householder 
envious to see the luxurious display of fortune's 
favorites. He finds it hard enough struggle to get 
the necessaries of life without any of its delicacies, 
and to keep the cost within his income. Nor can he 
look back into the days of long ago for consolation. 
It only increases his discomfiture to compare his ex- 
pense account with those of his ancestors. 

If a man had a quarter in his pocket in the days of 
the Plantagenets. for instance, he could keep his fam- 
ily well supplied for a week. With that amount of 
money he could smile at the butcher, bow openly to 
the grocer, and look the rest of the world as squarely 
in the face as did the village blacksmith. 

If he lived in England seven hundred years ago and 
wished to regale his family on mutton, he could buy 
the finest of fat sheep for twenty-four cents, which 
would almost allow him to give a banquet on a penny- 
worth of mutton. A cow was more expensive, but 
one dollar and a half would buy the best he could 
find in the market, while for a fat hog he need only 
part with eighty cents. 

In the fourteenth century, two cents would buy a 
pair of chickens, and a' nickel for a goose fit to grace 
any Christmas dinner-table, and a penny would pur- 
chase a dozen new-laid eggs ; while for two cents the 
brewer was compelled by law to sell three gallons of 
beer, the equivalent of forty-eight glasses. 
• Wheat sometimes fell as low as forty cents a quar- 
ter, though after a great storm, or in a time of "grie- 
vous famine," it would rise as high as four and five 
dollars a quarter. Still, at these prices a good many 
pounds of bread could be bought for a penny. 

Pasture and arable lands were ridiculously cheap — 
two cents an acre for the former and twelve cents an 
acre for the latter being considered a fair annual ren- 
tal. Draft-horses were a drug on the market at sev- 
enty-two cents each, and oxen at one dollar and twenty 
rents. In the days of the second Henry fifty dollars 
would have equipped a farm with three draft-horses, 
half a dozen oxen, twenty cows, and two hundred 
sheep, leaving a balance of two dollars toward the 
payment of the rent — about five dollars a year. 

As for. labor, three cents a day was deemed good 
wages for an ordinary laborer, and even at harvest- 
time four cents a day was the highest sum expected. 
• House rent was so absurdly small that the Lord 
Mayor of London paid only four dollars and eighty 
cents a year to his landlord ; and the Chancellor, with 
an annual salary of one hundred and ninety-two dol- 
lars, seemed poorer than many a cook of our own 
time. When a father sent his son to a university six 



centuries ago, four cents a day was considered a com- 
fortable allowance, with a margin for such luxuries as 
wine at eight or twelve cents a gallon. 

Twenty-four dollars a year was a munificent sal- 
ary in those days. It was the exact sum paid to the 
assistant clerk of Parliament, and more than the aver- 
age priest, with cure of souls, received ; while the 
pension allowed by Edward III to his apothecary was 
only twelve cents a day, and King Edward IV's al- 
lowance to his daughter was but four dollars and 
eighty cents a week, with an additional two hun- 
dred and forty-seven dollars and sixty cents a year 
for the maintenance of her eight servants. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth prices were still 
exceedingly modest, and, it is only fair to add, wages 
low in proportion. From a household book of 1589 
we take the following typical prices : Beef, two and 
a half cents a pound ; a neck of mutton, twelve cents ; 
twenty-eight pounds of veal and a shoulder of mut- 
ton, fifty-six cents ; cheese, four cents a pound ; wheat, 
three dollars and eighty-four cents a quarter ton. 

FISHES THAT TRAVEL OVERLAND 

A Variety of Perch in Asia Will Desert Falling Streams and 

Travel Over Dry Ground in Search of Better 

Watercourses 



A 



S much out of place as a fish out of water" is 
a phrase that comes about as near expressing 
the acme of incompatibility, so far as environment is 
concerned, as man' "has 'ever been 'able' to coin. Des- 
pite this fact, however, there are several varieties of 
fish which, arfe much more at home out of their nat- 
ural element than any species of the human race are 
in water.-, -„ •. 

The climbing perch (Anabas scandens) is a remark- 
able example found in Asia. This singular creature 
appears much like other perch, but is endowed with 
an extraordinary power of leaving failing streams, 
climbing banks, and proceeding over dry land in quest 
of better filled watercourses. 

Hundreds of them have' been seen at a distance of 
fifty or sixty yards from a pool just abandoned, and 
traveling, though the ground Vas so rough that this 
distance must have required sufficient muscular exer- 
tion to take them half a mile over level ground. 

Some writers even assert that this fish is capable 
of climbing the rough stems of palm-trees. The fish- 
ermen of the Ganges, who subsist largely on climbing 
perch, are accustomed to keep them in dry earthen 
pans for five or six days after catching, and they live 
this strange life without discomfort. 



THE CHEF 



21 



THE EXTRAVAGANCE OF LUCULLUS 



From Plutarch's "Lives" 



Plutarch was a Greek of noble family who. lived during 
the first and second centuries after Christ, at a time when 
the Roman Empire was at the height of its magnificence. 
He had been highly educated and had traveled extensively. 
Of a genial nature, he made many friendships and was 
regarded with great favor by the emperors Trajan and 
Hadrian. But Plutarch best loved the quiet life of his 
native town — Chaeronea, in Boeotia — where he held a 
priestly office and where he could devote himself to the 
cultivation of literature. He himself educated his four 
sons, and with them the sons of his friends and neighbors, 
all of whom forkned a group of attentive and eager listen- 
ers while Plutarch taught them, in an informal and most 
delightful way, history, philosophy and the other subjects 
of which he was a master. 

For these young hearers he originally prepared not 
only his moral essays but especially the famous biogra- 
phies, which have never been equaled in the interest of 
their treatment and in the sureness of the human touch 
that he imparted to them. These biographies, to the num- 
ber of forty-six, are mostly arranged in groups of two, 
one celebrated Raman and one celebrated Greek, so that 
Plutarch might compare and contrast their lives and char- 
acters. He had an intimate knowledge of human nature 
and an unequaled power of delineating character by a 
myriad of little touches, all of which went to make a com- 
plete and living picture of the individual whom he por- 
trayed. His influence is traceable in all subsequent 
writers of biography, and Shakespeare, in particular, 
owes much to him. 

Lucius Lucullus, from whose biography the accom- 
panying passage is taken, was a Roman commander of 
great ability who won many victories for the Roiman arms, 
but whose indolence and love of luxury led him to prefer 
a life of ease at Rome to the hardships of the camp. He 
was enormously wealthy, owned magnificent villas, and 
was famous for his lavish hospitality. He was not, how- 
ever, a mere sensualist, but a man of high cultivation, pos- 
sessing a fine library, which he opened to the public, and 
numbering scholars and philosophers — of whom Cicero 
was one — among his friends. 

The translation given here is by the great English man 
of letters, John Dryden (1631 — 1700), and is a good ex- 
ample of his easy, vigorous prose: 

UCULLUS'S life, like the old comedies, presents 
-*— 'us at the commencement with acts of policy, and 
of war, at the end offering nothing but good eating 
and drinking, feastings and revelings, and mere play. 
For I give no higher name to his sumptuous build- 
ings, porticos, and baths, still less to his paintings and 
sculptures, and all his industry about these curiosities, 
which he collected with vast expense, lavishly bestow- 
ing all the wealth and treasure which he got in the 
war upon them ; insomuch that even now, with all the 
advance of luxury, the Lucullian gardens are counted 
the noblest the emperor has. 

Tubero, the Stoic, when he saw his buildings at 
Naples, where he suspended the hills upon vast tun- 
nels, brought in the sea for moats and fish-ponds 
round his house, and built pleasure-houses in the wa- 
ters, called him Xerxes in a gown. He had also fine 
seats in Tusculum, belvederes, and large open balcon- 
ies for men's apartments, and porticos to walk in ; 
where Pompey, coming to see him, blamed him for 
making a house which would be pleasant in summer, 



but uninhabitable in winter ; whom he answered with 
a smile : 

"You think me, then, less provident than cranes and 
storks, not to change my home with the season." 

When a praetor, with great expense and pains, was 
preparing a spectacle for the people, and asked him 
to lend him some purple robes for the performers in 
a chorus, he told him he would go home and see, and 
if he had got any, would let him have them ; and the 
next day, asking how many he wanted, and being told 
that a hundred would suffice, bade him to take twice 
as many ; on which the poet Horace observes, that a 
house is but a poor one, where the valuables unseen 
cind unthought of do not exceed all those that meet 
the eye. 

Lucullus's daily entertainments were ostentatiously 
extravagant, not only with purple coverlets, and plate 
adorned with precious stones, and dancings, and in- 
terludes, but with the greatest diversity of dishes and 
the most elaborate cookeryy, for the vulgar to admire 
and envy. It was a happy thought of Pompey in his 
sickness, when his physician prescribed a thrush for 
his dinner, and his servants told him that in summer- 
time thrushes were not to be found anywhere but in 
Lucullus's fattening coops, that he would not suffer 
them to fetch one thence, but observing to his physi- 
cian, "So if Lucullus had not been an epicure, Pom- 
pey had not lived," ordered something else that could 
easily be got to be prepared for him. 

Cato was his friend and connection, but, neverthe- 
less, so hated his life and habits that when a young 
man in the senate made a long and tedious speech in 
praise of frugality and temperance, Cato got up and 
said: 

"How long do you mean to go on making money 
like Crassus, living like Lucullus, and talking like 
Cato?" 

It is plain from the anecdotes on record of him that 
Lucullus was not only pleased with, but even gloried 
in, his way of living. For he is said to have feasted 
several Greeks upon their coming to Rome day after 
day, who of a true Grecian principle, being ashamed, 
and declining the invitations, where so great an ex- 
pense was every day incurred for them, he with a 
smile told them : 

"Some of this, indeed, my Grecian friends, is for 
your sakes, but more for that of Lucullus." 

Once, when he supped alone, there being only one 
course, and that but moderately furnished, he called 
his steward and reproved him ; who professing to have 
supposed that there would be no need of any great 



22 



THE CHEF 



entertainment, when nobody was invited, was ans- 
wered: 

"What, did not you know, then, that to-day Lucul- 
lus dines with Lucullus?" 

Which being much spoken of about the city, Cicero 
and Pompey one day met him loitering in the Forum, 
the former his intimate friend and familiar, and. 
though there had been some ill-will between Pompey 
ami him about the command in the war, still they 
used to see each other and converse on easy terms 
together. Cicero accordingly saluted him, and asked 
him whether to-day were a good time for asking a 
favor of him, and on his answering, "Very much so," 
and begging to hear what it was, "Then," said Cicero, 
"we should like to dine with you to-day, just on the 
dinner that is prepared for yourself." 

Lucullus being surprised, and requesting a day's 
time, they refused to grant it. neither suffered him 
to talk with his servants, for fear he should give 
order for more than was appointed before. But thus 
much they consented to, that before their faces he 
might tell his servants that to-day he would sup in 
the Apollo — for so one of his best dining rooms was 
called ; and by this evasion he outwitted his guests. 
For every room, as it seems, had its own assessment 
of expenditure, dinner at such a price, and all eke 
in accordance ; so that the servants, on knowing 
where he would dine, knew also how much was to 
be expended, and in what style and form the dinner 
was to be served. The expense for the Apollo was 
fifty thousand drachmas, and thus much being that day 
laid out. the greatness of the cost did not so much 
amaze Pompey and Cicero, as the rapidity of the 
outlay. One might believe Lucullus thought his 
money really captive and barbarian, so wantonly and 
contumeliously did he treat it. 

A PIE WITH NOAHS ARK 
TENDENCIES 

It Contained Geese, Turkeys, Ducks, Woodcock, Rab- 
bits, Snipe, Partridges, Pigeons, and a 
Few Other Things 

r^HE gastronomic tendencies of our forefathers' 
■*- seem to have inclined to quantity rather than 
quality, as the following account taken from the New 
Castle Chronicle of Jan. 6th, 1770, goes to show: 

"Monday last was brought from Howick to Bewick 
to be shipped to London for Sir Henry Grey Bart, a 
pie, the contents whereof are as follows, namely : Two 
bushels of flour, twenty pounds of butter, four geese, 
two turkeys, two rabbits, four wild ducks, two wood- 
cocks, six snipes, four partridges, six pidgeons, two 
neats tongues, two curleys, seven blackbirds. 

"It is supposed to be a very great curiosity. It was 
made by Mrs. Dorathy Patterson, the housekeeper at 
Bewick. It is nearly nine feet in circumference at the 
bottom and weighs about twelve stone ; it will take 
two men to present it to table ; it is neatly fitted with 



a case, and four small wheels to facilitate its use to 
every guest who inclines to partake of its contents at 
the table." 

POOR BABY 

Customs in Foreign Countries— Babies Salted and Buttered, 

All but Cooked, and Yet as Contented as Our 

American Sterilized Ones 

SALTED and buttered babies are just as much mat- 
ter of fact as is the sterilized, hygienic baby of 
civilization, and it is doubtful — could the little mites 
of all creeds express an opinion on their treatment 
when they enter the world — which custom would re- 
ceive the most compliments. 

When a baby is born in Guinea all sorts of funny 
things happen to it. Its mother buries it in the sand 
up to its waist so it cannot get into mischief, and this 
is the only cradle it knows anything about. 

The little Lapp infant is cradled in a shoe — its 
mother's. This is a big affair covered with skin and 
stuffed with soft moss. This can be hung on a tree 
or covered up with snow while mamma goes to church 
or to any place where babies are not invited. 

The baby of India rides in a basket which hangs 
from its mother's head, or from her hip or in a ham- 
mock. In some parts the baby's nose is adorned with 
a nose-ring, and in others its face is wrapped in a veil 
like its mother. 

The Chinese baby is tied to the back of an older 
child. 

The Mongolian infants travel about in bags slung 
on a camel's back. 

In some parts of Europe and Asia there is a peculiar 
custom of salting new-born babies. When a baby is 
born among the Armenians of Russia the nurse takes 
the infant and covers the entire skin with very fine 
salt. This salt is left on the baby for three hours or 
more, and then the child is washed with warm water 

In Asia Minor there is a tribe of people living in 
the mountains who do even worse than this. They 
salt their new-born babies and leave the salt on them 
for twenty-four hours. The modern Greeks sprinkle 
salt on their babies. 

This practise of salting babies is an ancient cus- 
tom. It has its rise in superstition, of course. The 
mothers think that salting insures their children health 
and strength, and that it will keep evil spirits away 
from them. Even in some parts of Germany salt is 
still used on the child at birth. 

In some countries the mothers lay their babies 
where a stream of water falls on their heads. This 
is to make them tough, which it does unless the babies 
die as a result of this treatment. Another mother cov- 
ers her baby's head with paste, while the Tatar baby 
is covered with butter. 

The worst fate of all falls to the lot of the newly 
born children in Bulgaria. Their mothers put a hot 
omelette on the little ones' heads, to make them solid 
and protect them from sunstroke. 



THE CHEF 



23 



THE KING OF OLD-TIME CASKS 

More Than Two Centuries Old, It Measures Twenty -Six 

Feet in Diameter, and Three Years Were Spent 

in Building It 

THE craze for doing things on a gigantic scale is 
not altogether American, nor is it peculiar to our 
da}- and generation. One of the greatest things in the 
world was built nearly two hundred years ago at 
Konigstein. This is an enormous cask which was be- 
gun in 1722 and finished in 1725, under the direction 
of General Kyau. The bung diameter of the cask is 
twenty-six feet. When completed it was filled with 
six thousand quintals of good Meissen wine, which 
cost £6,000 sterling. It contains six hundred and 
forty-nine hogsheads more than the well known tun 
of Heidelberg. 

The top of this cask is railed in, and affords room 
sufficient for fifteen or twenty persons to regale them- 
selves, and several sorts of large goblets, which are 
called "welcome cups,'* are offered to those who de- 
light in such honors. 

Upon one of the heads of this enormous cask is an 
inscription in Latin, of which the following is a trans- 
lation : 

"Welcome, traveler, and admire this monument, 
which, in order to exhilarate the mind with a cheerful 
glass, was in the year 1725 dedicated for festivity bv 
Frederick Augustus, King of Poland and Elector of 
Saxony — the father of his country, the Titus of the 
age, the delight of mankind. Drink, therefore, to the 
health of the sovereign, the court of the Electoral 
family, and Baron Kyau, Governor of Konigstein ; 
and if thou art able, according to the dignity of this 
cask — the most capacious of all casks — drink to the 
prosperity of the whole universe. So farewell!" 

MORE WATER SOLD THAN LIQUORS 

r"\ ESPITE the formidable statistics that temperance 
-*— ' reformers are continually presenting, there is more 
money paid for water in a single day than is paid for 
liquors in a week. 

"Few people," says Tit-Bits, "are aware of the wa- 
ter they pay for. 

"A ten-pound turkey, for instance, is but three 
pounds solids and seven pounds water, and there is 
six pounds of water in ten pounds of pork, while the 
percentage of water in beef or mutton is about the 
same. 

"Salmon and mackerel are half water, though other 
fish contain a greater proportion of fluids. 

"Sixty-five per cent, of an egg is water, and there- 
are about two ounces of water to one pound of butter. 

"Vegetables run from forty to eighty per cent, of 
water, and even dried peas contain a small percentage 
of liquid matter. 

"Taken at an average, fifty-five per cent, of all ex- 
penditures for food is paid for water." 



$200,000— FOR A SACK OF FLOUR 

An Election Bet Which Brought This Sum, Was Paid 
Over to the Civil War Sanitary Commission 

' I V HERE is no question about flour being a vital 
•*• necessity to man, but $200,000 for one sack does 
seem a bit high. That is what a sack once brought, 
however, and no one had been manipulating the wheat 
market either. 

It is an interesting tale of an election bet and its 
payment, out on the Pacific Slope. 

R. C. Gridley, of Austin, Nev., in April, 1864, made 
a bet with a friend on a local election, the loser to 
carry a bag of flour on his shoulder for a certain 
distance. 

Gridley lost, and on the 20th of the month paid the 
bet by carrying this flour sack, ornamented with rib- 
bons and flags, while a band played "John Brown's 
Body," as he was a Democrat. 

There was a great throng present, and when the 
end of the journey was reached Gridley proposed that 
the flour be turned to account for the sanitary com- 
mission. 

Somebody present suggested that it be made into 
cakes and sold, but Gridley declared that the whole 
bag should be put up at auction with the understand- 
ing that the purchaser return it to be sold again. 

Gridley himself was the first purchaser, at $300. 
and after that it was sold again and again to those 
present. 

From this beginning there came a kind of rage for 
buying that sack of flour, and Gridley went about 
from one town to another selling it, until he had sent 
to the commission over $200,000. 

Gridley kept the sack as long as he lived, and his 
family preserved it after his death for a long period. 
They were at one time reported to be in actual want, 
and what finally became of the sack and its possessors 
is a mystery. 



DEFINITIONS OF "HOME" 

THE golden setting in which the brightest jewel 
is "mother." 

A world of strife shut out, a world of love shut in. 

An arbor which shades when the sunshine of pros- 
perity becomes too dazzling; a harbor where the hu- 
man bark finds shelter in the time of adversity. 

Home is the blossom of which heaven is the fruit. 

Home is a person's estate obtained without injus- 
tice, kept without disquietude ; a place where time is 
spent without repentance, and which is ruled by jus- 
tice, mercy and love. 

A hive in which, like the industrious bee, youth 
garners the sweets and memories of life for age to 
meditate and feed upon. 

The best place for a married man after business 
hours. 

Home is the coziest, kindliest, sweetest place in all 



2 4 



THE CHEF 



the world, the scene of our purest earthly joys and 
deepest sorrows. 

The place where the great are sometimes small, and 
the small often great. 

The father's kingdom, the children's paradise, the 
mother's world. 

The jewel casket containing the most precious of 
all jewels — domestic happiness. 

Where you are treated best and grumble most. 

The centre of our affections, around which our 
heart's best wishes twine. 

A popular but paradoxical institution, in which 
woman works in the absence of man, and man rests 
in the presence of woman. 

A working model of heaven, with real angels in the 
form of mothers and wives. 

Having offered a prize for the best definition of 
"Home," London Tit-Bits recently received more than 
five thousand answers. 

Among those which were adjudged the best were 
the definitions which are printed above. 

THIS SWAN WAS A BIRD 

A DEVONSHIRE man sent his club, on about 
■*• *■ Christmas, a fine large swan in a hamper. The 
hamper was addressed to the Secretary, who notified 
the club members of the treat that was in store, and 
a special swan dinner was arranged for the 23d. 

The swan came on, at this dinner, looking magnifi- 
cent — erect and stately on a great silver-gilt salver. 
But tough ! It was so tough you couldn't carve the 
gravy. 

A few days later the sender of the swan dropped 
in at the club. 

"Got my swan all right, I hope ?" he said to the 
society. 

"Yes, and a nice trick you played us." 

"Trick? What do you mean?" 

"Why, we boiled that swan for sixteen hours, and 
when it came on the table it was tougher than a block 
of granite." 

"Good gracious ! Did you have my swan cooked ?" 

"Yes, of course." 

The other was in despair. 

"Why, that bird was historic," he groaned. "I sent 
him up to be stuffed and preserved. He had been 
in my family for 290 years. He had eaten out of the 
hand of King Charles I." 

SI MILES 

"^HE following interesting lines, of which the com- 
-*■ poser is unknown, but which have long drifted 
about in the newspapers, contain all the stock compari- 
sons most frequently used in conversation, arranged in 
such a manner as to rhyme. The poem, if it can so 
be called, has been rescued from oblivion by Miss 
Carolyn Wells in "A Whimsey Anthology": 



As wet as a fish — as dry as a bone ; 

As live as a bird: — as dead as a stone; 

As plump as a partridge — as poor as a rat ; 

As strong as a horse — as weak as a cat; 

As hard as a flint — as soft as a mole ; 

As white as a lily — as black as a coal ; 

As plain as a pike-staff — as rough as a bear; 

As light as a drum — as free as the air ; 

As heavy as lead — as light as a feather ; 

As steady as time — uncertain as weather; 

As hot as an oven — as cold as a frog; 

As gay as a lark — as sick as a dog; 

As slow as a tortoise — as swift as the wind ; 

As true as the gospel — as false as mankind ; 

As thin as a herring — as fat as a pig ; 

As proud as a peacock — as blithe as a grig; 

As savage as tigers — as mild as a dove ; 

As stiff as a poker — as limp as a glove ; 

As blind as a bat — as deaf as a post; 

As cool as a cucumber — as warm as a toast ; 

As flat as a flounder — as round as a ball ; 

As blunt as a hammer — as sharp as an awl ; 

As red as a ferret — as safe as the stocks ; 

As bold as a thief — as sly as a fox ; 

As straight as an arrow — as crook'd as a bow ; 

As yellow as saffron — as black as a sloe ; 

As brittle as glass — as tough as gristle ; 

As neat as my nail — as clean as a whistle ; 

As good as a feast — as bad as a witch ; 

As light as is day — as dark as is pitch ; 

As brisk as a bee — as dull as an ass ; 

As full as a tick — as solid as brass. 

RATHER A TOUGH DINNER 

Authors compelled to eat their books 

WITH the exception of minerals it is difficult for 
one to find on the earth's surface substances 
that do not tempt the appetite of some sort of animal. 
The list of queer articles of diet includes the earth, 
which is munched with satisfaction by the clay-eater, 
and the walrus hide, which the Eskimo relishes as 
much as does John Bull his joint of beef. 

It is not generally known, however, that men, as 
well as mice and bookworms, have eaten dinners that 
have consisted only of books. This tendency has been 
described as "bibliophagia," though the word has not 
yet gained scholarly approval. An interesting account 
of some of these extraordinary meals appeared in a 
recent issue of the Scientific American, and is as 
follows : 

In 1370 Barnabo Visconti compelled two Papal 
delegates to eat the bull of excommunication which 
they had brought him, together with its silken cords 
and leaden seal. As the bull was written on parch- 
ment, not paper, it was all the more difficult to digest. 

A similar anecdote was related by Oelrich, in his 
"Dissertatio de Bibliothecarum et Librorum Fatis" 
(1756), of an Austrian general, who had signed a 



THE CHEF 



25 



note for two thousand florins, and when it fell due 
compelled his creditors to eat it. The Tartars, when 
books fall into their possession, eat them, that they 
may acquire the knowledge contained in them. 

A Scandinavian writer, the author of a political 
book, was compelled to choose between being be- 
headed or eating his manuscript boiled in broth. 

Isaac Volmar, who wrote some spicy satires against 
Bernard, Duke of Saxony, was not allowed the cour- 
tesy of the kitchen, but was forced to swallow them 
uncooked. 

Still worse was the fate of Philip Oldenburger, a 
jurist of great renown, who was condemned not only 
to eat a pamphlet of his writing, but also to be flogged 
during his repast, with orders that the flogging should 
not cease until he had swallowed the last crumb. 

FLASHES OF ROYAL REPARTEE 

WHILE there is no royal road to cleverness, the 
real road, such as it is, frequently is traveled 
by royal feet. In these days the functions of royalty 
are not of a nature that is likely to develop merry 
dispositions. 

Rich in sly humor was the reply of Henry IV of 
France, who one day reached Amiens after a pro- 
longed journey. A local orator was deputed to 
harangue him, and commenced with a lengthy string 
of epithets : "Very great sovereign, very good, very 
merciful, very magnanimous " 

"Add also," interrupted the weary monarch, "very 
tired." 

The same king, who appears to have been a constant 
sufferer from the stupid orations of these wordy 
windbags, was listening to a speech in a small coun- 
try town, when an ass brayed at a distance. 

"Pardon me, gentlemen," said the witty sovereign ; 
"one at a time, please." 

Henry's minister, Sully, was a Protestant, and hap- 
pening to hear that a famous physician had quitted 
Calvinism for Catholicism, the king said to him : 

"My friend, your religion is in a bad way — the doc- 
tors give it up." 

GEORGE Ill's READY WIT. 

George III was the author of many clever sayings. 
Meeting Lord Kenyon at a levee soon after that em- 
inent justice had been guilty of an extraordinary 
explosion of ill-humor in the Court of King's Bench, 
the king remarked to him : 

"My Lord Chief Justice, I hear that you have lost 
your temper, and from my great regard for you I am 
glad to hear it, for I hope you will find a better one." 

Having knighted a gentleman named Day at a 
levee held on the 29th of September, his Majesty 
said, "Now I know that I am a king, for I have 
turned Day into Knight, and have made Lady Day at 
Michaelmas." 

On another occasion, when coming out of the 



House of Lords after opening the session, he said to 
the Lord Chancellor: 

"Did I deliver the speech well?" 

"Very well, indeed." was the reply. 

"I am glad of that," said the king, "for there was 
nothing in it." 

ROYALTY HAD WORST OF IT. 

George II, on being informed that an impudent 
printer was to be punished for publishing a spurious 
Royal Speech, answered that he hoped the man's pun- 
ishment would be of the mildest sort, because he had 
read both, and, as far as he understood either of them, 
he liked the spurious speeech better than his own. 

The laugh, however, has not always been upon the 
side of royalty. When the Prince Bishop of Liege 
was riding to battle at the head of a fine body of 
troops he was asked by a spectator how he, a minister 
of religion, could engage in the iniquities of war. 

"I wage war," said the prelate, "in my character of 
prince, not of archbishop.' 

"And pray," continued the interrogator, "when the 
devil carries off the prince, what will become of the 
archbishop?" 

Decidedly the worst of the exchanges did an east- 
ern sovereign receive, when, having bought several 
horses from some merchants, he gave them a lac of 
rupees to purchase more for him. Soon after they 
had departed, he, in a sportive humor, ordered his 
vizier to make out a list of all the fools in his domin- 
ions. The vizier did so, and put his Majesty's name 
at the head of them. The king asked why. The vizier 
replied : 

"Because you entrusted a lac of rupees to men you 
didn't know, and who will never come back." 

"Ay, but suppose they should come back?" 

"Then," said the vizier, "I shall erase your name, 
and insert theirs." 

In the answer which a German prince was given 
there seems to be a rebuke for his misgovernment 
implied. Having in a dream seen three rats, one fat, 
the other lean, and the third blind, he sent for a cele- 
brated Bohemian gipsy and demanded an explanation. 

"The fat rat," said she, "is your prime minister, 
the lean rat your people, and the blind rat yourself." 

COURT LAUREATE TOO FRANK. 

One of the Shahs of Persia was more anxious than 
able to acquire fame as a poet. He had just com- 
pleted a new performance in very "peculiar meter," 
and summoned the court poet into the royal presence 
to hear the poem read. 

The laureate, when his opinion was asked (in theat- 
rical language), "damned" the composition. 

The Shah, enraged at this uncourtly criticism, gave 
orders that the court poet should be taken to the 
stable and tied up in the same stall with a donkey. 
Here the poor sinner remained until his royal rival 
had perpetrated another poem, when he was again 



26 



THE CHEF 



commanded to appear before the throne and submit 
to a second infliction of sovereign dulness. 

He listened in silence while the new poem was read, 
and at the conclusion, his opinion being required, he 
fell upon his knees and significantly exclaimed to the 
royal author. "Send me back to the donkey!" 

SUGAR-PLUM THE PATRIARCH OF 
CANDIES 

It Was First Made, and Called "Dragati," by the Romans, 

a Hundred and Seventy-Seven Years Before the 

Birth of Christ 



T 



HE most ancient kind of candy is the sugar- 
plum. It was the invention of Julius Dragatus, 
a noted Roman baker and confectioner who belonged 
to the family of Fabius. According to the New York 
Herald, it was in 177 B. C. that he made the great 
discovery which for twenty centuries has done so 
much damage to teeth. 

These bonbons, called dragati, after their inventor 
(dragecs, in French), remained the exclusive privilege 
of the family of Fabius. But at the birth or marriage 
of one of that family a great distribution of dragati 



took place, as a sign of rejoicing. The custom is still 
observed by many of the nobility of Europe. 

The pastille is of far later origin, having been in- 
vented and introduced into France by an Italian con- 
fectioner, the Florentine, John Pastilla, a protege of 
the Medicis. When Maria de Medici married Henry 
IV of France, Pastilla accompanied his sovereign to 
the French court, where his bonbons had a tremen- 
dous vogue. Everybody wanted the Florentine's pas- 
tilles, which were excellent. He made them with all 
kinds of flavors — chocolate, coffee, rose, violet, mint, 
wine, strawberry, raspberry, vanilla, heliotrope and 
carnation. 

Burned almonds are purely of French origin, owing 
their inception to the gluttony of a certain French 
merchant. One day Marshal Duplessis-Pralin, an old 
gourmet, sent for Lassagne. who had already invented 
many a toothsome dainty, to concoct a new bonbon for 
him. Lassagne searched, reflected, combined, until 
finally he conceived a delicious bonbon, which he bap- 
tized gloriously with the name of his master, Pralino. 
the French for burned almonds. 



BEFORE THE FORK WAS THOUGHT OF 

FINGERS DID WORK THOROUGHLY 

The Elegance of Dinner Parties and the Daintiness of the Hands Must Have Suffered Consid- 
erably, However 



T7IXGERS were made before forks and used in- 
*- stead of forks until a comparatively recent period ; 
indeed it is evident that forks have not even now su- 
perseded them altogether, though there is no doubt 
about there being a great improvement in the manner 
of eating since the days when the fork was unknown. 

The Greeks and Romans, as well as other ancient 
nations, knew nothing of any such implement, and 
meat was commonly prepared in stews. Eating was 
hardly a dainty operation under such circumstances, 
and we should probably find ourselves overcome with 
disgust if we were obliged to take a meal in the com- 
pany of our ancestors of even three hundred years ago. 

Each man had his own knife, and at dinner seized 
the joint with his hand and cut off what he wished. 
The dish was then passed on to the next, who did the 
same. The knife then cut up the portions into small 
pieces, which were put into the mouth by the fingers 
of the hand unoccupied by the knife. 

In many parts of Spain, at present, drinking-glasses, 
spoons and forks are rarities; and in taverns in many 
countries, particularly in some towns in France, 
knives are not placed on the table, because it is ex- 
pected that each person has one of his own — a custom 
which the French seem to have retained from the old 
Gauls ; but, as no person will any longer eat without 
forks, landlords are obliged to furnish these, together 
with plates and spoons. 



None of the sovereigns of England had forks till 
the reign of Henry VIII. All, high and low, used 
their fingers. Hence in the royal household there was 
a dignitary called the ewery. who. with a set of sub- 
ordinates, attended at the meals with basins, water 
and towels. The office of the ewery survived after 
forks came partially into fashion. 

About the first royal personage who is known to 
have had a fork was Queen Elizabeth ; but, although 
several were presented to her, it is doubtful whether 
she used them on ordinary occasions. 

Forks were employed only by the higher classes in 
the middle of the seventeenth century. About the 
period of the Revolution ( 1688) few English noble- 
men had more than a dozen forks of silver, along 
with a few of iron or steel. At length, for general 
use steel forks became an article of manufacture at 
Sheffield. At first they had but two prongs ; and it 
was only in later times that 4he three-pronged kind 
were made. As late as the early part of the eigh- 
teenth century table-forks were kept on so small a 
scale bv the country inns in Scotland (and perhaps 
in some parts of England) that it was customary for 
gentlemen traveling to carry with them a portable 
knife and fork in a shagreen case. The general in- 
troduction of silver forks into Great Britain is quite 
recent. It can be dated no further back than the 
termination of the French War in 1814. 



THE CHEF 



*/ 



IRON RULE OF HINDOO HUSBANDS 

In India as in Ancient Rome, the Wife Who Fails to "Love, Honor and Obey" Has 

an Exceedingly Sorry Time of it 



TO love, honor and obey," as the ancient form 
puts it, is a phrase of picturesque sound with a 
very frequent and convenient lack of real, weighty 
meaning to the woman who, in this enlightened land, 
promises so to do. 

American wives speak lightly of the "lord and mas- 
ter," with hardly a thought that in any part of the 
earth there is a spot where the term has actual sig- 
nificance. Let them read and ponder the Hindoo 
husband's creed, as given in an English newspaper, 
and then stop and consider how lucky they are to be 
Americans instead of Hindoos : 

"A man, both day and night, must keep his wife 
so much in subjection that she be by no means the 
mistress of her own actions. A woman shall never 
go out of her house without the consent of her hus- 
band, and shall not eat until she has first served him 
with victuals (if it is medicine, she may take it be- 
fore they eat) ; a woman shall never go to a strang- 
er's house, and shall not stand at the door, and must 
never look out of the window. If a woman, following 
her own inclinations, goes whithersoever she chooses, 
and does not regard the words of her master, such 
a woman shall be turned away. 

"If a man goes on a journey, his wife shall not di- 
vert herself by play, nor see any public show, nor 
laugh, nor dress herself with jewels or fine clothes, 
nor see dancing, nor hear music, nor sit at the win- 
dow, nor ride out, nor behold anything rare or choice, 
but shall fasten well the house door and remain pri- 
vate ; and shall not eat any dainty victuals, and shall 
not view herself in a mirror ; she shall not exercise 
herself in any agreeable employment during the ab- 
sence of her husband. 

"If the wife have her own free will, notwithstand- 
ing she is of superior caste, she will go amiss." 

Even the advanced women of ancient Rome do not 
seem to have recieved anything like the consideration 
that is vouchsafed American women, and there is ev- 
ery reason to believe that the Roman wife was com- 
pletely under the control of her husband in the early 
davs of Roman history. 



The Roman idea of a family made the father a 
despot, with power of life and death over his children, 
who could do nothing without his consent. This was 
the case in regard to male children, even after they 
had reached a considerable age. 

Women, according to the opinion of the early Ro- 
mans, were always children. They required protec- 
tion and guidance during their whole life, and could 
never be freed from despotic control. Accordingly, 
when a Roman girl married she had to choose whether 
she would remain under the control of her father or 
pass into the control, or, as it was called, into the 
hands of her husband. 

It is likely that in the early ages of the city she 
always passed from the power of her father into the 
hands of her husband, and the position she occupied 
was that of daughter to her husband. She thus be- 
came entirely subject to him and was at his mercy. 

Roman history supplies many instances of the des- 
potism which husbands exercised over their wives. 
The slightest indiscretion was sometimes punished by 
death, while men might do what they liked without let 
or hindrance. 

"If you were to catch your wife," was the law laid 
down by Cato the Censor, "in an act of infidelity, you 
would kill her with impunity without a trial ; but if she 
were to catch you she would not venture to touch you 
with her finger, and, indeed, she has no right." 

Wives were prohibited from tasting wine at the 
risk of the severest penalties. The conduct of Igna- 
tius was praised, who, surprising his wife in the act 
of sipping the forbidden liquid, beat her to death. 

The same sternness appears in the reasons which 
induced some of the Romans to dismiss their wives. 
Sulpicius Callus dismissed his because she appeared 
in the streets without a veil ; Antistius Vetus dismissed 
his because he saw her speaking secretly to a freed- 
woman in public, and P. Sempronius Sophus sent his 
away because she had ventured to go to the public 
games without informing him of her movements. 

And yet the woman of to-day thinks she is not 
emancipated, and clamors for her freedom. 




28 THE CHEF 



Cafe Martin's Table d'Hote Menu 

JANUARY 1st, iqio Balard. 



HuiTRES BLUEPOINTS. 

Celery. Salade d'Anchois. 



Creme de Volaille Mireille. 
Consomme Messaline. 



Medaillion de Saumon Polignac. 

HOMARD FARCIE MePHISTO. 



Contra Filet a la Godard. 

Pom me Helene. 

Agneau de Printemps Aux Panaches. 



Endives a la Clementina. 

Spaghetti Napolitaine. 



Dinde Farcie — Cranberry Sauce. 

Caille Roti. 

Cold — Jamboneu de Pintade Carmen. 



Mince Pie. Plum Pudding. 

Petits Fours — Biscuits Glace Noisette. 



THE CHEF 



29 



RECIPES 

By PROSPER GREVILLOT 

Chef Delmonico's 



TO TRUFFLE POULTRY 

' I v This operation consists of brushing and peeling 
*■ the truffles, cutting the wrinkled surface off as 
thinly as possible. The size of those chosen must be 
in proportion to the bird that is to be truffled, for in- 
stance, take larger ones for a pullet, a partridge 
and so on. Pound the truffle peelings adding about 
the same quantity of fat pork as there are peelings, 
and continue to pound till it forms into a paste, then 
add the same quantity of very white raw chicken livers. 
Pound again altogether and put in half the weight of 
fresh butter, salt and pepper ; mix all thoroughly. Take 
the forcemeat from the mortar and mix into it the 
peeled truffles in the following proportions : A twelve 
pound turkey will take two pounds of truffles, a six- 
pound capon one pound of truffles, a three-pound 
chicken half a pound of truffles, and so on according 
to the size of the bird. Line the inside of the neck 
with a slice of fat pork, cover this with broad slices 
of truffles, and insert the above prepared truffles half 
into the neck part, and the other half into the rump 
part, truss for roasting. The neck part must be well 
stuffed so that the breast has a plump appearance, and 
sew up the apertures so that none of the dressing can 
escape. 

HALF GLAZE (DEMI-GLACE) SAUCE 

Put into a sauce pan half a pound of clarified butter 
and half a pound of very dry flour, make a roux not 
too dark, and dilute slowly with four quarts of not 
very hot veal blond, proceeding the same as when 
making an espagnole ; it should consequently be some- 
what lighter than this sauce and especially not too 
deeply colored. Boil it up, and if found to be any way 
lumpy, then strain it through a fine strainer, return it 
to the sauce pan, boil it again, then set it back to a 
cooler part of the range to cook slowly for two hours, 
skimming off the fat. Fry with butter in a sauce pan, 
one-half pound of carrots, four ounces of celery root, 
four ounces of onions and four ounces of lean ham, 
having all these cut up into squares. Pour the sauce 
into the sauce pan adding four gills of good white 
wine, a quarter of a pound of mushroom parings, very 
little salt and some crushed pepper-corns. Stir till it 
comes to a boil, then set the sauce pan one side where 
it can boil, but on one side only, so that it can be prop- 
erly despumated during two hours ; lift off all the fat 
from the top and strain the sauce through a fine 
strainer or a tammy. Put it back into a shallow, wide, 
thick-bottomed sauce pan, boil once more and reduce 



while stirring all the time, detaching it from the bot- 
tom with a metal spatula and incorporating slowly 
some good veal stock and some good white wine. 
After the sauce becomes succulent without being too 
thick, strain it again through a tammy and pour it into 
a vessel or double-steamer sauce pan to keep it hot. 

TO MARINATE ROEBUCK OR WILD 
BOAR 

Spread out the meat to be marinated in a long, 
narrow vessel, dredge it with fine salt and a little 
pepper, add a few bay leaves, as much thyme and a 
few parsley sprigs, then pour over oil and good vine- 
gar, this to be added to its own quantity of water, 
cover over with a heavy sheet of paper. There should 
be enough vinegar to have the buck partly immersed 
in the marinade. It must be turned over several times 
during each day. The proper time to leave either roe- 
buck or wild boar in its marinade is four davs. 



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THE CHEF 




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T BEING intended to make this 
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Department of every household, we 
will therefore be pleased to receive 
any suggestions from our readers 
which will lead to its perfection. 

\Y/E also beg our readers not to hesitate 
in submitting any questions for their 
enlightenment in the Art of Cooking, our 
pleasure will be to promptly answer. 

CHOULD you have a recipe of your own 
invention, send it in and we will publish 
it; don't keep a good thing to yourself. 

\Y/E will gladly have you become our 

subscriber from the first issue, that 

you may progress as we proceed with each 

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If you have never eaten Cailler's, you cannot realize the true meaning of the 
"Cailler taste." Cailler's Genuine Swiss Milk Chocolate is the most toothsome of 
confections — made from th ; choicest cocoa, the purest sugar, and rich, creamy Swiss 
milk in Mr. F. L. Cailler's model factory at Broc, Switzerland. 

Not one of the imitations has the fine flavor, the delicate smoothness, and the 
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Learn the "Cailler taste" by sending to-day for a free sample to 

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The Famous French Chef, Plaza Hotel, N. Y 



HOW TO LIVE WELL. 

BY GEORGE WASHINGTON . 




E courteous to all, but intimate 
with few; and let those few be 
well tried before you give them 
your confidence. True friend- 
ship is a plant of slow growth, 
and must undergo and withstand the shocks 
of adversity before it is entitled to the appel- 
lation. Let your heart feel for the afflictions 
and distresses of every one, and let your hand 
give in proportion to your purse; remember- 
ing always the estimation of the widows 
mite, that it is not every one that asketh that 
deserveth charity; all, however, are worthy 
of the inquiry, or the deserving may suffer. 
Do not conceive that fine clothes make fine 
men, any more than fine feathers make fine 
birds. A plain, genteel dress is more admired, 
and obtains more credit, than lace and em- 
broidery, in the eyes of the judicious and 



sensible 



ibl( 



From a Letter to His Nephew, 
'Bushrod Washington, /~Sj 



Volume 1 



MARCH, 1910 



Number 2 



. . . TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . 

PAGE 

Cookery, and the' Art of Preparing Food 3 

King Leopold Was an Epicure 7 

His Little Mistake 7 

Vegetarianism, and Arguments of Vegetarians 8 

Menus for All Seasons, Lenten Menus 9 

The Ballad of Bouillabaisse 10 

A Few Facts About Fish 11 

Recipes for Lent: — 

Filet of Flounder with Green Peas — Oysters au Gratin 11 

Tinned Salmon Cutlets n 

Oysters, Bechamel Sauce. — Turban of Halibut, Potato Balls. — Bouillabaisse a la Mar- 
seillaise. — Smelts, Split and Grilled. — Royal Omelet. — A Tasty Potato Soup. — 

Fried Salmon Steaks 12 

A Sacred Codfish and Its Maker 13 

The Oyster Builds Its Own Home 13 

East Less, Chew More 13 

That Souffle Turnover 13 

Poulet Saute Chasseur — Poulet Stewed Huntsman Style 14 

Mutton Fritters 16 

Stuffed Cabbage 16 

Lyonnaise Potatoes 16 

Bread, Bread, Bread 16 

20 Cents a Day for Food : 16 

Desserts : 

Banana Rice Custard "A La Eleanor" 17 

A Delicious Simple Dessert 19 

Queen Cakes for Tea 19 

Preserved Whole Oranges 19 

Dumpling and Pudding Paste 19 

Sauces : — 

Hollandaise — La Meuniere — Mayonnaise — Bechamel 19 

Queer Foods Used in Various Countries 20 

Points in Philosophy 20 

Coal Eighty Dollars a Ton 21 

First Aid to the Needy 21 

Eggs of Extinct Birds 22 

Belasco Baited Baby 23 

French Millionaires of Other Centuries 23 

Chasing the Cheese ; 24 

Epigrams of Women 24 

Princely Spendthrifts 25 

Good Buttons Made of Potatoes 26 

Camels Are Outdone by Other Abstainers 26 

Our Language Only Truly Defines "Home" 26 

Pursuit of a Husband by the Modern Woman 27 

Are You Superstitious ? 27 

Balzac's View of Women 28 

£ 5 For a Plate of Gooseberries 28 

She Had Kept His Secret 28 

Jokes on the Directory 29 



Eugene F. Vacheron, President. 



J. B. Sabine, Treasurer. 



H. Herbert Vacheron, Secretary, 225 Fifth Ave. 



YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION, $1.00 SINGLE COPY, 

Copyright, 1910, by "The Chef" Publishing Co. Trade-Mark Registered 
Published Monthly by "The Chef" Publishing Co. 



15 CENTS 



Address all Communications to "The Chef" Magazine 
225 Fifth Avenue, New York 



THE CHEF 



OUR CONTRIBUTORS 

S O a M EOF 

The Best Known French Chefs In New York 



u 



ii 



Mr. Eugene Lapperruque 
Emile Bailly 
J. Balard 
E. Gigoux 
Leony Derouet 

J. Colombin 
Lucien Fromente 
Jules Biron 
Prosper Grevillot 

Henri Rosier 



Chef 



u 



<« 

" X. Kuzmier 

" Henri Dousseau 

" Lucien Bernard 
" J. Gancel 
Louis Seres 

Teilliaud 



« 



« 



a 



<« 



« 



Negre 
Valta 
Drederick 

Adams 
Rhiel 
Ribeyre 
Labeille 



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it 
tt 
u 

tt 
it 
a 
it 

a 

u 
tt 

u 
a 
u 
tt 

• 

tt 

tt 
tt 

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tt 
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Plaza Hotel, N. Y. 
St. Regis Hotel, N.Y. 
Cafe Martin, N.Y. 
NewGrandHotelN.Y. 
Grand Union Hotel, 

New York 

Belmont Hotel, N. Y. 
Cafe del'Opera, N.Y. 
St. Denis Hotel, N. Y. 
Delmonico's 

For 35 Year., New York 

Windsor Hotel, 

Montreal, Canada 

Gotham Hotel, N. Y. 
Metropolitan Club, 

New Y ork 

Hotel Brevoort, N.Y. 
" Belleclaire, N.Y. 
Holland House, N.Y. 
of Col. J. J. Astor, 

New York 

of D.O.Mills, N.Y. 
M.Orme Wilson, N.Y. 
of George Widener, 

Philadelphia 

of Robert Goelet 
of Clarence Mackay 
of H.McKayTwombley 
of Mrs. Sloan 



©CL82081C7 



"THE CHEF" MAGAZINE 



Vol. 1. No. 2 



MARCH, 1910 



15 CENTS 



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COOKERY 

And the Art of Preparing Food 



THE art of preparing food for the table. Foods 
are cooked by the application of heat, and accord- 
ing to the manner in which the heat is applied the 
principal processes of cooking are termed boiling, 
stewing, steaming, braising, baking, roasting (grilling 
or broiling), frying and sauteing. The effect of proper 
cooking is to render food more wholesome and palat- 
able than it can possibly be in the raw style. 

HISTORY 

Cooking, in one form or another, has been practised 
since immemorial times, and the knowledge we pos- 
sess of the ancient modes of cooking presents some 
interest in connection with the study of the customs 
and habits of the past. The Egyptians, it is said, were 
great bread-eaters. Though they possessed wheaten 
flour of the finest sort, they do not appear to have 
used it for their common bread, which was made of 
spelt, or of the center of the lotus dried and pounded. 
Fish they salted and dried, in the sun ; quails, ducks 
and small birds they salted and ate raw. We read of 



their roasting and broiling the flesh of the ox. There 
appears to have been considerable difference as to the 
manner in which good eating was appreciated in dif- 
ferent parts of Greece. After the Homeric age of 
simplicity, in which roast and boiled meats seem to 
have sufficed the kingly table, a diversity of prepara- 
tion was attained in cooking, and a certain epicurean- 
ism displayed in the quality, seasoning and method of 
dressing food. The names of many authors of cook- 
ery-books are preserved in the writings of Atheneus, 
that of Archestratus, who is called the guide of 
Epicurus in his pleasures, and styled "the inventor of 
many dishes," being the most renowned. 

Fish was a principal article of food with all classes 
of Greeks ; but with the wealthier much skill and 
delicacy was used in cooking it. and choice and ex- 
pensive varieties were sought after. Archestratus 
writes of "a boiled torpedo done in oil and wine, and 
fragrant herbs, and some thin grated cheese" (au 
gratin). Fish stuffed with force-meat and fried, boiled 
in pickle, baked in fig leaves, soaked in oil, cooked in 



THE CHEF 



In it ashes, etc., are among the recipes that we find 
recorded. The Greeks boiled and roasted the flesh of 
sheep, pigs, lambs and goats. They had poultry, 
small birds, and game, and sausage made of blood, 
partaking of the character of black puddings (blut- 
wurst). The bread of Athens was the most celebrated 
in Greece ; it was sometimes homemade, but chiefly 
bought in the market, and prepared in great variety. 
as pan-loaves, rolls, sweet loaves, etc. The bread 
eaten by the poorer classes was made of barley, and 
was sometimes flavored with oil, honey, poppy seed, etc. 
Athenian cheese cakes were also famous ; and there 
were honey and sesame cakes which, with fresh and 
dried fruits, as figs, almonds, olives and nuts, seem to 
have been partaken of after dinner. They consumed 
vegetable food also in abundance, and had cabbage, 
onions, lettuce, and so on. 

In a Greek house there was no regular cook, though 
in the establishments of the wealthy several women 
were kept to attend to the kitchen. The women in 
general saw to the requirements of the table, and even 
the mistress of the house was not idle. Cooks were in 
the market in Athens, ready to be hired for particular 
occasions ; the most celebrated were those of Sicily ; 
they were probably persons of some importance. 

In the early days of Rome a gruel made of lentils, 
and called puis, was the principal food of the people, 
and with greens and other vegetables was till later 
times the usual fare of the inferior classes — meat being 
used but sparingly. By degrees, however, a taste for 
better eating crept in, and after the Asiatic conquests 
luxury was imported. Lucullus introduced habits of 
epicureanism after his return from Asia ; the gour- 
mand Apicius earned for himself an enduring name. 
The wealthy Romans were fond of elegant service at 
their tables, and studied carefully the quality of the 
viands that were placed before them. With them, as 
with the Greeks, fish was a necessity as well as a 
luxury ; they took much trouble to procure their oys- 
ters, and gave large sums for other fish. We read of 
a mullet of six pounds sold for 8,000 sesterces (some 
$400), and of the rhombus or turbot from Ravenna 
being held in high estimation. They seem to have 
been as clever as the French in preparing surprises, 
and in carrying out disguises in their dishes. The 
pistor, who made the bread and pastry, and the 
structor, who built up artificial figures of fruit or flesh, 
and who also aranged the dishes, seem to have shared 
the duties of the cook. We read of dainties, as ring- 
doves, and fieldfares, hares, capons, ducks, peacocks, 
pheasants, and the liver of geese ; also of such a 
formidable piece de resistance as a "huge boar, sur- 
rounded with sucking pigs, made in sweet paste, which 
were distributed among the guests." The Romans 
prepared and cooked their food with oil to a great 
extent. Their meals probably consisted of two courses 
and a dessert, the first course being intended to excite 
an appetite; the second was a joint, roasted or baked. 
It was a saying of Varro's that the number of persons 



at a repast should not be less than that of the Graces 
(three) nor more than that of the Muses (nine). The 
Greeks and Romans used honey for the purposes for 
which we use sugar. Cane-sugar was probably culti- 
vated in China, and its manufacture understood there, 
but the Greeks took it for a kind of concrete honey, 
and used it only for medicinal purposes. 

Of ancient British cooking nothing is known ; it 
was probably of an extreme rude description. Hares, 
poultry and fish are said to have been forbidden as 
food. We do not find much mention of the art of 
cooking in the Saxon chronicles. The Danes and Ger- 
mans appear to have been great drinkers, and to have 
paid little attention to the preparation of their eatables. 
The Normans were more curious in these" matters : 
some offices among them were held in the right of the 
kitchen. In early English cooking much use was made 
of the mortar. Oil and lard was used instead of but- 
ter. Several English cook-books bear an early date, 
as "The Forme of Cury," by Pegge (1390). and other 
dates as follows: Sir J. Elliott's book (1539), Abraham 
Veale's (1575), and the Widdowe's Treasure (1625). 
The cooking of France was probably of an imperfect 
and rude kind until the introduction of Italian tastes 
by the princesses of the House of the Medici. The 
ancient use of oil was modified through the discovery 
made by the French of dressing meat in its own gravy, 
[n our own day it is universally admitted that the 
French cook is a true gastronomic artist. We may, 
if we please, impute the trouble he takes with the 
dressing of his meat only ; the preparation of vege- 
tables and fruits is attended to with equal care. The 
great difference between French and English or Amer- 
ican cooking consists in the fact that the French cook 
their meat much longer, knowing that this renders it 
more digestible. They are thereby enabled to multi- 
ply dishes by altering or annihilating the original taste 
of the meat, and making it a vehicle for foreign flav- 
ors. The variety, daintiness and grace of form which 
dishes thus acquire are very admirable. In the point 
of economy the French have a decided superiority over 
Anglo-Saxons. The French cook throws nothing away. 
Instead of going to the butcher for meat for stock, as 
the American cook does, he uses the trimmings for 
stock, and glaze, and the skimmings of his boiled 
meats in many combinations wherein we use butter or 
lard ; and like every skilled workman, he produces 
great results for small means. 

The estimation in which the services of a cook are 
held may be known by the large salary attached to the 
office in wealthy families, hotels and club houses. A 
visit to the kitchen of one of these establishments will 
show what a highly important post is that of the chef 
de cuisine. There must be in such a person not only 
the necessary knowledge of how things are to be done, 
but the power to arrange and direct the work of the 
numerous assistants, as to the exact part which each 
much fulfill at every moment of the long and busy 
dav. These places indeed are excellent schools for 



THE CHEF 



cooks, where they can undergo that severe training 
without which a thorough practical knowledge of the 
art cannot be attained. 

The art of cooking as a branch of woman's educa- 
tion has latterly engaged considerable attention in 
America ; and there are in New York, Boston, Phila- 
delphia, and other places establishments where young 
women receive this kind of instruction. A school of 
cookery has been attached to the South Kensington 
Museum in London, England. 

Efforts are also made to teach cooking to the 
humbler classes of girls, but much in this respect re- 
mains to be done. For any shortcomings in cooking, 
however, the taste of the American is in some measures 
accountable. 

BOILING 

The use of the term "boiling" in connection with 
cooking meat in water is rather unfortunate, for the 
operation thus designated if properly carried out, 
should involve hardly any boiling. The coloring mat- 
ter of the blood is changed, the fibre softened, and the 
connective dissolved at a temperature far below the 
normal boiling-point of water. Boiling over-coagu- 
lates the proteids, dissolves the mineral salts, and ren- 
ders the meat less valuable as a food. This is best 
shown in a hard-boiled egg, in comparison with one 
cooked below the boiling point. In the former the al- 
bumen is rendered hard, dense, and indigestible ; in the 
latter the albumen is soft and creamy, and is even more 
easily digested than when raw. While the effect of 
over-boiling on meat is not so apparent as in the case 
of an egg, the results are precisely the same. In the 
case of meat, however, some boiling in the beginning 
of the operation is necessary. As the juices of the 
meat are rich in the albumen, it is necessary to cover 
the meat with boiling unsalted water, boil rapidly for 
five minutes to coagulate the albumen on the surface 
and enclose the meat in a water-proof casing. This 
will prevent the escape of the juices from the interior. 
But after this first hard boil the kettle should be 
placed over a moderate fire where the water will sim- 
mer at 180 degrees F., twenty minutes being allowed 
for each pound of meat. Seasoning may be added 
when the meat is partly cooked, salt having the effect 
of drawing the juices from raw meat. These rules 
apply to the flesh of fish and fowl. The flesh of fish, 
however, is found to be firmer and more highly flav- 
ored, if cooked in water containing more or less salt. 
Salt meats, as corned beef and ham, should be care- 
fully washed in cold water, and soaked in cold water 
twelve hours before cooking. Ham will be more 
tender if the temperature never exceeds 165 degrees F. 

SOUP 

The preceding directions do not by any means apply 
to making soup. In fact, directly opposite methods 
must be followed in order to get the best results. Soup 
must contain as much as possible of the juices of meat. 



For this purpose, the meat should be divided into small 
pieces, covered with cold water, or slowly brought to 
the boiling-point and then allowed to simmer for four 
or five hours until the meat falls apart. In this way 
the water dissolves and holds all the extractives, 
mineral salts and gelatin. 

stewing 

Stewing, or en casserole, occupies a midway posi- 
tion between boiling and soup-making. The perfec- 
tions of a stew depends upon the thorough coagulation 
of the outside juices, and the slow process by which it 
is finished. The temperature should never exceed 180 
degrees F. The meat should be divided into small 
pieces, thrown into a kettle containing two ounces of 
hot suet and shaken until the outside is thoroughly 
coagulated. The pieces may then be gathered to one 
side of the kettle, a thickening of two ounces of flour 
added, the whole well mixed with the fat, and a pint 
of water or soup-stock added. The contents of the 
kettle are then heated to boiling and a level teaspoon- 
ful of salt, a saltspoonful of pepper, and a teaspoon ful 
of browning are added. Such flavorings as bay leaves, 
onions, and celery are also usually added. The kettle 
should be closely covered and the contents cooked for 
one and a half hours, at a temperature of about 180 
degrees F. The meat is best softened in a rich sauce. 
A ragout is nothing but a highly seasoned stew. Stew- 
ing is a very economical method of cooking; there is 
no waste, all escaped juices are held in the sauce, all 
the nourishment is secured, and if the dish is well 
cooked and not too greasy or over-seasoned,' the meat is 
tender and easy of digestion. 

STEAMING 

Steamed foods as a rule are more highly flavored 
than those boiled, for the reason that in steaming the 
soluble constituents are not so easily lost as in boiling. 
The operation of steaming may be carried out in a 
modern steam cooker or in a perforated kettle that fits 
closely over another kettle containing boiling water. 
If the steam is under pressure, the temperature may 
be much higher than that of boiling water, and hence 
the method may be used for sterilizing canned foods ; 
in large establishments the method is also used for 
baking meats. Ordinary home steaming is an ex- 
cellent method of cooking vegetables, ham, fruits, 
cakes, puddings, and other dishes that require the pro- 
longed application of moist heat. Such vegetables as 
potatoes, rice, young peas, corn, squash, cucumbers, 
punpkin and spinach, are better steamed than boiled. 
On the other hand meats are generally better boiled 
than steamed. In an ordinary double boiler, which 
may be used in making custards and in cooking cereals, 
the food is obviously neither steamed nor boiled, the 
heat being a dry heat ; the double boiler serves to 
maintain a constant temperature several degrees below 
the boiling-point of water. 



THE CHEF 



BRAISING 

The operation of braising is intermediate between 
boiling and baking. The meat is partially browned and 
cooked in a moist heat. To do this perfectly one must 
have a well-fitting lid to cover the baking-pan, or a 
so-called roasting-pan, a braising-pot being preferable. 
The meat should be placed in a pot or pan and partly 
covered with hot stock or water ; seasoning such as 
bay leaves, onions and celery seeds should be added 
and the pan closely covered. The cooking should be 
done in a hot oven, fifteen minutes being allowed for 
each pound of meat, and salt being added when the 
meat is partly done. A half hour before serving the 
top cover should be removed and the stock reduced 
so that it may be served as a sauce. Braising is**in 
economical process of cooking, the constituents lost by 
the meat being contained almost entirely in the gravy. 
The process is best adapted to the so-called inferior 
pieces, as a leg of mutton, the upper or under round, 
and the fleshy part of the shoulder. Braising-pans are 
frequently sold under the name of "self-basting" pans. 

ROASTING 

(Grilling or broiling.) Of the several methods of 
cooking meats, roasting best preserves their juices and 
develops their flavor. The operation of roasting may 
be carried out in a metallic vessel ("the roaster," tin 
oven or tin kitchen ), fitted up in front of a bright fire, 
one side of the meat being directly exposed to the heat ; 
or else, the meat may be cooked on a revolving spit. 
The terms broiling, grilling and roasting denote the 
same operation ; the first two are used to designate the 
process when applied to steaks or smaller pieces of 
meat; the term roasting is used in the case of a joint. 
In this country the process of baking beef has almost 
entirely replaced that of roasting. In roasting, the 
meat loses, especially if the joint be a fat one, more 
weight (fat and water) than in boiling or baking, but 
is incomparably finer in flavor. 

In broiling a steak the meat should first be placed 
near a clear, hot fire and turned when one side is 
seared. When the other side, too, is moderately seared, 
the steak should be placed at a greater distance from 
the fire and the cooking thus continued at a lower tem- 
perature, five minutes being allowed for a steak one 
inch thick, ten minutes for a steak one and a half 
inches thick, and twenty minutes for a steak two inches 
thick. Seasoning may be added after the steak has 
been cooked. 

BAKING 

The process of cooking meat in the dry heat of an 
oven is properly termed baking. The oven of a stove 
generally receives its heat from the fire-box, although 
in very large establishments it is heated by steam un- 
der pressure. No matter how great the surrounding 
heat, a thermometer plunged into the centre of a joint 
will register scarcely 200 degrees F., the meat being 
thus cooked in its own juice at a gentle heat. To 



avoid the considerable waste of fuel which may be 
involved by it, the process should be carried out in an 
apparatus carefully lined and thus rendered capable 
of holding nearly all the heat aproduced by a small 
flame, as the "Soyer cooker," Aladdin oven, or Good- 
rich oven. The heat from an ordinary oil lamp under 
such an apparatus will bake a piece of meat quickly, 
thoroughly, and at a minimum cost. The "feather" 
oven, an ordinary box entirely surrounded by a thick- 
layer of feathers, is still used in many country places, 
meats and vegetables (such as old beans, peas, lentils) 
being placed in the feather oven after being heated 
to boiling, and thus cooked for several hours at a con- 
stant temperature slightly below the boiling-point of 
water. 

In baking a number of mechanical and chemical 
changes take place. More or less water is driven off, 
so that the baked foods are, generally speaking, drier 
than before cooking. Heat and the moisture present 
in foods rupture cell-walls. In this way and bv the 
coagulation of proteids, and possibly in other ways, 
the texture and consistency of foods are changed. The 
chemical changes are of the following character : Pro- 
teids are coagulated ; fats are more or less volatilized 
and broken down into simpler chemical bodies ; and 
carbohydrates, especially on the surface of foods, are 
to a greater or less extent caramelized. 

FRYING 

Frying is cooking by immersion in hot fat at a tem- 
perature from 350 degrees to 380 degrees F. The up- 
per limit of temperature answers in the case of cro- 
quettes or cecils that are covered with beaten egg ; the 
gentler heat is best adapted to such delicate articles 
as batters, fritters, crullers, bouchees, and potato or 
rice croquettes. If the temperature of 380 degrees is 
not exceeded, the fat does not boil, nor does it smoke, 
i. e., decompose. It is perhaps chiefly on account of 
over-heating fat that fried foods' are but too often un- 
sightly and indigestible. The temperature cannot, of 
course, be properly regulated without the use of a 
thermometer. The following test, however, may serve 
to indicate that the proper frying temperature is nearly 
reached : a crumb of bread dropped into hot fat will 
turn brown in ten seconds if the temperature has 
reached 340 degrees F. The frying-pan should be deep 
enough to permit of covering the cooking article com- 
pletely. The high temperature of the fat will then 
cause the formation on the surface of the article, of a 
complete covering, through which grease can not en- 
ter nor juice escape. Without this impermeable cov- 
ering the outside of the fried article will be greasy and 
the inside flavored with the frying material, while if 
properly fried, the article should be as free from fat 
as if it had been cooked in water. After removing 
the article from the hot fat, it should be drained on 
brown paper, to remove all traces of fat. Croquettes 
and other dishes should be covered with beaten egg 
and rolled in dry bread crumbs before frying. The 



THE CHEF 



albumen of the egg will coagulate as soon as it comes 
in contact with the hot fat and thus make a perfect 
grease-proof covering. As to the frying material, oil, 
either olive or cotton-seed, is probably the best form 
of fat. A mixture of oil and suet is also very good. 
Further, while neither suet nor lard is suitable to be 
used isolated, a mixture of the two is found to be well 
adapted for frying. Butter is unfit for frying, be- 
cause it decomposes at too low a temperature. Nor 
should butter be cooked in making sauces. 

SAUTEING 

Unlike frying, sauteing is cooking with fat in a 
shallow pan. 

VEGETABLES 

Vegetables not only form indispensable foods by 
themselves, but also serve to season and impart flavor 
to soups and made dishes. Potatoes when served 
should be dry and mealy, they should be cooked in 
water, which should be kept continuously boiling until 
the vegetable is perfectly tender, and then the water 
should be drawn off, and the potatoes dusted with salt 
to absorb some of their moisture. A second baking 
of potatoes (stuffed potatoes) has the effect of making 
them more easily digestible. Green vegetables should 
go over the fire in boiling salted water, the salt in the 
solution preventing them from absorbing too much 
water. Old peas, beans and lentils, however, should 
be cooked in unsalted water. To preserve the color 
and prevent the odor of vegetables from spreading, 
an abundance of water and covered vessels should 
be used in cooking them. 

CHAFING-DISHES 

These are small utensils made of tin, copper, nickel 
or silver, arranged in a frame and heated by alcohol 
lamps. The better forms are supplied with an under 
hot-water pan and are very useful for cooking milk 
or cream dishes that might be easily over-heated if 
cooked directly over a flame. Formerly, a chafing-dish 
was a shallow sauce-pan used over a small portable 
charcoal furnace, principally for keeping things hot. 
At present such light dishes as melted cheese, Welsh 
rabbit, creamed chicken, sweetmeats, lobster a la New- 
burg, are often prepared at the table in a chafing-dish. 
Venison, breasts of birds, tenderloin of beef, and mush- 
rooms are easily cooked at the table and much better 
served directly from a hot dish. Cold boiled potatoes, 
peas and string beams are easily warmed in cream 
sauce made in the chafing-dish. 

KING LEOPOLD WAS AN EPICURE 

r^HE death of King Leopold has occupied the col- 

-*- umns of the press of all countries for many 

weeks, the interest of the people in him being due to 

his wonderful business capacity and jovial democracy 

seldom found in a monarch. 



He was an epicure of the first rank and therefore 
a frequenter of the best hotels and restaurants of 
Paris, a city of which he was extremely fond, and 
to which places he practically went unattended ex- 
cept by a friend or two, the same as people of lesser 
rank, and asking for no better service than that 
given to the regular clientele, but always insisting on 
the newest and best dish produced in the culinary 
line, and for which that particular restaurant might 
be renowned. 

It was only a short time before his death that 
King Leopold organized a realty company, whose 
object was to build a large hotel with all modern 
improvement "A la Americaine," as he expressed it, 
and also a large restaurant, both of which were to be 
erected near the Palace of Justice, at Brussels. 

King Leopold was not only an epicure of the high- 
est type, but he was a great business man as well, 
beloved by all his people. 



Business Man (at a city restaurant.) — "Can't you 
hurry up that steak a little, waiter? I've been waiting 
over half an hour." 

Business Man (at home). — "What in thunder is 
the matter that we don't have dinner? I've been sit- 
ting here like a bump on a log for fully five minutes." 

HIS LITTLE MISTAKE 

The diner dropped his knife and fork with a clatter. 

"Waiter !" he cried. 

"Yes, sir," said the waiter. 

"What's this stuff?" demanded the diner. 

"Steak, sir, I think," replied the waiter, examining 
it closely. "Yes, there's no doubt it's steak, sir." 

"But the smell!" roared the diner. "It must be 
weeks — Here, smell it for yourself." 

The waiter shook his head, and bent confidentially 
over the diner's shoulder. 

"You're making a little mistake, sir," he whispered, 
glancing cautiously round. "It's that other gentle- 
man's fish you can smell." 



"Now, Mr. Janus, I don't see how with your salary 
you can afford to smoke such expensive cigars," re- 
marked a merchant severely to one of his clerks. 

"You're right, sir," responded Janus. "I can't ; I 
ought to have a bigger salary!" 



Wife. — -"My dear, the nursery needs redecorating. 
What would you suggest for the walls?" 
Husband. — "Corrugated iron." 



Husband. — "Here's a capital brace of pheasants I've 
shot for you! They're worth ten shillings if they're 
worth a penny." 

Wife. — "Harry! you don't mean to say that you 
paid that for them ?" 



8 THE CHEF 

VEGETARIANISM AND ARGUMENTS OF 

VEGETARIANS 



T 7EGETARIANISM is the practice or doctrine of 



V 



living upon foods obtained from the vegetable 



world, to the exclusion of animal food. 

In all the ages there have been idealists who have 
advocated an exclusively vegetable diet, some on senti- 
mental, almost religious grounds, others on physio- 
logical and historical grounds, and others again on 
personal experience. However, there have been 
chiefly ethical grounds, among whom may be men- 
tioned Pythagoras, Plato, Plutarch, Rousseau, Shelley, 
and Swedenborg, but they never had any extensive 
following. 

The modern vegetarian movement took its rise about 
the middle of the nineteenth century. The vegetarian 
idea was best received in England, where the principal 
cities are represented by their societies, and where 
there are many vegetarian restaurants. 

The arguments in favor of Vegetarianism may be 
summarized as follows: On physiological grounds it 
is urged that the formation of the teeth and the intes- 
tines in man prove that he was not intended to be a 
carnivorous, but a fruit and vegetable eating animal. 

The length of the intestine shows him to be midway 
between the herbivora and the carnivora, and neither 
fitted for digesting grasses, which require a long in- 
testine, nor flesh which needs a short one, but nearer 
akin to the fruit eating apes. 

It is maintained that a vegetable diet is best for 
man physically, intellectually, and morally ; that with 
it life is longer, more enjoyable, and bodily strength 
and symmetry superior ; that the use of animal food 
stimulates unnaturally, begets a fierce disposition, a 
carelessness about life, and a callousness to the suf- 
fering of men and animals ; whereas, a vegetable diet 
has very opposite effects. 

It is further contended that all the elements neces- 
sary for perfect nutrition are contained in vegetables, 
and that a proper dietary can be selected which is not 
open to objection on account of enormous bulk. 

On the score of economy it is urged that a diet of 
meals and grain can be purchased for much less than 
one of meat, and confers more working power; that 
a given acreage will support more people if devoted 
to growing grain and vegetables than if used for the 
raising of cattle or sheep. 

On moral grounds, it is contended that it is wrong 
to slaughter animals unnecessarily ; that the higher in- 
stincts revolt against taking life, and that the con- 
stant killing and eating of animals reacts unfavorably 
on man's higher nature. 

Lastly, it is pointed out that animal food is often 
the means of communicating disease to man, e. g., 
tuberculosis, trichiniasis. 



Scientific opinion is not favorable to Vegetarianism. 
The structure of man's stomach and intestines and the 
variety of intestinal juices are held to prove that nature 
intended him for an omnivorous animal, his digestive 
organs being fitted to derive nourishment from every 
kind of food. 

The possession of biting, tearing and grinding teeth 
(incisors, canine, and molar) is also suggestive of the 
same conclusion. 

Regarding revolt against taking life and the con- 
stant killing and eating of animals, this argument 
does not seem consistent, inasmuch as the vegetable 
is also a living thing, which must die before we can 
obtain nourishment therefrom. 

And as "Bunge" says, "To hope that all living crea- 
tures and things may live side by side in peace and 
harmony is nonsense." 

Each living thing from the lowest in rank to the 
highest — man — is surrounded by a swarm of enemies, 
both large and small, as birds of prey, parasites, mi- 
crobes of all descriptions, who watchfully pounce upon, 
invade and assault one another that they may live. 

Even the herbivorous animal lives at the expense of 
other things, as he takes more or less of their sub- 
sistance. 

There is not a vegetable, nor a leaf that falls that 
is not consumed. That which is not eaten by the birds 
and mammiferous animals is devoured by insects, and 
that which is left by the insects becomes a prey to the 
worms, and that left by the worms is consumed by 
microbes, and that which finds nothing to consume 
starves to death or finally succumbs exhausted by the 
assaults of other living things. 

This struggle is everywhere, and will not end with 
the dreams of vegetarians. 

Look where you will, in the air, in the earth, the 
water, in the deep ocean, even in each drop of water, 
we can see this eternal combat, this struggle for ex- 
istence which ends in death, this same principle and 
condition of life which, without ceasing, continues to 
revive and renew everything on the face of the earth. 

It has been a matter of universal experience that 
although a vegetable diet may keep a man in apparent 
health for some time, it eventually results in loss of 
strength and general resisting power against disease. 

That a mixed diet (i. e., one including meat) enables 
the individual to do more physical work and increases 
the staying powers has often been proved. 

While there are some races that live almost ex- 
clusively on a vegetable diet, and others that exist 
wholly on animals (for example, the Eskimos), it can- 
not for a moment be contended that these are the 
equals of peoples living on a mixed diet. 



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THE CHEF 



THE BALLAD OF BOUILLABAISSE 

By WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY 



A certain part of Thackeray's verse has taken a perman- 
ent place in the treasure-house of English poetry — and 
none more justly than the poem printed herewith. It is 
less the whimsical character of the subject than the subtle 
blending of convivial gaiety with a deeper note of poignant 
sorrow that makes "The Ballad of Bouillabaisse" unique 
and inimitable. "Who else could have written it?" asks 
Trollope. "Who in the same moment could have been so 
merry and so so melancholy — could have gone so deep 
into the regret of life, with words so appropriate to its 
jollities?" 

The poem has the pathetic interest of commemorating 
happier days. It was written during the novelist's pro- 
tracted stay in Paris, after the painful tragedy which 



closed the chapter of his domestic life; and the subject of 
the poem was closely associated with the tender and inti- 
mate memories of his early months of married happiness. 
Thackeray was married to Miss Shawe at the British Em- 
bassy in the summer of 1836, and immediately took apart- 
ments on the Rue Neuve St. Augustin. Each afternoon, 
his day's work for the Constitutional finished, the young 
couple would stroll off through the busy, crowded Passage 
Choiseul, at the farther end of which they would come out 
on the New Street of the Little Fields; and at No. 16 was 
the restaurant of Terre Jeune, immortalized in the ballad. 
An old Parisian guide-book of the period states that the 
house was noted for "Spanish dishes and for good wines, 
and more especially for the Marseilles dish, bouillabaisse." 



\ STREET there is in Paris famous, 
■*■ *- For which no rime our language yields ; 
Rue Neuves des Petits Champs its name is — 

The New Street of the Little Fields. 
And here's an inn, not rich and splendid, 

But still in comfortable case ; 
The which in youth I oft attended. 

To eat a bowl of Bouillabaisse. 



"Oh, oni, monsieur," 's the waiter's answer; 

"Quel riii monsieur dcsire-t-il?" 
"Tell me a good one." "That I can, sir — 

The Chambertin with yellow seal." 
"So Terre's gone," I say, and sink in 

My old accustomed corner-place ; 
"He's done with feasting and with drinking, 

With Burgundy and Bouillabaisse !" 



This Bouillabaisse a noble dish is — 

A sort of soup, or broth, or brew, 
Or hotchpotch of all sorts of fishes, 

That Greenwich never could outdo ; 
Green herbs, red peppers, mussels, saffron, 

Soles, onions, garlic, roach and dace — 
All these you eat at Terre's tavern. 

In that one dish of Bouillabaisse. 



Where are you, old companions trusty 

Of early days, here met to dine? 
Come, waiter! Quick, a flagon crusty — 

I'll pledge them in the good old wine. 
The kind old voices and old faces 

My memory can quick retrace ; 
Around the board they take their places, 

And share the wine and Bouillabaisse. 



Indeed a rich and savory stew 'tis ; 

And true philosophers, methinks, 
Who love all sorts of natural beauties, 

Should love good victuals and good drinks. 
And Cordelier or Benedictine 

Might gladly, sure, his lot embrace. 
Nor find a fast-day too afflicting, 

Which served him up a Bouillabaisse. 

I wonder if the house still there is? 

Yes, here the lamp is, as before ; 
The smiling red-cheeked ecaillere is 

Still opening oysters at the door. 
Is Terre still alive and able? 

I recollect his droll grimace. 
He'd come and smile before your table, 

And hope you liked your Bouillabaisse. 

We enter — nothing's changed or older. 

"How's Monsieur Terre, waiter, pray?" 
The waiter stares and shrugs his shoulder: 

"Monsieur is dead this many a day." 
"It is the lot of saint and sinner ; 

So honest Terre's run his race !" 
"What will monsieur require for dinner?" 

"Say, do you still cook Bouillabaisse?" 



There's Jack has made a wondrous marriage; 

There's laughing Tom is laughing yet ; 
There's brave Augustus drives his carriage ; 

There's poor old Fred in the Gazette; 
O'er James's head the grass is growing; 

Good Lord ! The world has wagged apace 
Since here we set the claret flowing, 

And drank, and ate the Bouillabaisse. 

Ah, me! How quick the days are flitting! 

I mind me of a time that's gone, 
When here I'd sit, as now I'm sitting, 

In this same place — but not alone. 
A fair voting form was nestled near me, 

A dear, dear face looked fondly up, 
And sweetly spoke and smiled to cheer me — 

There's no one now to share my cup ! 

I drink it as the Fates ordain it. 

Come, fill it, and have done with rimes ; 
Fill up the lonely glass and drain it 

In memory of dear old times. 
Welcome the wine, what'er the seal is ; 

And sit you down and say your grace 
With thankful heart, whate'er the meal is. 

Here comes the smoking Bouillabaisse ! 



THE CHEF 



ii 



A FEW FACTS ABOUT FISH 



With Recipes for Lent 



Fish when fresh are hard if pressed by the ringer — 
the gills red — the eyes full. If the flesh is flabby and 
the eyes sunken, the fish are stale. They should be 
thoroughly cleaned, washed and sprinkled with salt. 

Before broiling fish, rub the gridiron with butter or 
cottolene to prevent it from sticking. Lay the skin 
side down first. 

The earthy taste often found in fresh-water fish can 
be removed by soaking in salt and water. 

Most kinds of salt fish should be soaked in cold 
water for twenty-four hours — the fleshy side turned 
down in the water. 

Fish should be fresh and always well cooked. 

Never soak fresh fish in water, unless frozen. Clean, 
rinse and wipe dry ; in warm weather lay on the ice 
until needed. 

In boiling put into cold water, to which add a little 
salt and vinegar, and allow eight minutes to the pound. 
If boiled whole do not remove the head and tail, and 
serve always with a sauce. 

TO FRY. 

Dredge with flour, dip lightly in beaten egg, roll in 
cracker crumbs and fry in very hot lard. Serve with 
lemon slices. 

TO BROIL. 

Rub over with olive oil ; cut in pieces or broil whole, 



as preferred ; when done sprinkle with pepper and 
salt, a little lemon juice, a little chopped parsley and 
si ime melted butter. 

TO BAKE. 

Stuff with a dressing as for poultry, and stew it up ; 
lay strips of salt pork over it, sprinkle with pepper, 
salt and crumbs, and bake in hot oven ; baste open ; 
have the oven of the gas stove well heated by lighting 
the gas three minutes before placing the fish in the 
oven. 

BAKED FISH. 

Stuff it with plain dressing; put in a pan with a little 
water, salt, pepper and butter. Baste while baking. A 
fish weighing four pounds will bake in an hour. Gar- 
nish with hard-boiled eggs and parsley, and serve with 
drawn butter or egg sauce. 

BOILED FISH. 

Sew them in a cloth, and put into cold water, with 
plenty of salt. Most fish will boil in thirty minutes. 

STUFFING FOR FISH. 

Take about half a pound of stale bread and soak in 
water, and when soft press out the water ; add a very 
little chopped suet, pepper, salt, a large tablespoonful 
of onion minced and fried and, if preferred, a little 
minced parsley ; cook a trifle, and after removing from 
the fire add a beaten egg. 



FILET OF FLOUNDER WITH 
GREEN PEAS 

Dip filets of flounder in melted butter, sprinkle 
lightly with salt and pepper and the juice of lemon, 
fold in centre, and place same in a baking-pan, cover- 
ing the fish with boiling stock. Place in oven and 
bake about 10 minutes. 

Remove the filets, place same in circle on round 
dish, one filet overlapping the other, and in the centre, 
place the green peas that have been cooked and to 
which a small piece of butter has been added. Gar- 
nish with chopped hard boiled egg and serve. 

The stock for the above should be prepared by tak- 
ing about one-half pint of soup stock or bouillon, 
setting same in a casserole and adding thereto one 
onion, one-half dozen allspice, one bay leaf, one carrot 
and allowing same to boil for about 20 minutes. Then 
straining same, and pouring over dish before placing 
in oven, and add three tablespoonfuls of flour and 
blend slowly, adding two cups of milk while so doing. 

Cook for about 10 minutes on a brisk fire, season 
with salt and pepper and set on side of stove for a 
few moments until ready to use. 

Butter a baking-dish at the bottom of which place 
about one-fourth of the above sauce, then a layer of 
the cold, cooked fish and more sauce, and again a 



layer of fish, so alternating, and cover the whole with 
buttered crumbs in a moderately hot oven and serve. 

OYSTERS AU GRATIN 

After the oysters have been opened replace them in 
their deep shell. 

Take a baking-pan, the bottom of which cover with 
about i l /\ inch of salt. 

Set the oyster shells in the salt, which will tend to 
keep them steady. 

On each oyster add one or two drops of lemon 
juice; enough dried or fried bread crumbs to cover 
each oyster lightly, over which pour a little melted 
butter, and on top of which add a small piece of butter 
the size of a hazel nut. 

Set in a very hot oven for about 6 minutes and serye. 

TINNED SALMON CUTLETS 

PUT the contents of a tin of salmon in a basin, 
taking care to pour off all the liquid, mash, and 
add a little stale crumbled bread, pepper, salt and two 
eggs. Mix well, form into flat cakes, and dip first 
in flour and then into a beaten egg. Fry the cutlets 
in boiling oil or lard until they are golden brown in 
color. Drain on kitchen-paper, and serve hot or cold, 
garnished with parsley. 



13 



THE CHEF 



OYSTERS, BECHAMEL SAUCE 

QUANTITIES NECESSARY FOR TEN PERSONS. 

3 pints of oysters. 

3 tablespoonsful of butter. 

j tablespoonsful of flour. 

I small carrot. 

i small onion. 

i bay leaf. 

i sprig of parsley. 

3 gills of cream. 

3 egg yolks. 

I cup of soup stock or bouillon. 

Salt and pepper to suit. 
Heat flour and butter together in a sauce-pan, add 
the soup stock, bay leaf, salt and pepper, and one-half 
of the cream, and let the whole cook gently for about 
20 minutes. Then strain into another sauce-pan. 

Place this sauce-pan on the stove over a slow fire, 
and add the egg yolks well beaten with the rest of the 
cream. Allow the whole to come to a boil and let 
same boil for one minute, stirring continually, and add 
the oysters, which have been prepared in the meantime, 
as follows : 

While the sauce has been cooking clear the oysters 
of any small pieces of shells that may be contained 
thereon. Place them in a stew-pan, and over a slow 
fire bring them slowly to the boiling point. Skim 
them well and after straining them they will be 
ready to add to the (Bechamel) sauce. 

The Bechamel sauce used in this recipe is known as 
the "Lenten" Bechamel sauce, because it does not con- 
tain the veal usually used in making the above sauce. 

FRIED SALMON STEAKS 

Cut slices of salmon one inch thick, dry each piece 
thoroughly and on each side sprinkle a pinch of salt, 
dip into egg which has been well beaten, sprinkle 
with flour and place in a frying-pan containing hot 
drippings and fry a golden brown. 

Place on a platter, sprinkle with chopped parsley, 
and garnish the dish with slices of lemon and serve. 

TURBAN OF HALIBUT AND 
POTATO BALLS 

Two slices of boned halibut makes eight filets. Dip 
in melted butter, sprinkle over with juice of half a 
lemon, and a little onion juice, salt and pepper, roll 
into turbans, fasten with buttered toothpicks and bake 
in oven for about 20 minutes. Arrange on a dish fill- 
ing the centre with buttered potato balls. Garnish 
with parsley and serve with holland sauce. 

BOUILLABAISSE A LA MARSEILLAISE 

FISH STEW. 

For six persons, use about 4 pounds of any fresh 
fish, such as striped bass. weak, torn cod, white fish, 
etc.. and a small lobster. 

Cut the fish into slices, and put them in a deep 
casserole, with the lobster which has been split through 
the middle and crosswise, with the claws making 6 
pieces. 

Add 2 small onions, the white part of 2 leeks, one 



tomato, fresh or canned, 3 cloves of garlic well 
crushed, a good pinch of chopped parsley, a good 
pinch of saffron, 1 bay leaf and 4 tablespoonfuls of oil. 

Add cold water enough to cover the whole, then 
season with a pinch of salt and one of pepper ; set to 
boil over a brisk fire for about 15 minutes. 

Prepare a round deep dish by placing 6 pieces of 
toast thereon, over which pour the fish, decorating 
with the pieces of lobster. Serve. 

SMELTS— SPLIT AND GRILLED 

The smelts should be opened down the back from 
head to tail, and the spine removed therefrom, which 
with care can easily be done, and without any waste. 

Season them with salt and pepper, pass them 
through melted butter, and sprinkle lightly with flour, 
and set on hot grill. 

Take a long dish which has been previously heated, 
and cover the bottom thereof with slightly browned 
butter, to which has been added the juice of one-half 
lemon. 

Lay the smelts therein, arrange sliced pieces of 
lemon around the dish and serve. 

ROYAL OMELET 

Cook a shad roe until firm in boiling salted water, 
to which add one teaspoonful of lemon juice. 

Drain, dry and roll the roe in a little flour and fry 
in bacon fat or butter until it is nicely browned. 

Cut in small pieces in the shape of small dice, mix 
with one-half cup of chopped canned mushroon, two 
tablespoonfuls of highly seasoned tomato catsup and 
one-fourth tablespoonful of paprika and keep this hot 
while preparing an omelet. 

PREPARING THE OMELET. 

Break six eggs into a bowl, add a pinch of pepper 
and a pinch of salt and beat the eggs for about two 
minutes with a fork or one minute with an egg-beater. 
Into a sauce-pan into which has been placed a piece of 
butter the size of a walnut and which has been allowed 
to melt, pour in the beaten eggs and set the sauce-pan 
over a fire and allow to cook slowly, and wdiile cook- 
ing stir three or four times with a fork. When the 
eggs have begun to harden slightly place the mixture 
of the shad roe and mushroom in the centre of the ome- 
let. Fold the omelet and roll same on to a hot platter 
around which pour a white cream sauce. Garnish with 
parsley and serve. 

A TASTY POTATO SOUP 

Boil 6 or 8 medium-sized potatoes, set them in a 
4-quart soup pot, mash them with a potato-masher, 
adding about 2 ounces of butter and seasoning with 
a pinch each of sugar, salt and nutmeg; then add 
about \y 2 quarts of boiling water, if there should be 
any bouillon on hand, add it in place of water. 

Set the pot on the stove, and as soon as the con- 
tents begin to boil add the yolks of 3 eggs and 1 pint 
of milk. Serve. 



THE CHEF 



13 



THE SACRED CODFISH AND ITS MAKER 

The Famous Emblem of the Massachusetts State-House 

Comes from Colonial Days and is an Emblem 

of the Old Colony's Fisheries 

A CODFISH, carved in wood, hangs on the white 
■*■ *• mahogany wall of the Massachusetts Hall of 
Representatives in the State-house, in Boston. Be- 
tween two classic pillars it occupies a place of honor, 
directly opposite the desk of the presiding officer. This 
wooden fish is the renowned original sacred codfish of 
the Old Colony, and it has assisted at the deliberations 
of the lawmakers of Massachusetts for more than a 
century and a half, gathering sanctity year by year. 
It is a relic of the old building which preceded the 
present State-house, and great is the dignity of this 
souvenir of Colonial art and industry. 

The following account of its origin is given in the 
Boston Budget and Beacon: 

Captain John Welch, of Boston, was the creator 
and carver of the celebrated fish. He was a wood- 
carver of renown for his time, and in 1747 established 
his business in Dock Square. He belonged to the An- 
cient and Honorable Artillery Company, and after- 
ward became its captain. He was called upon to 
contribute to the decoration of the Colonial Assembly 
Hall ; and as, at that period, codfish was the colonv's 
main article of export. Captain Welch conceived the 
idea of immortalizing the king fish of the Massachu- 
setts waters. When completed, the carving was fin- 
ished off and colored so as to be a facsimile of life, 
and was hung on the wall of the Assembly Hall. 

THE OYSTER BUILDS ITS OWN HOME 

IT IS NOT ASLEEP ALL THE TIME 

With Its Beard as Its Only Tool, Each Year a 
Story is Added to Its Wonderful House 

' I MI FRF seems to be very little chance for poetry 
-■- to linger around the luscious bivalve, yet Keats 
vividly conjures up the pale silence of the ocean depths 
with his reference to the "poor, patient oyster where 
it sleeps." Patient, indeed, and immovable in its 
ocean bed, yet not always sleeping. 

The body of an oyster is a poor, weak thing, appar- 
ently incapable of doing anything at all. Yet what a 
marvelous house an oyster builds around his delicate 
frame. 

For some unknown reason he always fixes himself 
on his round shell, never by his flat shell, and being 
once fixed he begins to grow ; but he only grows in 
summer. 

Inspect an oyster-shell closely, and it will be seen 
that it is marked with distinct lines. As the rings we 
observe in the section of the trunk of a tree denote 
years of growth, so do the markings on an oyster tell 
us how many years he has passed in his "bed" at the 
bottom of the sea. The way in which an ovster grows 
his shell is a pretty sight. 



The beard of an oyster is not only his breathing 
organ, — i. e., his lungs — but also his feeding organ, by 
which he conveys the food to his complicated mouth 
with its four lips. 

When the warm, calm days of June come, the ovs- 
ter opens his shell, and by means of his beard, begins 
building an additional story to his house. This he 
does by depositing very, very fine particles of carbon- 
ate of lime, till at last they form a substance as thin 
as silver paper and exceedingly fragile. 

Then he adds more and more till at last the new 
shell is as hard as the old shell. 

When oysters are growing their shells they must be 
handled very carefully, as the new growth cuts like 
broken glass, and a cut on the finger therefrom is often 
dangerous. 

EAT LESS, CHEW LONGER 

TF people would chew their food properly, the 
-•-supply of food would exceed the demand and 
prices would come down," said Mr. Horace Fletcher, 
whose ideas on eating have become known as Fletch- 
erism, when he arrived here a few days ago from 
Europe. 

Mr. Fletcher left here early in December to spend 
Christmas at his home in Venice. He returns now 
to lecture on his theories of proper eating. When 
told .that Mr. James J. Hill had said that the trouble 
in the United States was not the high cost of living 
but the cost of high living, he replied : — 

"That's correct to my mind. If a person would 
eat less and masticate more he would grow in health 
and purse." 

THAT SOUFFLE TURNOVER 

"I have cooked a little surprise for you, dear," said 
Eleanor — "an almond souffle. I got the recipe from 
the new cookery-book." 

Arthur smiled doubtfully, and took a mouthful. 

"Can't say I like it!" he spluttered. "Out"! Sure 
you got the instructions right?" 

"Oh, yes !" responded Eleanor. "I can say them by 
heart from the book. Just hear me." And she 
reached down the volume: "Take half a pound of 
grated almonds ' " 

"Quite right!" interrupted Arthur. 

" 'One pound of castor sugar ; mix well with white 
of three fresh eggs ' " 

"Correct!" said her spouse. 

" 'Add a pinch of white pepper ' " 

"Pepper! Great goodness!" exclaimed Arthur, as 
he turned over the leaf. 

' 'Two large carrots, a spoonful of mustard, four 
chopped onions, and ■' " 

"Stop — stop!" roared Arthur. "You're muddling 
up almond souffle with Irish stew ! You've forgotten 
to cut the leaves of this blessed cookerv-book !" 



Sauerkraut, served with sausages and bacon, is said 
to be the favorite dish of the German Emperor. 



14 



THE CHEF 



POULET SAUTE CHASSEUR— POULET STEWED 

HUNTSMAN'S STYLE 



An Entree 

Perraut, Jr., Paris 



"Saute" means cooking in fat, in a shallow pan. 
Poulet Saute Chasseur, is one of those dishes which, 
when eaten in a restaurant, is found to taste better 
than that which is prepared at home, which is due 
principally to the fact that in the home kitchen there 
is oftentimes some particular thing or things left out 
by the cook which are absolutely necessary therein to 
obtain the desired taste, and the leaving out of which 
often causes a failure in obtaining the desired results. 
Therefore it is necessary to follow a recipe as directed 
or not try it at all. 

Then again, in carving a chicken to be stewed, if 
it is badly cut, when served, does not appeal to the 
eye, nor to the taste, as it is well known the eye often- 
times governs the taste. 

Again, Poulet Saute Chasseur is often confounded 
with poulet au champignons (with mushrooms), albeit 
that the principal elements of these dishes are the same. 
The difference is quite apparent, particularly to the 
epicure. 

In Poulet Saute Chasseur the mushrooms are 
browned in the fat of the saute or stew, and the condi- 
ments used are shallots, tomato, cognac, etc., while in 
poulet au champignons it is simply a chicken stew to 
the sauce of which is added mushrooms. 

Then again, in restaurants and the kitchens of 
wealthy homes, there is always found on hand sauces 
or gravies, being the extract of cooked meats, which 
is a foundation for sauces of the particular meat to 
be cooked. 

Therefore, to take the place of these sauces which 
are not already prepared and to be found in the com- 
mon household, we give herewith a recipe which will 
tend to give such results as will be satisfactory. 

The following are the proportions required for six 

persons : 

i Poulet weighing about 2 lbs. 

54 lb. of fresh mushrooms. 

I ounce of shallots (about 3 medium sized). 

i small liquor glass cognac (burned). 

1 gill white wine. 

y 2 pint of veal juice, or bouillon instead. 

2 tablespoonsful of tomato juice. 

1 teaspoonful of chervil and taragon, chopped fine, 
i pinch of parsley, coarsely chopped. 

1 i teaspoonful of flour. 

2 ounces of butter. 

2?4 tablespoonsful of olive oil. 
Salt and pepper to suit. 

Time necessary to cook, 35 to 40 minutes. 

Attention is called to the following: 

1st. Tomato, shallot, chervil, taragon, are the spe- 
cial condiments used in all preparations made and 
called "a la chausseur," or Huntsman style, and there- 
fore none of these can or must be omitted. 



2d. The veal juice herein mentioned to be used is 
preferable to bouillon, as it always combines better 
with chicken, and it is very easily prepared, it being 
sufficient for the purpose to use the veal trimmings or 
small scraps thereof which, being browned in a little 
fat on a slow fire and to which is added a small onion 
and carrot cut in small pieces, cover with about a pint 
of hot water and let it cook slowly until it is reduced 
to the quantity desired, from which remove the fat, 
and you have a good veal juice. 

3d. The oil indicated for the cooking is indispens- 
able, because it can stand the heat necessary without 
burning, while butter alone would turn black, smell of 
burned meat and would give a bad taste to the prepa- 
ration. 

4th. Remember that the characteristics of a well- 
stewed or sauted poulet is the perfect browning of the 
meat, which should be done to a dark brown, and 
further the poulet should be completely cooked dur- 
ing the browning thereof ; and it is here then, that the 
chicken is thoroughly cooked, on a brisk fire, without 
the addition of any liquid whatsoever, and this proceed- 
ing or operation is called "saute," be the meat veal, 
beef or mutton. 

We sum up the operations as follows : 

Clean and cut the poulet in pieces. 

Chop the parsley, shallots, chervil and taragon, set 
them so chopped on a plate in separate piles, except 
the chervil and taragon, which can be mixed. 

Take the mushrooms, wash them, clean and dry 
them, after which cut them in thin slices. 

"Saute," that is to say cook the chicken in butter 
and olive oil. Draw the casserole with the poulet on 
side of stove and add the garnishing. Replace the 
casserole with the poulet to cook with the garnishing 
for a few minutes. 

Arrange on platter at the moment of serving. 

PREPARATION AND CARVING OF THE POULET BEFORE 
COOKING 

Inasmuch as the drawing and cleaning of poultry is 
done by our butchers, we will omit the process. 

In the first place a good kitchen carving knife must 
be obtained, with a blade of about 10 inches in length. 
With a knife of this kind better and quicker work can 
be done, also have a table that sets firmly on its legs. 

Take the poulet and pass it over an alcohol flame to 
singe the pin feathers which are usually found on poul- 
try. Alcohol is preferable to paper as a flame, as it 
does not blacken the poultry ; if paper must be used, 
wash the chicken thereafter. 



THE CHEF 



*5 



Now proceed to carve the poulet the same way as 
would be carved a roasted one, that is to say, pass 
the knife between leg and the carcass and cut down 
to the articulation; turn the leg toward you in such 
a fashion to disjoint it, and with a cut of the tendon 
it will become separated from the carcass ; proceed 
likewise to detach the other leg, set both on the table 
with the cut side up and with the back of the knife 
strike a swift hard blow, thereby breaking the joint 
between the leg and second joint, which will thereby 
flatten this piece. 

Continue cutting, the same as on a roasted fowl ; 
place the knife between the second joint of the wing 
and carcass, cut straight down and it will easily be- 
come freed from the carcass. 

This leaves us with the breast or white meat only. 
This is removed carefully from both sides, and the skin 
on the edges of each piece trimmed with a kitchen 
scissors, to give it a clean cut appearance. 

The carcass is then split lengthwise through the cen- 
ter and these two pieces cut crosswise, giving thereby 
four pieces or eight pieces, including the whole. 

to "saute" the poulet. 

Before proceeding to saute the poulet chop the pars- 
ley, chervil, taragon and shallots, and clean the mush- 
rooms. However, in cooking, this can be done (by one 
efficient) after the poulet has been set to cook, care 
in the meantime being given to see that the poulet is 
not being overdone ; however, for the amateur the 
manner first mentioned is the safest. 

Take a shallow copper casserole, the inside of which 
is tinned, and which is called "sautoir," (stew pan). 
Into this put the butter (about one ounce), half of 
the olive oil (J4 tablespoonful), set on the stove to 
heat over a fairly good fire until it smokes lightly, 
then lay the pieces of poulet therein skin side down, 
and which have been previously sprinkled with salt and 
pepper. 

It is understood, of course, that each piece is laid 
one beside the other, and not too close, that the fat 
may circulate freely between each piece. Do not cover 
the casserole. 

In about five minutes raise one of the pieces with a 
fork without sticking the prongs in the meat, which 
would tend to have the juice run out, and it will be 
then seen that if the pieces are sufficiently browned 
they can be turned over, and the other side allowed to 
brown as before. 

On account of the thickness of the leg pieces, they 
will require a few more moments to brown than the 
others and it is therefore necessary to let these cook 
longer. Therefore, as soon as the wings are browned, 
remove them and set them in a soup plate, covering 
them with another, and setting them in the oven. 
Three minutes after remove the white meat and set 
this also in the covered plate. However, it must be 
seen that each piece is well browned before doing this. 



It requires about seven or eight minutes longer to 
cook the legs and pieces of the carcass. When thor- 
oughly cooked, the steam from the casserole will ap- 
pear whitish instead of a rosy tinted steam which un- 
cooked meat always emits. 

These pieces being cooked, remove them also from 
the casserole and put them with the others. It is well 
to observe here that in browning each piece, they are 
also being thoroughly cooked in the butter and oil, 
which again repeating is called "saute." Therefore, 
the poulet now being cooked, we keep the pieces warm 
as above directed until it becomes time to place them 
in the casserole containing the sauce, which we pro- 
ceed to make. 

the sauce or huntsman garnishing 

By the efficient cook as above stated the garnishing 
for the sauce can be prepared while the chicken is 
cooking; with the amateur it is better to prepare it 
after. 

First take the mushrooms, clean them thoroughly 
and dry them well ; otherwise they will be difficult to 
brown. Cut them lengthwise in thin regular slices. 
This is called "emincer." This is done by laying them 
on the table and using a moderately long thin-bladed 
knife. 

The pieces of poulet having been removed from 
the casserole the rest of the olive oil (i/4 tablespoons- 
ful) should be added therein. Heat it until it smokes 
lightly as before and throw in the sliced mushrooms, 
and allow them to become slightly browned. Then 
add the chopped shallots, and again allow the mush- 
rooms to brown a little more. This being done, re- 
move the casserole from the stove for a moment and 
remove all the fat possible that will be floating on the 
top. 

Now take the flour (1 teaspoonful) and sprinkle 
same over the mushrooms ; mix well, set the casserole 
in the oven for two or three minutes to cook the flour. 
Replace the casserole on the stove, add the cognac 
( 1 small liquor glass, which has been previously burned 
to remove the alcohol, and is done by simply lighting 
with a match while in the glass). The white wine 
(1 gill); the veal juice or bouillon {]/ 2 pint); the 
tomato juice (2 tablespoonsful) ; a little pepper, no 
salt. The veal juice or bouillon being salted, allow the 
whole to come to a boil, stirring it in the meantime 
with a wooden spoon. 

This done remove the casserole to the side of the 
stove ; cover and let the whole simmer slowly for about 
six or seven minutes, after which take the pieces of 
poulet and place them in the casserole again, and al- 
low to again simmer slowly for five or six minutes 
more, that is to say, long enough to warm the chicken 
thoroughly (care must be taken here not to allow 
boiling, which would tend to toughen the meat). The 
poulet is now ready to serve. 



i6 



THE CHEF 



TO DRESS THE PLATTER TO SERVE 

Take a round platter which is nicely warmed, in the 
center lay the two breast pieces, on each side of these 
the wings and the four pieces of the carcass; on this 
lay the two legs, crossing the ends ; on the opposite 
side to the wing ends, which are likewise crossed; 
then set the platter in the open oven, to keep warm 
only while finishing the sauce. 

FINISHING THE SAUCE 

Place the casserole on the open fire, and allow the 
sauce to boil briskly that it may become reduced to 
about iy 2 or 2 gills. Remove the casserole to the side 
of the stove, and add the chopped chervil and taragon 
mixed (1 teaspoonful) and the rest of the butter (1 
ounce). It is well to divide the butter into small 
pieces that it may melt quicker. 

Taking the casserole by the handle, shake it for a 
minute or so, allowing it to remain on the stove while 
so doing, this being done to expedite the quick melt- 
ing and mixing of the butter. Then taste it to see if 
there is sufficient seasoning. Pour the sauce over the 
poulet, over which sprinkle the chopped parsley and 
serve. 

MUTTON FRITTERS 

TO use up the remains of a leg of mutton, cut the 
meat into finger-lengths. Flavor some salad-oil 
with lemon-juice, onion-juice and pepper, and with 
this brush the meat. Next beat up an egg, season 
with a pinch of ground allspice, dip the fritters in this, 
and shape them in breadcrumbs. Fry in deep fat un- 
til a golden brown ; drain, and serve very hot. 

STUFFED CABBAGE 

Take a medium-sized, round-headed cabbage, par- 
. boil it and allow it to cool. 

Then slightly open out its leaves and insert between 
them raw or cooked mince meat, which has been 
seasoned with chopped onion and parsley, salt and 
pepper. 

After which reconstruct the cabbage, wrap l / 2 dozen 
pieces of bacon around it and tie it. 

Braise it gently for 3 hours, basting it often. 

When ready to serve drain the cabbage from the 
gravy, remove the string and bacon, set the cabbage 
on a platter and cover it with the gravy, which in the 
meantime has been allowed to reduce and become 
thickened. 

LYONNAISE POTATOES 

Slice peeled plain-boiled potatoes in round slices, 
and place them in a frying-pan containing half 
butter and, half lard, which has been allowed to melt. 
To this add one onion which has been sliced fine and 
which has been browned in another pan ; add them 
to the potatoes, allow them to cook together for about 
10 minutes and serve with chopped parsley over top. 



BREAD, BREAD, BREAD! 

THE great rise in the price of bread, consequent 
upon the market machinations of the American 
"Wheat King," made people think a bit. Each coun- 
try has its own kind of bread, and it would be worth 
considering whether, in such times of emergency, it 
would not be possible to substitute one of these. 

There is cassava bread, for instance, eaten in Brazil 
and Paraguay. For convenience in baking, it is al- 
ways made in thin, wafer-like cakes, and, taken with 
coffee, is the staple diet of the natives. 

The Norwegians have a peculiar hard-tack bread of 
unmilled rye. The rye-grains are soaked, mashed by 
pounding, then lightly baked in circular, plate-like 
discs, about 12 in. in diameter, and % in. thick. 
In its centre is a hole, and it is stored by packing 
away oh thin poles. 

The Italians have a nearly similar disc-like, hole- 
centred bread, known as macaroni "pene duro," of a 
light-yellow color, brittle and with a glutinous taste. 

Blackest of all breads is "pelt brod," of Lapland, 
northern Scandinavia. Russia, and the far north of 
Siberia. It is a kind of rye-bread, and is regarded 
as highly nourishing — as, indeed, it must be, when 
reindeer sleigh-parties subsist on it and unsweetened 
brick-tea for weeks together, with an occasional dish 
of fish. 

20 CENTS A DAY FOR FOOD 

Harvard Professor Says It Is Enough for a Workingman 

BOSTON, Mass., Jan. 20. — Arguing that a work- 
ingman can easily live on 20 cents a day and avoid 
meat, Dr. Franklin White, Harvard's expert on dietet- 
ics, to-day said : 

"It is not only possible to live on 20 cents a day, 
but to do it would result in better health. People are 
complaining of the high cost of food, but it seems as 
if most of us forget the really cheap food. Take 
cornmeal, for example, which costs 3 cents a pound. 
A third of a pound, or a cent's worth, of cornmeal will 
make a large quantity of mush, probably more than 
the average appetite demands. With oleomargarine 
and some cheap syrup it makes a satisfying, nourish- 
ing meal. Two cents' worth of syrup would give the 
sugar element. A man could do hard labor on such 
a meal, the entire cost of which would be about 4 
cents. 

"Another cheap basis for a full meal is the potato. 
To be sure, the potato by itself is not appetizing 
enough, but a man can use boiled potatoes and get 
his flavor from smoked herring. It is not generally 
appreciated, I fear, that a herring is a better value for 
one's money in flavor and food value than is a more 
expensive fish, such as cod. A herring can be pur- 
chased for a cent, and in some places herrings are 
sold at two for a cent. As for the flavor, a couple of 
herrings with boiled potatoes, oleomargarine and salt 
will make the meal really appetizing." 






THE CHEF 



17 



BANANA RICE CUSTARD A LA ELEANOR 



This dessert is neither difficult or complicated to 
prepare ; only care should be given in its preparation 
that the best results may be obtained. 

This most delicious dessert is composed of bananas, 
apricot jelly, rice (flavored with vanilla) and whipped 
cream. 

The whole can be prepared quite some time before 
using, which is always an advantage to the cook. At 
any rate, the rice must be ready at least three hours 
before using, or even earlier, as long as it is there- 
after kept in a cool place. 

One of its advantages are that no ice is necessary 
in its preparation, but simply serve it cold, which in 
this season is not very difficult. 

The rice and fruit being prepared separately, are 
combined only when about to be served. 

However, let it be here understood that any other 
fruit and jellies may be used with the rice if desired ; 
for instance, pineapple which is very agreeable, instead 
of bananas. 

The following are the proportions for eight or ten 
persons : 

6 ounces best rice. 

2 ounces best butter. 
iJ/2 pints milk. 

3 ounces block sugar. 

4 ounces powdered sugar. 

1 J/2 gills of thick sweet cream. 

4 egg yolks. 

y 2 ounce gelatine. 

I small piece of vanilla bean, or extract. 

Proportions necessary in preparing the fruit: 

6 or 8 medium size bananas. 
V/z gills of water. 
6 ounces of block sugar. 
1 liquor glass of good rum. 

5 teaspoonsful of apricot jelly. 

We sum up the operation as follows : 

Bleach the rice, flavor the milk with vanilla and 
sweeten. Prepare cream custard, and allow to cool. 
Prepare mould ; whip the cream, fill the mould ; keep 
it in a cool place. When ready to serve, remove from 
the mould and set in center of dish, into the center of 
which pour the fruit. 

HOW TO PREPARE THE RICE 

It needs about x l / 2 hours in its preparation. There- 
fore, it is well to prepare this part of the dessert first, 
after which it must be allowed to cool for about three 
hours. 

In the first place it is necessary to use the best rice, 
for the reason that in cooking it does not crack. 
Therefore, there would be no economy in purchasing 
a cheaper grade, which would tend only to spoil suc- 
cessful results. 

In preparing the rice place in a two-quart size 
casserole (a copper casserole is preferable), with suf- 



ficient cold water to cover the rice. Place on a mod- 
erate fire, and permit to boil slowly for about five 
minutes. (This is called bleaching the rice.) 

Thereupon pour the rice in a colander, and let cold 
water run over it until it is cooled. (This is termed 
refreshing the rice.) Drain it well, in fact, spread it 
on a cloth which will tend to absorb all the moisture. 

PREPARING THE MILK WITH VANILLA 

While the rice is bleaching and being drained, set 
the milk to boil, having measured sufficient thereof, to 
allow for the evaporation, so that the quantity left will 
be the quantity required, to wit, i} 2 pints. 

As soon as it has boiled, and while still boiling, add 
the vanilla ; cover the pot, and remove from the stove. 
If the vanilla bean is used for flavoring, allow the bean 
to remain in the milk for about 15 minutes. 

COOKING THE RICE 

Replace the rice in the casserole, add the 3 ounces of 
block sugar ; of the flavored milk add only 1 pint 
thereof and a pinch of salt. 

Set on stove, and when it comes to a boil, add the 
butter (2 ounces), cover the casserole, remove on side 
of stove to simmer very slowly. In that manner the 
liquid will penetrate the rice, absorbing the milk, and 
swelling the kernels of rice. 

Otherwise, should the rice be allowed to boil quickly 
it would not cook the rice any quicker, but would tend 
to evaporate the milk before the rice was ready to 
absorb it, and which would therefore require adding 
more milk. 

(It is small matters that destroy the value of recipes, 
and discourage a cook, who does not follow details. 
Follow proportions and directions and you obtain re- 
sults.) 

The casserole may also be placed in the oven if de- 
sired, and the rice therein will, with heat all around it, 
cook even better, and the liquid will be absorbed better 
also. 

Should the oven be too hot, in that case have the 
oven door open or partly open, in fact any way, as 
long as the rice in cooking does not more than simmer 
slowly. 

It is expressly directed that as soon as the rice has 
begun to boil, not to touch or stir it with either a 
spoon or fork ; in other words, do not touch it. 

Time necessary to cook the rice is about 35 to 40 
minutes. 

However, judgment must be used. It has reached 
the desired point when upon being pressed between 
the fingers the kernel is absolutely soft. 

It will be found if these directions are properly fol- 
lowed, that when the rice is cooked, that each and 
every kernel will be separable from each other. 



i8 



THE CHEF 



PREPARING THE CREAM CUSTARD 

In a small casserole place the (4 ounces) powdered 
sugar with the 4 egg yolks. 

Mix the whole with a wooden spoon until it appears 
like a mayonnaise, and has a pale yellow tint. To this 
add little by little the ]/ 2 pint of milk, that is left and 
which has been kept warm, stirring same continually 
as it is being added. 

Set on a slow fire, continuing the stirring until it 
begins to thicken slightly, to a degree where it ad- 
heres to the spoon. 

Due to the fact that there being but a small quantity 
of milk and a larger proportion of egg, much care 
must be exercised that this cream does not boil, as in 
that case the eggs would curdle. 

Therefore, it necessitates placing the casserole over 
a slow fire, and stirring continually with the wooden 
spoon, against the sides and bottom of the casserole. 

For the amateur cook, it would be well to add a 
teaspoonful of cornstarch when mixing the eggs with 
the sugar before setting on the stove ; this will pre- 
vent curdling should the mishap of boiling take place. 
This is absolutely not necessary as a binder to thicken 
the custard, but simply to protect the eggs from curd- 
ling, and neither will it have any action to destroy the 
flavor of the custard. 

As soon as the custard adheres to the spoon add the 
gelatine (1 ounce), which a few minutes before must 
have been soaked in water to soften it. After the 
gelatine is well dissolved in the cream, which is done 
by stirring, remove from stove, and strain it through 
a linen cloth into a bowl. To avoid becoming lumpy, 
stir it frequently until ready to mix with the rice. 

PREPARING THE WHIPPED CREAM 

It is necessary in the first place to have sweet, thick 
cream (1 gill), which must be kept on the ice or in a 
very cool place until ready to use. 

Pour it into a deep dish, and with an egg beater com- 
mence by beating it very slowly, without removing the 
beater from the cream each time it is beaten. 

Inasmuch as cream when beaten doubles in amount, 
1 gill will give l / 2 pint of whipped cream. 

However, discontinue beating the cream when you 
see that the wires of the beater leave their impression, 
otherwise you risk beating it into butter, particularly 
if it is cream over 24 hours old. 

THE MOULD 

Procure a crown shape mould of a size to contain 
about 1 quart, and having a diameter of about 8 
inches. Oil the interior of the mould carefully with 
oil of sweet almonds, using a small brush therefor. 

MIXING THE CUSTARD, WHIPPED CREAM AND RICE, AND 
THE MOULDING THEREOF 

The rice having been cooked as directed above pour 
it into a terrine, and with a fork stir it carefully to 
separate the kernels without crushing them. Then pro- 



ceed to add the custard which should be cool, at any 
rate not more than lukewarm, and mix gently. 

When mixed add the whipped cream, which should 
be laid on the rice, and with a confectioner's knife mix 
it most gently to preserve the lightness of the cream. 

This being completed use a large spoon and proceed 
to place the mixture in the mould, striking the mould 
frequently to settle the contents. When filled, set it 
aside in a cool place for three hours, or set it in the 
ice-box for two hours. 

WHEN READY TO SERVE 

Reverse the crown shaped mould containing the rice 
on to a round platter; if the mould has been carefully 
oiled the contents will become disengaged without 
effort, otherwise strike the mould gently. 

PREPARING THE BANANAS 

Pick out 6 or 8 nice bananas not over ripe, nor over 
large, a medium-sized banana being the best, having 
the finest pulp ; before peeling commence to prepare 

THE SYRUP 

which must be thoroughly cool before adding the fruit. 
In a small casserole containing water {\y 2 gills) add 
the block sugar (6 ounces) and let the same dissolve; 
when dissolved set the casserole on the stove, and 
allow same to cook for 3 minutes after it has begun 
to boil ; thereupon take the bananas and after peeling 
same, cut them with a silver plated knife into slices 
about y± inch thick, and place them into a small deep 
dish, over which pour the syrup, which must be cold, 
and from time to time shake the dish that the syrup 
may soak into the fruit; set this aside in a cool place 
until the moulded rice is ready to serve. 

BEFORE SERVING 

Take 3 teaspoonsful of apricot jelly and strain through 
a fine strainer, forcing the jelly through with a 
wooden pestle or a spoon, into a bowl ; to this add the 
syrup which is in the dish containing the bananas, 
leaving the bananas remain therein. 

In a bowl containing the apricot jelly and syrup 
add the rum (a small liquor glass), stirring with a 
silver spoon. 

Place each of these dishes, that containing the ba- 
nanas and that containing the jelly and syrup, in a 
cool place until ready to use. 

SERVING THE DESSERT 

The moulded rice having been placed on a round 
platter, proceed with a spoon and lay the slices of 
bananas in the center of the crown ; the syrup that re- 
mains in the dish from which the bananas have been 
removed is poured into the bowl containing the apricot 
jelly and syrup and mixed with it, and the whole is 
poured upon the sliced bananas which have been laid 
in the crown. Care should be taken in doing this, as 
it would spoil the appearance to have the syrup dropped 
upon the rice. 



THE CHEF 



19 



A DELICIOUS, SIMPLE AND QUICKLY 
PREPARED DESSERT 

Line a glass dish with slices of oranges and bananas, 
sprinkle with sugar, and over them when ready to 
serve, pour a soft boiled custard. 

QUEEN CAKES FOR TEA 

AN ENGLISH DESSERT. 
4 oz. butter. 
4 oz. granulated sugar. 
4 oz. currants. 
3 eggs. 

l / 2 lemon rind, grated. 
1 teaspoonful baking-powder. 
8 oz. of flour. 

Beat the butter to a cream, adding the 3 egg yolks 
thereto, and then add the sugar, currants, lemon-rind, 
baking-powder and flour. 

Beat the white of the eggs to a stiff froth, which is 
added to the above. 

Grease either gem or muffin pans ; one-half fill them, 
bake in oven for 20 minutes. 

PRESERVED WHOLE ORANGES 

TO preserve oranges whole, take twelve of the 
Seville variety, and prick them all over with a 
long needle. Then place them in strong salt-and- 
water for twenty-four hours, and afterwards boil 
them gently until tender. Boil five pints of water and 
four pounds of lump sugar for thirty minutes, then 
add the oranges and boil for an hour. Place the or- 
anges in a stout jar, pour the syrup over them, and 
cover with paper till next day, when syrup must be 
boiled again and repoured on. This syrup re-boiling 
must be performed regularly every day for a week. 
Finally, let them stand for a week and boil up the 
syrup again. The process is then complete, and the 
contents of the jar ready for use. If well corked 
down they will keep for a considerable period. 

LA MEUNIERE BUTTER SAUCE 

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a sauce-pan over a 
slow fire and let the butter acquire a very light brown 
or golden tint. Thereupon add a few drops of lemon 
juice, and pour this over fried or baked fish when very 
hot. This is one of the best fish sauces known. 



"Yes," said Airs. Higson to the lady caller, "our 
little four-year-old Freddy is a great comfort and help 
to me. Why, he takes care of his baby sister as well 
as any nurse. He's in the next room now playing 
with her. Freddy !" 

"Yeth, ma." 

"Are you taking care of little sister?" 

"Yeth, ma." 

"What are you doing?" 

"Oh, I'se playin' I'se a barber, that's all. And I'se 
shavin' her wif papa's razor." 



HOLLANDAISE SAUCE 

For one pint of sauce use three-fourth pound butter, 
the yolk of three eggs, pinch of gray pepper, pinch of 
salt, one and one-half tablespoonfuls of vinegar. 

Put the salt, pepper and vinegar with one and one- 
half tablespoonfuls of water in a small sauce-pan, and 
by boiling reduce it to about three-fourths the quan- 
tity, this being done set the sauce-pan to the side of 
stove, add a spoonful of cold water and the egg yolks, 
stir the whole with a wooden spoon until the yolks 
thicken to the consistency of cream, then gradually 
add the butter, which has been melted, while briskly 
stirring the sauce. By this time it should be firm ; if 
not, add a few drops of water. While still stirring 
finish the sauce by adding three or four drops of lemon 
juice, 

MAYONNAISE SAUCE 
Put the yolks of three raw eggs in a bowl, season 
with about one-half ounce of salt, the least bit of 
cayenne pepper, pour one gill of vinegar gradually on 
the eggs while beating them briskly. After the vine- 
gar is well beaten with the eggs add about one pint of 
olive oil very slowly, in fact, allow it to run into the 
bowl as slowly as possible, stirring the whole thor- 
oughly and continually until all the oil has been beaten 
in, add the juice of one-half a lemon. By the addition 
of a spoonful of hot water the sauce will be prevented 
from curdling, allow to rest in a cool place for about 
15 minutes before using. 

DUMPLING AND PUDDING PASTE 

Take about 8 ounces of beef suet chopped fine. 

Sift 1 pound of flour onto the mixing-board, hollow 
it out, and place therein ]A ounce of salt, i l / 2 pounds 
of sugar, Yi pint of water and the chopped suet. 

Mix the various ingredients, and by degrees com- 
bine the flour with them. 

Mass the paste together, without kneading it, and 
put it aside in a cool place until ready to serve. 

BECHAMEL SAUCE 

Put about two ounces of butter in a sauce-pan over 
a slow fire, and when melted add about two ounces of 
flour which is stirred and mixed with a wooden spoon. 
Mix well, but do not allow it to brown ; then pour 
about one quart of milk into the sauce-pan, mixing it 
thoroughly so as to avoid lumping, then let it come to 
a boil. 

In the meanwhile about two ounces of lean veal 
should have been cut in small pieces and set in another 
sauce-pan and fried in butter, together with a minced 
onion. After the veal has fried so as to appear dried 
without being browned, it is added to the sauce in the 
other sauce-pan, and to this is added a pinch of salt, 
one of pepper, one of nutmeg and one small sprig of 
thyme. Let the whole stew slowly for about one hour, 
pass it through a fine strainer into a gravy-dish. 

During Lent omit the veal. 



20 



THE CHEF 



QUEER FOODS USED IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES 

SOME EPICURES LIKE PARROTS 

Rats, Dogs, Snakes and Lizards' Eggs May Be Eaten by the Unsophisticated Traveler Who Is Not Vigilant 



THE list of queer foods eaten in different part of 
the world reminds us very forcibly that one man's 
meat is another man's poison. The intercourse be- 
tween nations leads very often to the adoption by one 
of another's favorite dish. Thus snails, always so 
popular in France, no longer offend the American 
palate, but, indeed, are relished highly and eaten bv 
many persons in this country. Why they should be 
rejected by the man who likes oysters is truly a mys- 
tery. 

The Medical Register names some of the articles of 
diet which are popular among various people. 

In Canton, rats sell for fifty cents a dozen, and dogs' 
hind-quarters command a higher price than lamb or 
mutton. Fancy eating birds' nests worth thirty dol- 
lars a pound ! This is what a mandarin revels in. 

In the West Indies baked snake is a common dish, 
where the reptiles abound, and it is a good way of 
getting rid of them. But when it comes to frying 
palm-worms in fat, one would think the stomach 
would rebel. It is not so, however, though, by a 
strange inconsistency, stewed rabbit is looked upon 
with disgust. 

On the Pacific Coast the Digger Indians eat dried 
locusts, and in the Argentine Republic skunk flesh is 
a dainty. 

Our own favorite bivalve, the oyster, is very dis- 
gusting to a Turk, while the devil-fish, eaten in Cor- 
sica, is equally so to us. 

We cannot understand, either, how the inhabitants 
of the West Indies and the Pacific Coast can eat liz- 
ards' eggs with a relish ; still less, how the eggs of 
the turtle and alligator can become a favorite article 
of diet. 

The Brazilians eat ants, probably to get rid of them, 
for they literally infest the country, and are of an 
enormous size. 

Parrots are eaten in Mexico, while roasted spiders 
are considered a delicacy in the New Caledonians. 
Silk-worms are found delicious by the Chinese. Ca- 
terpillars are to the African like reed-birds on toast, 
and bees are eaten regularly by the Sinhalese. 

Geophagy, or the habit of earth-eating, is men- 
tioned in the Medical Nctvs as being very widespread. 
Stone butter is a fine clay used upon bread in place 
of butter in many parts of Germany. Earth is baked 
in bread in the northern part of Sweden and on the 
peninsula of Kola. It is also sold in the open market 
in Sardia and in parts of Italy, while the Persians use 
it in the manufacture of sweetmeats. 

In Nubia it is used as a medicine and to many primi- 
tive tribes its use has also a religious meaning. The 
habit is general over almost all of India, and the grav 



or drab-colored shale, which is the favorite in north- 
ern India, and which is excavated mostly at M'eth in 
Bikanir, is exported to the Punjab at the rate of two 
thousand camel loads a year. 

In different districts different varieties of clay are 
eaten, but if the natives have at one time a taste for 
a special kind of mud, as the habit increases the de- 
praved appetite soon becomes satisfied with bricks and 
broken pots. White ant soil, with the nests and ants 
themselves, is a great delicacy. 

The reasons given for indulging in the habit are 
classified under the following heads: i. A peculiar 
fascinating odor and taste in the clay, rendering it 
a delicacy. 2. An unnatural craving due to disease. 
3. To satisfy hunger. 4. Force of example. 5. Sup- 
posed medicinal virtues. 

A university graduate confessed to a friend that the 
bland earthy odor was a great temptation to him, and 
the thought of it made his mouth water. 

Probably the most remarkable of all appetites is the 
alleged Mexican taste for dynamite. The story has 
not been verified, but it was published by a reputable 
New York daily newspaper which is not usually 
classed with "yellow" publications. The taste is con- 
fined to a certain Mexican locality where the people 
break off the explosive, roll it into a pill, dissolve it in 
a glass of mescal and drink the liquor, the result be- 
ing a delightful and vision-engendering intoxication. 

POINTS IN PHILOSOPHY 

The fatted calf never thinks kindly of the black 
sheep. 

But for our troubles we wouldn't be able to appre- 
ciate happiness. 

No one admires yet envies sincerity so much as the 
confirmed hypocrite. 

On the sea of matrimony, Cupid doesn't always go 
with the "tied." 

Even when a man proves himself a woman's supe- 
rior she doesn't believe it. 

The man who depends upon luck will soon have 
nothing else to depend upon. 

We blame Providence for our poverty, but give 
ourselves the credit for our wealth. 



First Male Thing. — "I threw a kiss to a girl the 

other day." 

Second Male Thing. — "What did she say, then?" 
First Male Thing. — "She told me that I was the 

laziest man she ever saw." 



A shoal of herrings is sometimes five or six miles 
long and two or three miles broad. 



THE CHEF 



21 



COAL EIGHTY DOLLARS A TON 

How a Federal Cruiser, During the Civil War, Ran Out of Fuel in the South Atlantic, and 

Had to Pay a Fancy Price for a Supply 



THE value of coaling-stations in war-time is 
something that the American navy has not often 
had a chance to learn from actual experience. Dur- 
ing the Civil War, however, there were times when 
the commanders of Federal cruisers discovered what 
it means to be dependent upon casual purchases for 
the fuel that is the very life of a modern steam fleet. 

Among the naval traditions which have not risen 
to the dignity of written history there is one that re- 
counts an adventure of the U. S. S. Vanderbilt, one 
of the old side-wheel steamers impressed into the 
government service and sent out in pursuit of the 
Confederate commerce-destroyers. After a long cruise 
in the south Atlantic, she made the tiny island of St. 
Helena. Here she had to stop, for her bunkers were 
just about empty. Fortunately, a wharf was in sight 
from the deck as she dropped anchor, loaded with the 
desired coal. 

It was a welcome sight to the worried commander. 
He breathed easier, and thought, no doubt, that he 
had come upon a windfall. Coal-heaps could not be 
found, in those days, at every landing-place in out-of- 
the-way seas. It seemed almost as if the supply had 
been held specially for the use of the Yankee tars. 
This supposition, moreover, turned out the exact 
truth, in a sense that gave the Vanderbilt's captain 
something of a surprise. 

A boat was immediately lowered away and rowed 
straight to the wharf where the coal was stored. An 
officer stepped ashore. He found a sandy-headed 
Scotsman sitting near the heap of fuel, and reading 
an old newspaper. The man said that His coal was 
for sale, and the officer asked the price. He was not 
in a mood to sit down and spend time dickering, but 
the owner's answer staggered him. 

"Thirty dollars a ton, sir." 

As the price of gold in Federal paper money was 
then about two dollars and eighty-five cents, the quo- 
tation meant that the coal would cost Uncle Sam, in 
his greenback currency, more than eighty dollars a 
ton. The officer spent some time trying to beat down 
the seller, but it was no use. The Scotsman was 
firm. The bargain was broken off, the dealer — per- 
fectly friendly, though firm — insisting that while he 
hoped that the North would win, he had been hold- 
ing that coal there a long time, waiting for an Amer- 
ican vessel, and, as the owner of the only supply on 
hand, he intended to take what he considered a fair 
profit. 

The commander of the Vanderbilt denounced the 
price as outrageous. "Up anchor!" was the order; 
and, firing up with part of the few tons of coal that 
remained, the ship put out from the harbor. The Scot 



was still on his wharf, reading his newspaper, as be- 
fore. If weighing anchor was tried as a bluff, it had 
not stirred him. A few hours proved that he had no 
need to fear losing his prize. 

Contrary weather blew up, and the Vanderbilt was 
soon flung back into the port that she had so recently 
left, now with the last bushel of fuel gone. She was 
at the mercy of the financier of the coal heap, but he 
did not raise his price, nor did he lower it. The Van- 
derbilt took a round thousand tons at thirty dollars, 
gold, per ton. 

If a sandy-haired Scot returned to his native town 
soon after, a made man for the rest of his life, and a 
source of wonder to home-keepers who had never been 
out into the world we know that the lucky individual 
won his gains less unfairly than some larger capital- 
ists. Moreover, he had incidentally given the United 
States government a practical and valuable lesson. 

FIRST AID TO THE NEEDY 

Hints for the New Year 

When a man rushes into your office hurriedly and 
says : — 

"By Jingo, Dawson, I hate to speak of it, but I 
need $100 like the very old dickens to-day !" 

Answer. — "What a singular coincidence, Binks ; I 
do, too!" 

When the lovely young maiden to whom you have 
been paying court for months shakes her head violently 
and says : — ■ 

"No, Mr. Blithers, I cannot imagine any circum- 
stances under which I could be induced to marry you." 

Answer. — "Thanks, Miss Jones — this is a great re- 
lief. I was afraid you had misconstrued my atten- 
tions, and, of course, desired to live up to my implied 
obligations." 

When you run face to face with your tailor upon 
the street and he turns a cold, beady eye upon you 
and says : — ■ 

"Excuse me, Mr. Bump, but what have you to say 
about my little bill?" 

Answer. — "I don't think I have met your little Bill, 
Mr. Shepperton. Indeed, I didn't know you had any 
children at all." 

While he is recovering from this, jump into a taxi 
and proceed to break the speed laws. 



"My wife is getting awfully strenuous." remarked 
Whiffles. "Yesterday she broke a plate over my head. 
What would you advise me to do?" 

"Well," replied Sniffles, "you might buy cast-iron 

plates." 



22 



THE CHEF 



EGGS OF EXTINCT BIRDS 

The Man Who Is Fortunate Enough to Have One 
That Is a Legacy From the Great Auk Can 
Cet $1,000 for it -There Are Only Sixty- 
Eight Now in Existence 

An original story written for The Scrap Book. 

THE eggs of extinct birds have a value to the 
scientist and collector that is enormous. 

Probably the great auk, or garefowl, is a more 
familiar name to the majority of persons than any 
other among the list of extinct birds, its eggs being 
on exhibition in several museums. According to a 
list compiled very carefully in England some years 
ago, there are in existence sixty-eight of their eggs. 

There is one at the National Museum in Washing- 
ton, which was purchased in 185 1 for about one hun- 
dred dollars. This has increased to ten times that 
value since. A private collector in North London is 
said to have paid the largest price yet given for one 
of these specimens, the amount being close to one 
thousand five hundred dollars. 

Many of these eggs have interesting stories con- 
nected with their discovery and sale. In 1879 two 
were purchased at a sale in Edinburgh for four dol- 
lars each ; they sold a little later for two thousand 
four hundred dollars. Another specimen which was 
bought for two hundred dollars went into the hands 
of an American collector for the sum of eight hun- 
dred dollars. 

The great auk lived in several parts of northern 
Europe, in Labrador, and off the southwest coast of 
Iceland, where it bred in quantities on the garefowl 
skerries. Audubon says that it was tolerably plentiful 
also in Newfoundland and about Nahant. Massachu- 
setts. It measured about three feet in length, was 
black on the back, white underneath, and had a large 
bill. Its wings were so small that they were abso- 
lutely useless for flying, though they gave a valuable 
aid to their owner while swimming. 

The eggs were about five inches long by two to 
three inches wide, and weighed about three pounds. 

The moa was a gigantic bird of New Zealand which 
probably became extinct about the time Columbus dis- 
covered America. The legends among the Maoris 
regarding them and the discovery of their remains 
first became public in 1838. One of the eggs was 
found in the grave of a Maori, where for centuries 
it had lain unbroken and perfect. It measured six and 
a half by ten and a half inches, and was greenish 
color. The value of such a find is absolutely beyond 
any price which could be put upon it. 

The bird commonly referred to as the roc was the 
sepyornis, and is sometimes confused with the moa. 
Just how long it has been extinct is not known, though 
it is not thought to have survived to the time of man. 
Its habitat was Madagascar, where many of its huge 
eggs have been exhumed from the drifting sands of 
the southern portion of the island. They are about 



nine by thirteen inches in size, or double the size of 
the eggs of an ostrich, which the aepyornis probably 
resembled. There is a specimen in the British Mu- 
seum. Like the egg of the moa, it is impossible to 
estimate the value of such a rarity, as they are not 
offered for sale and, therefore, have no market price. 

The eggs of the white booby are highly treasured 
by collectors and are very rarely seen in the salesroom, 
most of them having been acquired by museums. This 
bird lived off the coast of Newfoundland, and has long 
been extinct. The eggs are valued by authorities at 
from four hundred and fifty dollars up. 

The aptornis is another New Zealand bird which has 
become extinct within a comparatively recent time. Its 
eggs are rare and a specimen would fetch from one 
thousand dollars up, if one could be found for sale. 

BELASCO BAITED BABY 

By the Judicious Manipulation of a Stick of Candy 
the Manager Scored a Triumph of Stage Realism 

IN his early years, when David Belasco was stage 
manager and playwright of a theater in San Fran- 
cisco, he was as eager for realism in his effects as he 
is to-day. 1 le was explaining the other night to some 
friends how he once managed the "baby act/' 

A child in arms was needed for a play, and this, 
being obtained, Belasco supplied himself with a stock 
of peppermint candy. Before it was time for the in- 
fant to be carried on he held up a stick of the sweet- 
meat before its eyes, let it suck on it for an instant, 
so as to get the taste, and then withdrew the dainty. 

His next move was to pass the candy to the man 
who had most to do with the child in the piece. The 
moment of entrance arrived, the baby was carried on, 
the man, according to instructions, held up the stick of 
candy, and the infant, its lips smeared with the stuff, 
instantly stretched out its arms for more. 

"What a clever baby !" the women in the audience 
would whisper to one another. "It actually knows 
candy by sight." 

And a round of applause was the stage manager's 
reward for his trick. 

It was during this same California period that one 
of the players in the company handed Belasco, as he 
supposed, a "hot one," to use the vernacular of the 
Rialto. During rehearsals of a new piece this actor 
had to speak a line containing Biblical phraseology. 
He had trouble with it. and began to kick at the author. 

"Who wrote this thing anyhow?" he demanded. 

"Why, David, of course," he was told. "Don't you 
know ■" 

"That explains, then." he burst out. "I always said 
Dave Belasco was a punk author." 



Visiting Relative. — "How aristocratic your father 
looks with all that gray hair !" 

The Naughty Son. — "Yes, and he's got me to thank 
for it, too!" 



THE CHEF 



23 



WHO ATE ROGER WILLIAMS ? 

The Root of an Apple Tree, Like the Tentacle of a 

Mythical Monster, Invaded the Grave of the 

Founder of the Colony of Rhode Island 

and the Body Disappeared 

THE memory of Roger Williams, the founder of 
Rhode Island, was long neglected. He died in 
1683, after a long and active life, but for a long time 
his grave lay unmarked. 

In 1856 the Rev. J. H. McCarty contributed to the 
Ladies' Repository a series of articles on Roger Will- 
iams, in one of which he told the following interest- 
ing story of the discovery of the dead Puritan's grave, 
and hinted at the unconscious cannibalism of the 
neighbors. 

During a period of one hundred and eighty-three 
years not even a rough stone has been set up to 
mark the grave of the founder of Rhode Island, till 
the precise locality of his grave had been almost for- 
gotten, and could only be ascertained by the most care- 
ful investigation. Suffice it to say, however, the spot 
was found, and the exhumation was made a short 
time ago — though there was little to exhume. 

On scraping off the turf from the surface of the 
ground, the dim outlines of seven graves, contained 
within less than one square rod, revealed the burial- 
ground of Roger Williams. The easterly grave was 
identified as that of Mr. Williams. 

On digging down into the "charnel house" it was 
found that everything had passed into oblivion. The 
shapes of the coffins could only be traced by a black 
line of carcenaceous matter, the thickness of the edges 
of the sides of the coffins, with their ends distinctly 
defined. The rusted remains of the hinges and nails, 
with a few fragments of wood and a single round 
knot, was all that could be gathered from his grave. 
In the grave of his wife there was not a trace of 
anything save a single lock of braided hair which had 
survived the lapse of more than one hundred and 
eighty years. 

Near the grave stood a venerable apple-tree, when 
and by whom planted is not known. This tree had 
sent two of its main roots into the graves of Mr. 
and Mrs. Williams. 

The larger root had pushed its way through the 
earth till it reached the precise spot occupied by the 
skull of Roger Williams. There making a turn, as 
if going round the skull, it followed the direction of 
the backbone to the hips. Here it divided into two 
branches, sending one along each leg to the heel, where 
they both turned upward to the toes. 

One of these roots formed a slight crook at the 
knee, which makes the whole bear a close resemblance 
to a human form. 

There were the graves, emptied of every particle 
of human dust ! Not a trace of anything was left ! 
It is known to chemistry that all flesh, and the gelat- 
inous matter giving consistency to the bones, are re- 



solved into carbonic-acid gas, water and air, while the 
solid lime-dust usually remains. But in this case even 
the phosphate of lime of the bones of both graves was 
all gone ! There stood the "guilty apple-tree," as 
was said at the time, caught in the very act of ''rob- 
bing the grave." 

To explain the phenomenon is not the design of 
this article. Such an explanation could be given, and 
many other similar cases adduced. But this fact must 
be admitted : the organic matter of Roger Williams 
had been transmuted into the apple-tree ; it had passed 
into the woody fibre and was' capable of propelling a 
steam-engine ; it had bloomed in the apple-blossoms, 
and had become pleasant to the eye ; and more, it had 
gone into the fruit from year to year, so that the 
question might be asked, Who ate Roger Williams? 

FRENCH MILLIONAIRES OF OTHER 
CENTURIES. 

GREATER EXTRAVAGANCE TO-DAY. 

Prior to the Seventeenth Century No Frenchman 
Had an Income That Touched the Seven- 
Figure Mark. 



T 



ALES of the magnificent extravagances of 
France under the Louis's have led a wondering 
later age to think that never since has gold been lav- 
ished upon luxury with so free a hand. But a French 
writer, the Vicomte Georges d'Avenel, has taken the 
trouble to make comparisons, and he has found that 
the incomes of to-day are relatively much larger than 
they were one, two and three hundred years ago. The 
New York World has summarized from the Revue des 
Deux Mondcs M. d'Avenel's discoveries: 

For purposes of exact comparison M. d'Avenel 
estimates al fortunes and incomes of bygone times in 
terms of their equivalent value to-day, not as mere 
nominal sums. Up to the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, he shows, no one had an income of $1,000,000. 

Louis IX in the exceptional year of the crusade of 
1251 spent $775,000. After the Hundred Years' War, 
in 1450, Charles VII's budget was $212,000. In 1516 
Francis I, noted for his taste for luxury, had only 
$259,000 for his person and his court. 

Napoleon Ill's civil list amounted to $5,000,000, but 
Louis XIV had less than $4,000,000 for all expenses 
of an extravagant court. 

Richelieu and Mazarin derived tremendous incomes 
from their privileges, Mazarin leaving by will nearly 
$40,000,000 to the king, who refused it and let it pass 
to Mazarin's eight nephews and nieces. 

Except these three no persons up to the time of the 
Revolution enjoyed an income of $1,000,000, and the 
revenues of Richelieu and Mazarin were subject in 
fact to charges really connected with the state. Mme. 
de Maintenon. during the twenty years of her reign, 
received $14,000,000, but did not leave enough to pay 
her brother's debts. 

Most of the roval princesses from the thirteenth to 



24 



THE CHEF 



the fifteenth century received dowries of only about 
$130,000. The daughter of the President Jearmin, 
whose daughter had the greatest marriage of Paris 
in the latter part of the sixteenth century, received 
only $84,000. Among the nobility similar sums were 
very rare. 

The conclusion of this investigator is that the very 
rich to-day are six times as rich, or those of equal 
fortune are twelve times as many, as the richest men 
of the old regime ; and they are ten times as rich, or 
twenty times as many as the rich princes of the feudal 
period. 

CHASING THE CHEESE 

THERE are many curious customs still observed 
in connection with Whitsuntide in England. 

At Birdlip, near Cheltenham, the cheese is rolled. 
A large-sized cheese, of suitable shape is set rolling 
down a very steep hill, and the villagers pursue it. 
The prize in the race is the cheese itself, and much 
fun is caused by some of the runners involuntarily 
following its example and rolling down the hill. 

The roads and paths round Corby, a village in 
Northamptonshire, are all closed on Whit-Mondav. 
Then, any stranger passing must pay toll. Should he 
refuse, he is made to sit astride a long pole, and is 
then carried in triumph through the village. Possible 
visitors to Corby at this season will be glad to hear 
that this custom only occurs once in twenty years, the 
next date being 1913. 

In the more rural parts of England, Whit-Monday is 
a great day for match-making, the village fairs and fes- 
tivals bringing young men and maidens together. The 
day of processions, dining and general rejoicing usu- 
ally ends in an open-air dance, which gives a great 
opportunity for ambitious swains. 



Two pavement artists were boasting about how they 
could paint. 

"Do you know," said one, "I painted a quarter on 
the ground one day and a beggar nearly broke his 
fingers trying to pick it up ?" 

"That's nothing to what I did," said the other. "I 
painted a leg of mutton on a stone, and it was so real- 
like that a hungry dog ate half the stone before he 
found out his mistake." 



"Excuse me, mum," said the fashionable lady's new 
Irish cook, "but would you moind, now, if I had this 
address printed on me card?" 

"Why, not at all, Bridget." replied the fashionable 
mistress. "Of course, it is unusual, but this is your 
home now, and if you have a card it is perfectly 
proper for you to put your address on it." 

"Thank ye, mum," said Erin's brawny daughter. 
"An' I noticed ye had printed on yer cards, mum, 
'At Home on Thursdays,' Would it be proper for 
me, mum, to have printed on moine, 'Tuesdays oflf?" " 



EPIGRAMS ON WOMAN 

WOMEN are a new race, recreated since the 
world received Christianity. — Beecher. 

Woman is the Sunday of man. — Michelet. 

The best woman is the woman who is the least 
talked about. — Old Proverb. 

It is love that makes time pass, and it is time that 
makes love pass. — Old Proverb. 

We should choose a wife with our ears rather than 
with our eyes. — Old Proverb. 

The desire to please is born in women before the 
desire to love. — Ninon de l'Enclos. 

A fortress that parleys with you and a woman who 
listens to you are both ready to surrender. — French 
Proverb. 

Let a man pray that none of his womankind should 
form a just estimation of him. — Thackeray. 

There are more persons who wish to be loved than 
there are who are willing to love. — Chamfort. 

It is not easy to be a widow ; for she must resume 
all the modesty of maidenhood without being able even 
to pretend ignorance. — Mine de Girardin. 

When women have been deceived by men, they wish 
to marry them. This is as good as any other kind of 
revenge. — Beaumanoir. 

A women is seldom so tender to a man as when she 
has just deceived him. — Anonymous. 

A woman is easily managed when a man takes her 
hand in his love. — La Bruyere. 

Love your wife as you love your soul; but shake 
her as you would shake a plum-tree. — Russian Proverb. 

A short absence quickens love ; a long absence kills 
it. — Mirabeau. 

Nature is in earnest when she makes a woman. — 
O. W. Holmes. 

Women forgive injuries, but they never forget 
slights. — Haliburton. 

Women see without looking ; their husbands often 
look without seeing. — Des Noyers. 

Wherever women are honored, the gods are satis- 
fied. — Hindu Proverb. 

A woman who has given her lips has given every- 
thing. — Anonymous. 

What is civilization? I answer, the power of good 
women. — Emerson. 

Shakespeare has no heroes ; he has only heroines.— 
Ruskin. 

Love never dies of starvation, but often of indiges- 
tion. — Ninon de l'Enclos. 

A woman with whom you discuss love is always ex- 
pecting something. — Poinselot. 

There was never yet fair woman but she made 
mouths in a glass. — Shakespeare. 

The love of a bad woman kill others ; the love of a 
good woman kills herself. — George Sand. 



THE CHEF 



25 



PRINCELY SPENDTHRIFTS 

When a Man's Desires Are Reduced to the Dire Extremity of Keeping Pace With 

His Accumulation of Wealth, the Value of Money Often Plays Second 

Fiddle to the Value of Notoriety 



THE society man of all ages has amused himself 
and gained notoriety by freaks of extravagance 
of many kinds. Where there is nothing to do but 
spend money, it becomes absolutely necessary to invent 
new and startling ways of doing so, otherwise even 
this delightful occupation would grow tiresome and 
existence become a blank. 

Since the days of the extravagant Roman Empire 
there have been many famous spendthrifts, some of 
them of royal blood, and others with no shadow of 
claim to such distinction, whose fetes and entertain- 
ments have set their contemporaries' tongues wagging 
even as the tongues of the modern people are loosened 
by a mask-ball or an up-to-date dinner. 

It is probably to the Prince Potemkin that the palm 
must go for extravagant fancy. When he was travel- 
ing in the Crimea with the Empress Catherine of Rus- 
sia he caused to be passed around for dessert at dinner 
a dish full of what looked like small yellow plums, but 
which proved to be pearls. Each guest, as it was 
handed to him, helped himself with a spoon — and it 
was not a teaspoon, either. 

The above is no canard, but a historical fact, which 
is to be found chronicled in Meakin's "Travels and 
Studies in Russia," as well as in several other stand- 
ard works of a similar high character. It proves, if 
proof be needed, that extravagance of living and os- 
tentation are not the sole prerogatives of the modern 
"Smart Set," in spite of all that has recently been 
said to the contrary. 

For the instance is not an isolated one. On the 
contrary, the history of court life in Russia, as well 
as in other countries, abounds with similar incidents, 
all well authenticated. 

There is, for example, the famous case of the Comte 
d'Artois, who spent twelve million francs (approxi- 
mately two million four hundred thousand dollars) in 
entertaining the queen for a week at his chateau of 
Bagatelle. Probably more than half of this immense 
sum, however, it should be explained, was expended in 
renovating and refurnishing the chateau in anticipation 
of the queen's visit. 

LUCKY BEGGARS. 

The eccentric Charles de Rohan, tired of lavishing 
money on royalties and titled dames, collected ten 
beggars from the highways and lanes adjacent to his 
estate and entertained them for ten days in his castle 
of Rohitsch. During the whole of this time they 
fared sumptuously, and were clothed every morning in 
costly habiliments, while a series of most magnificent 
masques, tournaments and other similar revels fol- 
lowed one another in quick succession day by day. 



At the end of their visit his guests were dismissed 
with a money gift equivalent to about two thousand 
seven hundred and fifty dollars, reckoning in our cur- 
rency and allowing for the difference in the value of 
money then and now. They also bore away with them 
the whole of the beautiful costumes they had been 
wearing, together with the jeweled buckles, buttons, 
etc., that adorned them. 

The cost of this exhibition of freak hospitality was 
colossal, but its effect was to make De Rohan the most- 
talked-about man in Europe for the time being ; and 
this, he is said to have declared, more than repaid him 
for his outlay. 

One unwritten law the smart sets of days gone by 
adhered to strictly, which was that, while it was good 
form to flaunt one's wealth in the faces of one's fellow 
men, it was unpardonable not to affect a profound in- 
difference about money as money. 

KING OF SPENDTHRIFTS. 

Thus, that king of spendthrifts, the Prince de Sou- 
bise, consistently declined to have so vulgar a thing 
even mentioned in his presence, and quarreled with 
one of his most intimate friends for disregarding his 
wishes in this respect. Yet he once lavished no less 
than one million two hundred thousand dollars on a 
single fete ; and another time he laid out four hundred 
thousand dollars on entertaining Louis XV one day 
and overnight in his country-house near Versailles. 
On this latter occasion it was the king himself who 
was the offender. 

"I hear," said his majesty to his host, who owed 
millions, "that you are in debt." 

The prince frowned, then yawned ostentatiously, 
and it was only after a lapse of several seconds that 
he deigned to reply. 

"I shall inquire of my steward and inform your ma- 
jesty," was his very leisurely reply. 

At another fete, given about the same time by the 
pleasure-loving Prince de Conti, a lady won a ring in 
a danse des dames. Knowing her host's reputation as 
a libertine, and fearful of raising the whisper of scan- 
dal against her fair fame, she stipulated that it should 
not be jeweled. 

The prince promised ; but, while keeping to the let- 
ter of his pledge, he broke it in spirit, for he caused 
to be mounted in the ring a miniature portrait of him- 
self, over which, in place of ordinary glass, was a large 
diamond ground very thin. This the lady promptly 
returned ; whereupon the prince had it ground to pow- 
der, which he used to dry the ink of the note he wrote 
her on the subject. 



26 



THE CHEF 



A CHEERFUL DIAMOND-LOSER. 

Nor must it be supposed that similar ostentatious- 
ness in extravagance was unknown in Britain during 
these same periods. 

The "great" Duke of Buckingham, as is well known, 
delighted in covering himself from head to foot in 
diamonds and other precious gems, and these he wore 
so loosely attached to his clothing that in dancing they 
frequently, many of them, became detached and rolled 
upon the ballroom floor, to be there scrambled for by 
the gay ladies who thronged the court of the Merry 
Monarch. 

At a later date the immensely wealthy William Beck- 
ford, famed as the author of "Vathek," made the 
smart set of his day and generation mad with envy 
by his extravagance and ostentation. The stories told 
of him in this respect are innumerable, and many of 
them are most probably apocryphal. But one, at 
least, is certainly true ; that, namely, which relates to 
his bizarre attempt to build upon his Fonthill estates 
a duplicate of what he fancifully imagined Aladdin's 
palace — as described in "The Arabian Nights' Enter- 
tainment" — to have looked like. 

Marble, porphyry, jade, lapis lazuli, gold, silver, 
ivory, ebony — everything, in fact, that is most costly 
in building and decorative material — were used in the 
erection of this gorgeous specimen of freak architec- 
ture. Many wild tales were told of the barbaric 
splendor of its interior furnishing and fittings; but 
Beckford kept curiosity very keenly alive by denying 
admission to everybody. 

Then, when at last the public grew weary of the 
subject, its owner set all the fashionable world agog 
again by announcing its sale by auction. Never be- 
fore or since was excitement so keen in such con- 
nection. Eight thousand catalogues at five dollars 
apiece were disposed of. 

The sale, which lasted thirty-three days, was at- 
tended by more than one hundred thousand people, 
most of whom had to camp out in tents, as there was 
no accommodation anywhere near for anything like 
that number. The gross sum realized for the build- 
ing and its contents was one million six hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, about one-third of what it 
cost. 

GOOD BUTTONS MADE OF POTATOES 

Only Experts Can Detect the Difference Between 

Bits of Bone and Ivory and Chemically 

Treated Pieces of the Homely Tuber 

DO you button your clothes with potatoes ? 
Well, well, well, there's no use in getting ex- 
cited about it ! No offense was intended, and the 
question is not as impertinent as it appears. Thou- 
sands of persons button their clothes with potatoes. 

A large number of the buttons now in use, purport- 
ing to be made out of horn or bone or ivory, are in 



reality made out of the common potato, which, when 
treated with certain acids, becomes almost as hard as 
stone. 

This quality of the potato adapts it to button-mak- 
ing, and a very good grade of button is now made 
from this tuber. 

The potato button cannot be distinguished from 
others save by a careful examination, and even then 
only by an expert, since they are colored to suit the 
goods on which they are to be used, and are every 
whit as good-looking as a button of bone or ivory. 

CAMELS ARE OUTDONE BY OTHER 
ABSTAINERS 

Rivals of the "Ship of the Desert" Make Him Look 

Like a Heavy Drinker When Comparisons Are 

Indulged in 

WHILE the camel has been receiving all the glory 
and advertisement for its remarkable abstinence 
from liquid refreshment, there have been other crea- 
tures living in obscurity which, in comparison, make 
the "ship of the desert" look like a heavy drinker. 

There are sheep in the southwestern deserts, for in- 
stance, which go from forty to sixty days in winter 
without drink, grazing on the green, succulent vege- 
tation of that season. Peccaries in the desert of So- 
nora live in little dry hills where there is no natural 
water for long periods. They cannot possibly find wa- 
ter, in fact, for months at a time. The only moisture 
they can obtain comes from roots and the fruits of 
cacti. 

But the most extraordinary case is that of the pocket 
mouse, one of the common rodents of the desert. 

This little creature, by the way, has a genuine fur- 
lined "pocket" on the outside of its cheek. When it 
is hungry it takes food from this pocket with its paws. 

OUR LANGUAGE ONLY TRULY 
DEFINES HOME 

The Sentiment and Ideas Which It Expresses 
Are Lost in Other Countries' Substitutes 

IN no cither language, according to the London Tele- 
graph, is there a word expressing the ideas and as- 
sociations which are aroused at the sound of the 
simple yet heart-touching word "home." A Frenchman 
once translated Cardinal Newman's hymn, "Lead, 
Kindlv Light," and in his hands the beautiful line, 
"The night is dark, and I am far from home." became 
"La nuit est sombre, et je suis loin de mon foyer," the 
translator having been obliged to use for home the 
French word which describes hearth. 

The Italian and Spanish "casa," the German "haus" 
— their "heim" is too general to have any particular 
value — and the Russian "doma," all refer to a build- 
ing of some kind or other, and have none of the 
memories and associations that cluster round the 
precious British word. 



THE CHEF 



27 



PURSUIT OF A HUSBAND BY THE MODERN 

WOMAN 

After All, Says the New York Times, It Is Doubtless Better for Man to be Chosen Than 

for Him to Choose 



TAKING up a discussion inaugurated by the St. 
James Gazette, of London, the New York Times 
says what it has to say on the subject of choosing 
wives. 

v The English paper said frankly that the title would 
better be, "The Choice of a Husband," inasmuch as 
the male, though unaware of the fact, is generally 
not the pursuer, but the pursued. This condition, 
however, is by no means to the discredit of woman. 

As the Times remarks, "A young woman whose in- 
tentions are both serious and honorable has nothing 
at all to be ashamed of in endeavoring by all womanly 
means to acquire the man whom she believes she can 
make happy and knows that she means to try to." 

In America and England there is objection to the 
man who marries for any other reason than being in 
love. Yet the mariage de coin enance is not altogether 
without legitimate recommendations. To quote the 
Times: 

If one is really bent on making a marriage of rea- 
son instead of waiting for a "call," excellent recipes 
may be given to him. 

A wise man once advised his son, who had shown 
some disposition to choose instead of waiting to be 
chosen, to "look for a good woman's daughter." It 
would be hard to find any better basis for a happy 
union. 

In general, of course, mixed marriages, whether the 
mixture be of religion or of country, would be viewed 
by a wise adviser with apprehension, although Lord 
Curzon's experience is only one of very many as to 
the possible happiness of marriages between persons 
of different nationalities, much more alike as are the 
nationalities of Lord and Lady Curzon than any other 
two nationalities. 

Dr. Johnson's famous saying that marriages would 
be happier if they were arranged by the Lord Chan- 
cellor, due regard being paid to the ages and conditions 
of the parties, has never been accepted as a working 
rule in his own country. There is the wholly "rea- 
sonable" and extremely circumspect Count Boni Cas- 
tellane, whose marriage of reason has so lately been 
shown to be so far from a success. 

There are quite enough more failures of the same 
kind to offset the unhappy marriages of romance. It 
is of these, of course, that Burton declares that 
matches are made in heaven, though matches of the 
sulphurous kind, of which all of us know some in- 
stances, suggest a very different place of manufacture. 

THE MARRIAGE OF REASON 

Swift's saying that the reason why so few mar- 



riages are happy is that "young ladies spend their 
time in making nets, not in making cages," is doubly 
outrageous. In the first place it is an outrageous 
begging of the question. The testimony of less cyni- 
cal observers in our day and country is that most 
marriages are entitled to be called happy. 

In the second place it outrageously puts the whole 
blame for unhappy marriages on the female partner, 
contrary alike to probability and to fact. But at least 
as many of the marriages are failures in which men 
"choose" their wives, or think they do, as in cases 
in which men become the prey of their own imagina- 
tions. 

And there is this to be said from the point of 
view of reason in favor of marriages with which rea- 
son has nothing to do. In the first months of married 
life there are necessarily very many differences to be 
adjusted and small incompatibilities of ways of think- 
ing and feeling to be reconciled. That, as all experi- 
enced spouses know, is the trying period. 

Marriage is like life in that it is a school wherein 
whoso does not learn must suffer. Now, to diminish 
the friction of this trying time no better lubricant could 
possibly be provided than the romantic love, which 
cannot be expected to last forever, but which may very 
probably outlast this greatest necessity for it of the 
early connubial period. 

When the glamour of the romance "fades into the 
light of common day," and a real man and a real wom- 
an take the places of the creatures of each other's 
fancy, and passion cools into at best the tenderest of 
friendships, b6th parties are better off, and will ac- 
knowledge themselves to be better off because the 
romance has been. "In erring reason's spite" all man- 
kind will continue to love a lover, and justly so. 

ARE YOU SUPERSTITIOUS? 

It is unlucky to be kicked in the back by a piebald 
horse on a Sunday. 

When cycling in front of a green motor-'bus, it is 
unlucky to skid and fall off. 

All the luck of an iron horseshoe is lost if, when 
picking it up, you are inadvertently run over. 

When traveling by rail, it is distinctly unlucky to 
be alone in a carriage with a homicidal maniac. 

If on your wedding-day the clergyman forgets to 
ask you for his fee you may consider yourself very 
lucky indeed. 

If at dinner you upset your soup-plate five times it 
is a sign that you will not be asked again. You are 
unlucky. 



28 



THE CHEF 



BALZAC'S VIEWS OF WOMEN. 

Honore de Balzac (1799-1850) has been pronounced by 
many eminent critics the most truly great of all the wri- 
ters of fiction that France has produced. This judgment 
has been questioned at times by admirers of Hugo and 
Dumas, but on one point all students of French literature 
agree — that as an analyst of human character Honore de 
Balzac never has had a peer. 

As might have been expected of such a profound student 
of human nature, Balzac on various occasions attempted 
to analyze the character of woman. Many millions of 
men had essayed this task before Balzac's time and had 
failed, as millions of other men have been failing ever 
since. Philosophers have been the first to despair, for 
they contend that no woman ever thoroughly understands 
herself or any other member of her sex — in short, that 
-.he is to be understood only by the angels. But it is gen- 
erally believed that Balzac came nearer the truth in his 
estimate of woman than any other novelist has done. Na- 
turally his views were conflicting. 

WHEN a woman pronounces the name of a man 
but twice a day, there may be some doubt as to 
the nature of her sentiment — but three times ! 

In courting women, many dry wood for a fire that 
will not burn for them. 

No man has yet discovered the means of success- 
fully giving friendly advice to women — not even to 
his own. 

A man who can love deeply is never utterly con- 
temptible. 

Wornen are constantly the dupes, or else the victims, 
of their extreme sensitiveness. 

A man must be a fool who does not succeed in mak- 
ing a woman believe that which flatters her. 

A woman when she has passed forty becomes an 
illegible scrawl ; only an old woman is capable of di- 
vining old women. 

The mistakes of a woman result almost always from 
her faith in the good and her confidence in the truth. 

Woman is a charming creature, who changes her 
heart as easily as her gloves. 

The man who can govern a woman can govern a 
nation. 

In the elevated order of ideas, the life of man is 
glory ; the life of woman is love. 

Marriage has its unknown great men as war has its 
Napoleons and philosophy its Descartes. 

The Indian axiom, "Do not strike even with a 
flower a woman guilty of a hundred crimes," is my 
rule of conduct. 

Most women proceed like the flea, by leaps and 
jumps. 

When women love us, they forgive us everything, 
even our crimes. When they do not love us, they 
give us credit for nothing, not even for our virtues. 

Marriage should combat without respite or mercy 
that monster which devours everything — habit. 

There is one thing admirable in women ; thev never 
reason about their blameworthy actions ; even in their 
dissimulation there is an element of sincerity. 



£5 FOR A PLATE OF GOOSEBERRIES 

SOME were enthusiastic collectors of old almanacs ; 
others were passionately fond of children's white 
mice. And all were willing to pay any price for the 
satisfaction of these crazes. "Name your figure," 
said the candidate. "Is a pound too much?'' asked 
the voter. "Nonsense, man, you have no idea of the 
value of these things !" cried the candidate, and, scorn- 
ing to take advantage of the voter's ignorance or 
simplicity, he added, "Here are two guineas for you!" 
Is it any wonder that on such an exciting occasion 
candidates should be flustered anil prone to absent- 
mindedness? At any rate, in a certain contest one 
of the candidates seemed to suffer from an extraor- 
dinary lapse of memory. He forgot his umbrella in 
almost every house he visited, and when the little girl 
or the little boy of the elector ran after him with it, 
how profuse were his thanks as he slipped a half- 
sovereign into the child's hand. "I carried the con- 
stituency with my umbrella!" was his boast in the 
smoking-room of the House of Commons. 

Indeed, the generosity of candidates knew no 
bounds. At a Sudbury election in 1826 a candidate 
gave a greengrocer a £5 note for a plate of goose- 
berries. He paid the butcher and the baker, the 
printer and the billsticker at equally extravagant rates. 
At Great Marlow an agricultural voter got a sow with 
a litter of nine for a penny. And Brinsley Sheridan 
was so fond of peas during his successful contest at 
Stafford in 1784 that he insisted upon buying them 
at £2 12s. 6d. the quart! 

SHE HAD KEPT HIS SECRET 

They were discussing that old, old accusation 
against woman, that she cannot keep a secret. A 
lady had listened attentively to the discussion, then 
at last she said : — 

"A woman can keep an important secret as well as 
a man. The secrets she reveals are slight and harm- 
less ones, such as any man would reveal. Where is 
the woman who ever tells a secret that reflects on 
her husband or on her own children ? 

"I know a man who one day refused to tell his wife 
the outcome of a business transaction, in which, quite 
naturally, she took a deep interest. 

' 'No,' he sneered, when she asked him about it. 
'You women make me tired; you can never keep a 
secret.' 

' 'Roger, my dear,' replied the wife, in quiet, even 
tones, 'have I ever told the secret about the solitaire 
engagement ring you gave me eighteen years ago be- 
ing paste?' 

And then he told her all about that business trans- 
action, and he did not omit a single tiny detail, either." 



It is unlucky to be the thirteenth guest at a dinner- 
table which is laid for twelve only. The better course 
is to wait until you receive an invitation. 



HOW TO USE COLD SALMON, COD OR HALIBUT. 

Fry lightly, but do not brown, one slice of onion and 
a sprig of parsley in three tablespoonfuls of butter. 
Remove the onion and pour sauce over fish. 



THE CHEF 



29 



JOKES ON THE DIRECTORY 

Though Men With Indolent Minds May Think It as Easy to Extract Sunbeams 

from Cucumbers as to Get Humor Out of the Solemn Register of 

Gothamites and Their Places of Residence, the Task Is 

Not so Formidable as it Seems 



A DIRECTORY is not the kind of book a person 
would take up and peruse as an antidote for the 
"blues," but with a fair amount of patience and a sense 
of humor much entertainment can be got out of one 
of those dry-looking volumes. 

If a man is going to make puns on other folks' 
names, and a good many of us aren't always able to 
resist the temptation, the directory is the best place 
in which to do it, because there are plenty of names 
to choose from, and he can make a butt of Mr. Mark, 
or Mr. Goodfellow, and avoid people like Mr. Savage 
and Mr. Kick. Also, any man with a few friends 
can keep them more easily if he will only go to the 
directory and pick out the name of some stranger to 
pun with, when the fit is on him. The New York City 
directory is a peculiarly rich field for such opportuni- 
ties. Says the pun expert of the New York World: 

"Take, for instance, our own city directory. That 
it has more names than its immediate predecessor, and 
that this indicates that New York has grown just as 
much in population in just such a time — these things 
go without saying. 

"But what reference is made in the direction to 
that great matter of Love, which has ruled the world 
for no one knows how many years ? Go through the 
book, dear reader, and you will find that it contains 
forty-seven Loves, one Heart, and one Lover. There 
are twenty Spooners, two Huggers, sixty-one Darlings, 
three Dears, five Petts, three Sparks, six Kisses, three 
Smacks, and ten Hugs. 

"A study of the directory shows, too, that, despite 
its boasted democracy, New York is endowed with five 
and one-half columns of Kings, twelve Queens, one 
column of Princes, twenty-four Dukes, thirty-eight 
Earls, and eighty-two Lords. There are sixteen Cas- 
tles for all this royalty to dwell in. 

"The spiritual welfare of the city ought to be well 
looked after, also, for we find listed sixty-three Popes, 
four Cardinals, one hundred and thirty-two Abbots, 
nine Abbeys, eleven Priests, twenty Parishes, two 
Chapels, thirty-eight Elders, one column and three- 
quarters of Parsons, two columns of Deans, twelve 
Deacons, one column of Churches, forty-eight Sextons, 
twenty-eight Christians, and eight Bibles. 

"It speaks pretty well for New York's sobriety and 
general good character that notwithstanding the vast 
number of people whose names are in the directory 
there are only two Lushers, one Bum, fourteen Bunns, 
thirteen Batts, four Lushes, fifteen Stills, three Lodes, 
and one Booz. In the matter of smoking, great tem- 



perance is shown, too, for there is listed but one 
Smoker, one Pipe, and one Smoke. 

"Father Knickerbocker's barber shop is well filled. 
It has sixty-seven Barbers and five Shavers. Quite a 
bunch to look after only thirty Beards and one Hair, 
but it has one Pole out and is ready to do business. 

"There are four and one-half columns of Bakers, 
fourteen Rolls, one Cakebread, and one Pies, and he 
is a Harlem baker, by the way. 

"That New York is still a young town is shown 
by the fact that there are seven columns of Youngs 
and only six Olds. The comparison of seven Fatts 
as against one Skinney doesn't constitute a bad show- 
ing, either. 

"The first name in the directory — the Abou ben 
Adhem who leads all the rest — is Jacques Aa, and the 
last name is Louis Zyss. There are twelve names that 
begin with X, nine columns of Joneses, thirty-five col- 
umns of Smiths, two columns of John Smiths, and 
nineteen columns of Browns." 



George C. Engel Co., 



WHOLESALE DEALERS AND 
DIRECT RECEIVERS OF 



Meats, Poultry, Foreign 
and Domestic Game 



99 BARCLAY ST., 

NEW YORK 



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THE CHEF 




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THE CHEF 




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The World's Richest Legacy. 




Immured in an Asylum, a True Son of Nature Who Had Won Distinction at 

the Bar Wrote a Will, Which Only the Divine Surrogate Can Set 

Aside, Bequeathing Priceless Possessions to Mankind. 

CflfltlfjS 'HoitUSbcrtp, being of sound and disposing mind and 
memory, do hereby make and publish this, my last will and testament, 
in order, as justly as may be, to distribute my interest in the world 
among succeeding men. 

That part of my interest which is known in law and recognized in 
the sheep-bound volumes as my property, being inconsiderable and of 
none account, I make no disposition of in this, my will. My right to 
live, being but a life estate, is not at my disposal, but these things ex- 
cepted, all else in the world I now proceed to devise and bequeath. 
Item: I give to good fathers and mothers in trust for their children, all good 
little words of praise and encouragement, and all quaint pet names and endearments, 
and I charge said parents to use them justly, but generously, as the needs of their 
children shall require. 

Item: 1 leave to children inclusively, but only for the term of their childhood, 
all and every, the flowers of the fields, and the blossoms of the woods, with the right 
to play among them freely according to the customs of children, warning them at 
the same time against thistles and thorns. And I devise to children the banks of 
the brooks and the golden sands beneath the waters thereof, and the odors of the 
willows that dip therein and the white clouds that float high over the giant trees. And 
I leave to children the long, long days to be merry in, in a thousand ways, and the 
night, and the moon, and the train of the Milky Way to wonder at, but subject, nev- 
ertheless, to the rights hereinafter given to lovers. 

Item : I devise to boys jointly, all the useful, idle fields and commons where ball 
may be plaved ; all pleasant waters where one may swim ; all snowclad hills where one 
may coast; and all streams and ponds where one may fish, or where, when grim winter 
comes, one may skate, to have and to hold these same for the period of their boyhood. 
And all meadows, with the clover blossoms and butterflies thereof ; the woods with their 
appurtenances, the squirrels and the birds and echoes and strange noises, and all distant 
places which may be visited, together with the adventures there found. And I give to 
said boys each his own place at the fireside at night, with all the pictures that may be 
seen in the burning wood, to enjoy without let or hindrance, and without any encum- 
brance of care. 

Item: To lovers, I devise their imaginary world with whatever they may need, as 
the stars of the skv, the red roses by the wall, the bloom of the hawthorn, the sweet 
strains of music, and might else they may desire to figure to each other the lastingness 
and beauty of their love. 

Item; To young men, jointly, I devise and bequeath all boisterous, inspiring 
sports of rivalry, and I give to them the disdain of weakness and undaunted confidence 
in their own strength. Though they are rude. I leave to them the power to make last- 
ing friendships, and of possessing companions, and to them exclusively, I give all merry 
songs and brave choruses to sing with lusty voices. 

Item: And to those who are no longer children, or youths, or lovers, I leave 
memory, and I bequeath to them the volumes of the poems of Burns and Shakespeare 
and of other poems, if there be others, to the end that they may live the old days over 
again, freely and fully without title or diminution. 

Item : To our loved ones with snowy crowns, I bequeath the happiness of old 
age, the love and gratitude of their children until they fall asleep. 




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confections — made from th ! choicest cocoa, the purest sugar, and rich, creamy Swiss 
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Learn the " Cailler taste" by sending to-day for a free sample to 

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New York 



CAREY FRE?S. N. V. 



«IAR 2S fS»t> 





Read What "THE CHEF" Says: 

(HIS Magazine is an instructor for 
every household, and must be 
appreciated by every woman who 
desires to further the happiness 
of her home. 

James J. Hill, the great financier and rail- 
road builder, says: 

"That for the want of good cooking, more homes 
are broken up and more divorces result, than from 
any other cause." 

There is no doubt of the truth of this 
statement, and this can be remedied to a 
great degree, if women will attract the Father, 
Son, Husband, or Brother, to the home, 
where he can anticipate, not only a neatly set 
table, but tasty food, prepared by his Mother, 
Wife, or Sister, or under their direction. 

'The Chef" will help you do this, our 
detailed recipes will do this for you, and our 
columns are open to our readers. We will 
gladly answer any questions for information 
sought in the cooking line. 

Subscribe now, and become an efficient 
and economical director of the culinary 
department of your household. 

SUBSCRIPTION $1.00 PER YEAR 

The Chef Magazine 

225 5th Avenue, New York 






Cbc CM magazine 



Volume 1 APRIL, 1910 Number 3 



. . . TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . 

PAGE. 

Portrait of Prosper Grevillot Cover 

Articles of Animal and Vegetable Origin that Form the Diet of man 3 

Prosper Grevillot's Career in America 7 

For the Want of Good Cooking Many a Home Is Broken Up 7 

Subject of Thought for the Economical Housekeeper 8 

New Wine Made Old 9 

Food in Cold Storage Plant 9 

Recipes in Detail : — 

Kidney Saute with Mushrooms 11 

Eggs a la Campagne — Suburban Style 12 

Pineapple Fritters 14 

Cauliflower — Polonaise Style 16 

Three-Fish Dinners Always in Season 17 

Friday Luncheon 18 

Canape of Kippered Herring 18 

Veal May Be Served in Various Ways 18 

Brunswick Stew 18 

Soups and Vegetables : — 

Split Pea Soup 19 

Corn Starch Tomato Soup 19 

Baked Split Pea Puree 19 

Baked Bean Puree 19 

Carrots a la Maitre d'Hotel 19 

Sweet Potatoes — Georgia Style , 19 

Egg Plant Sicilienne Style 19 

A Toast 19 

Mabel's Cake Recipes : — 

Mabel's Black Layer or Loaf Cake 20 

Fine Pound Cake 20 

Tasty Muffins 20 

Chestnut Patties 20 

German Mardi Gras Cake 20 

Fig Almond Paste 20 

Cocoanut Butter Drops 20 

Filling and Icing 20 

Toasts 20 

How the Japanese Strengthen the Stomach 21 

New Use Found for Grape Fruit 23 

A Toast 23 

Some Jokes on Royalty 24 

Sheep's Coat Made Man's in Half a Day 24 

Some Things Useful to Know in Every Household 2^ 

Things. Not What They Are Called 26 

International Menu for a Dinner Party 26 

Drink Two Quarts of Water Every Day 27 

Man Will Be Forced Back to the Farm 28 

Is the Family as a Unit Passing Away 28 

Is High Cost of Living Due to Woman 29 

Prices Too High, Says Cardinal Gibbons 29 

The Average Age of Animals 29 



Eugene F. Vacheron, President. J. B. Sabine, Treasurer. H. Herbert Vacheron, Secretary, 225 Fifth Ave. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION, $1.00 SINGLE COPY, 15 CENTS 

Copyright, 1910, by "The Chef" Publishing Co. Trade-Mark Registered 
Published Monthly by "The Chef" Publishing Co. 

Address all Communications to "The Chef" Magazine 
225 Fifth Avenue, New York 



THE CHEF 











OUR CONTRIBUTORS 






S O'M EOF 






The Best Known French Chefs In New York 






Mr. Eugene Lapperruque Chef Plaza Hotel, N. Y. 






" Prosper Grevillot Delmonico's 

For 35 Years, New York 






" Emile Bailly " St. Regis Hotel, N. Y. 






" J. Balard " Cafe Martin, N. Y. 






" E.Gigoux " NewGrandHotelN.Y. 






" Leony Derouet Grand Union Hotel, 

New York 






" J. Colombin " Belmont Hotel, N. Y. 






" Lucien Fromente Cafe de I'Opera, N. Y. 






" Jules Biron " St. Denis Hotel, N. Y. 






" Henri Rosier " Windsor Hotel, 

Montreal, Canada 






" X. Kuzmier " Gotham Hotel, N. Y. 






" Henri Dousseau Metropolitan Club, 

New York 






" Lucien Bernard " Hotel Brevoort, N.Y. 






" J. Gancel " " Belleclaire, N.Y. 






" Louis Seres " Holland House, N.Y. 






" Henry Pauchey Hotel Gramatan, 

New York 






" Teilliaud " of Col. J. J. Astor, 

New York 






" Negre " of D. O. Mills, N. Y. 






" Valta " M.Orme Wilson, N.Y. 






" Drederick " of George Widener, 

Philadelphia 






" Adams " of Robert Goelet 






" Rhiel " of Clarence Mackay 






" Ribeyre " of H.McKayTwombley 






" Labeille " of Mrs. Sloan 











(gCI.B2<>923 1 



"THE CHEF" MAGAZINE 



Vol. 1. No. 3 



APRIL, 1910 



15 CENTS 




A Cooking School in the Mountains. 



ARTICLES OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE 
ORIGIN THAT FORM THE DIET OF MAN 



OOMETIMES this term includes also spices, vine- 
^gar and similar articles which, strictly speaking, are 
not foods, but are more properly called food acces- 
sories or condiments. A study of food and the feed- 
ing of the body, i. e., nutrition should include knowl- 
edge of the requirements and the chemical composi- 
tion, the laws of energy and of the metabolism of 
matter. Account must be taken of methods of prepar- 
ing and cooking foods, of the hygiene, the compara- 
tive pecuniary value, the quantities of foods eaten, 
etc. Some of these subjects require investigations by 
specially devised methods ; others are carried on by 
help of physiological chemistry, bacteriology and other 
related sciences. From the standpoint of nutrition, 
food may be defined as substance that builds tissue or 
yields energy when taken into the body. The most 
healthful food is that which is best fitted to the needs 
of the user; the cheapest food is that which furnishes 
the largest amount of nutriment at the least cost. In 
general, the best food is that which is both the cheap- 
est and the most healthful. 



The substances that nourish the body are very 
similar in chemical composition to those that compose 
it. There are from fifteen to twenty chemical 
elements, the most abundant of which are oxygen, 
hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and 
sulphur. The elements are combined in a great va- 
riety of ways in the compounds of both the food and 
the body. Five general classes of these substances 
are made as follows : Water, mineral matter, protein, 
fats and carbohydrates, the first two of which are 
called inorganic, the other three organic. In addition 
to material supplied in food, the body requires oxygen 
of the air for the oxidation of nutrients and the pro- 
duction of energy. 

INORGANIC CONSTITUENTS. 

Water is the most abundant of the substances men- 
tioned. It is a component part of all the tissues, and 
forms over 6o per cent, by weight of the body of 
the average man. Though very important physiologi- 
cally, it neither builds tissue nor yields energy. Other 



THE CHEF 



food ingredients which yield little or no energy, and 
yet are indispensable to the body, are the mineral 
matters, i. e., those substances that remain as ash 
when body or food tissue is burned. They consist 
mainly of phosphate of lime or calcium phosphate, 
the mineral basis of bone, and numerous compounds 
of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iron. They 
form only five or six per cent, by weight of the body, 
and are found chiefly in the bones and the teeth, but 
are present in the other tissues and also in solution 
in the various fluids. 

ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS. 

The organic compounds are so called because they 
occur principally in the organic, i. e., the animal and 
vegetable world. They all contain carbon, oxygen and 
hydrogen in varying proportions. Some also contain 
nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur or other elements. The 
protein group includes all compounds that contain ni- 
trogen ; for example, the lean and gristle of meat, the 
white of eggs and the gluten of wheat. Protein forms 
about 1 8 per cent, by weight of the body of the 
average man. Among the protein constituents of 
foods, the albuminoids, being the true tissue-formers, 
are the most important. Protein is the organic basis 
of bone, muscle and other tissues, and is essential to 
the body structure. It is also used as fuel — that is, 
burned in the body to yield energy — and is to some 
extent transformed into fat and stored in the body, 
but these are its less important uses. The protein 
compounds are most abundant in some of the animal 
foods, as lean meat, though the cereals contain them 
in considerable, and dried peas and beans in large 
proportions. 

Fats occur chiefly in animal foods, as meat, fish, 
butter, etc., but in considerable quantities in some ce- 
reals, notably oatmeal and maize (whole kernel), and 
in various nuts. They are also abundant in some 
vegetable products, such as olives and cottonseed, from 
which they are expressed as oil. In our bodies and in 
those of animals, fats occur in minute particles scat- 
tered through the various tissues and in masses under 
the skin and in other localities. The amount of fat 
in the body varies greatly with food, exercise, age and 
other conditions. When more food is taken than nec- 
essary for immediate use, part of the surplus may be 
stored in the body. The protein and fat of food may 
thus become body protein and body fat ; sugar and 
starch of food are changed to fat in the body and 
stored as much. When the food supply is short this 
reserve material is drawn upon for supplementary 
fuel. Fats form about 15 per cent, by weight of 
body of an average man. 

CARBOHYDRATES. 

Carbohydrates, which include such compounds as 
starch, different kinds of sugar and the cellulose or 
fibre of plants, are found chiefly in the vegetable foods 
like cereal grains and potatoes form only a very small 



proportion of the body tissues, less than one per cent. 
Milk, however, contains considerable amount of milk- 
sugar which is a carbohydrate. Starches and sugars, 
which are very abundant in ordinary vegetable food 
materials, are important food substances, because they 
are easily digested and because they form an abun- 
dant source of energy. They may be, and often are, 
transformed into fat in the body. 

To a greater or less extent, the different nutrients 
can do one another's work. If the body has not 
enough of one kind of fuel, it can use another. But 
while protein may be burned in the body in the place 
of fats and carbohydrates neither of the latter can 
take the place of the albuminoids in building and re- 
pairing the tissues. By being consumed themselves, 
however, they protect the albuminoids from consump- 
tion. 

REFUSE. 

Food as it is bought at the market, or even as it is 
served at the table, contains more or less of materials 
— such as the bones of meat and fish, the shells of 
eggs and the skins and the seeds of fruits and vege- 
tables, which we cannot and do not eat, and which 
would have little or no nutritive value if we did eat 
them. In discussing the chemical composition of foods 
such portions are usually counted as refuse, but they 
make an important item when we consider the actual 
cost of the nutrients of food. The materials grouped 
together as refuse contain, in part, the same ingredi- 
ents as the edible portion, though usually in very 
different proportions. Thus bones are largely mineral 
matter, bran of wheat has a high content of fibre of 
woody material. 

THE BODY AS A MACHINE. 

Blood and muscle, bone and tendon, brain and 
nerve, all the organs and tissues of the body, are 
built from the nutritive ingredients of food. With 
every motion of the body, with the exercise of feel- 
ing and of thought, material is consumed and must 
be resupplied by food. In a sense, the body is a su- 
perior machine, and like other machines it requires 
material to build up its several parts, to repair them 
as they are worn out, and to serve as fuel. In some 
ways it uses this material like a machine ; in other 
ways it does not. The steam engine gets its power 
from fuel; the body does the same. In the one case 
coal or wood, in the other food, is the fuel. In 
both cases the energy, the potential energy, which is 
latent in the fuel, is transformed into heat and power. 
When coal is burned in a furnace, part of its potential 
energy is transformed into the mechanical power. 
The mechanical power is employed for muscular work. 
The heat is used to keep the body warm, and when 
more is generated than is needed for that purpose, it 
is wasted as in the case of the engine. However, the 
body is much more economical in the use of fuel than 
any engine. One important difference between the 






THE CHEF 



human machine and the steam-engine is that the 
former is self-building, self-repairing and self-regulat- 
ing. Another is that the material of which the engine 
is built is very different from that which is used for 
fuel, but part of the material which serves the body 
for fuel also builds it up and keeps it in repair. 
Furthermore, the body can use its own substance for 
fuel; the steam-engine cannot. 

The fuel value of food may be readily determined 
by burning samples in a bomb calorimeter, in an at- 
mosphere of oxygen to secure ready and complete 
combustion. The heat given off passes through the 
walls of the bomb, and is taken up by a known vol- 
ume of water of known temperature. From the in- 
crease in the temperature of water the amount of 
heat liberated is calculated. The unit commonly used 
to express the energy value of food is the calorie, i. e., 
the amount of heat which would raise the tempera- 
ture of some kilogram of water i°C, or what is 
nearly the same thing, one pound of water 4°F. In- 
stead of this a unit of mechanical energy, the foot-ton, 
for instance, may be used. This represents the force 
required to raise a weight of one ton to the height 
of one foot. One calorie is equal to nearly 1.54 foot- 
tons ; that is to say, one calorie of heat, when trans- 
formed into mechanical power, would suffice to lift 
one ton 1.54 feet. Taking our common food mate- 
rials as they are used in ordinary diet, the following 
general estimate has been made for the energy fur- 
nished to the body by one gram or one pound of each 
of the classes of nutrients: 

Protein, fuel value, 4 calories per gram, or 1,820 
calories per pound. 

Fats, fuel value, 8.9 calories per gram, or 4,040 
calories per pound. 

Carbohydrates, fuel value, 4 calories per gram, or 
1,820 calories per pound. 

When we compare the nutrients in respect to their 
fuel ; that is, their capacities for yielding heat and 
mechanical power, it will be seen that a pound of 
protein or lean meat or albumen of egg, is just about 
equivalent to a pound of sugar or starch, and a little 
over two pounds of either would be required to equal 
a pound of the fat of meat or butter or of body fat. 

DIGESTIBILITY. 

Not only is composition considered in valuing a 
food, but digestibility also. Digestibility is a term 
used to indicate the ease or difficulty with which a 
food parts with nutrients to the body in passing 
through the digestive tract. The changes which food 
undergoes in digestion are brought about by ferments 
which are secreted by the digestive organs. 

ALIMENTARY SYSTEM ; ORGANS OF DIGESTION. 

The ptyalin of saliva in the mouth changes insoluble 
starches into sugar. The food does not remain in the 
mouth for a long time, but nevertheless the action of 
the saliva is considerable. Saliva also helps to pre- 



pare the food for the stomach by moistening it and 
making its texture such that the gastric juices of the 
stomach may readily act upon it. The gastric juice 
acts upon protein, the pancreatic juice of the intestine 
upon protein, fat and carbohydrates. All the digestive 
juices are assisted by a fine division of the food in 
chewing and by muscular contractions, called the per- 
istaltic action of the stomach and intestine. These lat- 
ter motions help to mix the digestive juices and their 
ferments with the food. The otherwise insoluble nu- 
trients of food are rendered soluble by digestion. The 
digested food finds its way through the walls of the 
alimentary canal, and in this passage and later under- 
goes remarkable changes. When finally the blood, 
supplied with nutrients of the digested food and laden 
with the oxygen from the lungs, is propelled from the 
heart all over the body, it is ready to furnish the 
organs and tissues with the materials and energy 
needed for the various functions. At the same time it 
carries away the waste which the exercise of these 
functions has produced. The living body tissue has 
the power of choosing the necessary materials from 
the blood and building them into its own structure. 
Just how this is done cannot be explained. That por- 
tion of the food which the digestive juices cannot dis- 
solve, or which for some reason escapes digestion, is 
periodically explained as faeces. This material in- 
cludes not only indigestible material and particles of 
undigested food, but also the so-called metabolic pro- 
ducts, i. e., residues of the digestive juices, bits of 
the lining of the alimentary canal, etc. 

The digestibility of any food may be learned most 
satisfactorily by experiements with man, although ex- 
periments are also made by methods of artificial di- 
gestion. In the experiments with man both food and 
faeces are analyzed. Deducting the amounts of the 
several nutrients in the faeces from the total amounts 
of each nutrient consumed shows how much of each 
was digested. 

As a general rule, carbohydrates are more com- 
pletely digested than protein and fats, and hence are 
more fully available for use in the body ; and protein 
of animal foods, as meat, fish, milk and eggs is more 
digestible than that of vegetable foods. Fats are prob- 
ably less digestible than most forms of protein and 
carbohydrates. Other things being equal food fur- 
nishing nutrients which can be most easily and com- 
pletely utilized by the body are the most desirable, 
since they will not bring unnecessary exertion to the 
various organs. Many kinds of food which in their 
natural state hold the most valuable nutrients in such 
form that the digestive juices cannot easily work upon 
them are so changed by the heat of cooking that they 
become easily digestible. Thus the importance of 
proper cooking can hardly be over-estimated. Things 
which please the palate stimulate the flow of the diges- 
tible juices ; for this reason food should be made ap- 
petizing. An attractive diet pleases the aesthetic 
sense : hence refinement in food habits is as desirable 



THE CHEF 



as in any other phase of our daily life. The sense 
of comfort and satisfaction produced by even the ap- 
pearance of food well cooked and served is of indis- 
putable value. Fortunately such satisfaction is within 
the reach of almost all. 

EASE AND QUICKNESS OF DIGESTION. 

The terms digestible, indigestible, etc., as used 
above, refer simply to the food which is or is not 
available for the general nourishment of the body af- 
ter the process of digestion is completed. In common 
parlance, however, they are used more loosely as re- 
ferring to the ease and quickness of digestion, and to 
the general wholesomeness of food. One kind of food 
bread, for instance, is spoken of as "simple" and di- 
gestible. There is often much practical truth behind 
such statements, though little is definitely known con- 
cerning the time or labor required to digest different 
kinds of food. Food does not ordinarily pass from 
the stomach into the intestine until it has been re- 
duced to a liquid or semi-liquid condition. The length 
of time required for different foods to leave the 
stomach has recently been studied by Penzoldt, among 
others, with healthy men. He found that the amount 
and consistency of food have a marked influence on 
the rate of digestion in the stomach. According to 
his investigations, fluids leave the stomach more rap- 
idly than other materials. Hot drinks do not leave 
the stomach more quickly than cold ones, nor does 
the quantity have much effect. Solid matter in solu- 
tion or suspension delays the passage of fluid 
from the stomach somewhat. The consistency of 
solid foods thus seems to have more effect upon di- 
gestibility than the amount consumed. The quantity 
eaten increases the length of time the material remains 
in the stomach, but not proportionally. 

To select a few examples of the time required for 
food to leave the stomach: Two eggs (raw, poached, 
or in the form of an omelet), seven ounces of sweet- 
breads, ten moderate-sized oysters, seven ounces of 
white fish or three and one-half ounces of white bread, 
cauliflowers or cherries, each required two or three 
hours to digest. Eight and one-fourth ounces of 
chicken, nine ounces of lean beef, six ounces of boiled 
ham, three and one-half ounces of roast veal or beef- 
steak, five and one-third ounces of coarse bread, boiled 
rice, carrots, spinach, radish or apple, left the stomach 
in three to four hours. Nine ounces of smoked 
tongue, three and one-half ounces of smoked beef, 
nine ounces of roast goose, five and one-third ounces 
of string beans or seven ounces of pease porridge left 
the stomach in four to five hours. 

Generally speaking, the most readily digested ani- 
mal foods were materials of soft consistency. White 
meats, for example (chicken), leave the stomach more 
quickly than red meats or dark meats — for instance 
duck. The method of cooking also exerts a very 
marked influence on stomach digestion. Fresh fish 
was found to be more readily digested than meats. 



As regard vegetable foods in general, the consistency 
and the amounts of solid material were again the prin- 
cipal factors affecting the time required for digestion 
in the stomach. Mealy potatoes, for instance, were 
more easily digested than waxy potatoes, and mashed 
potatoes more readily than potatoes cut up in pieces. 
Fine bread was more quickly digested than coarse 
bread. There was not much difference in the time 
required for bread-crust, bread-crumb, toast, new 
bread and stale bread to digest in the stomach, pro- 
vided all were equally well chewed. 

It must be remembered that digestion continues in 
the intestine, and that the total time required for di- 
gestion and absorption of the nutrients in any given 
food material is not shown by such experiments as 
those just mentioned. They find their chief applica- 
tion in prescribing a diet for invalids and in such 
cases it is often desirable to require of the stomach 
only a limited amount of work. 

AGREEMENT OF FOOD WITH INDIVIDUALS. 

Digestibility is often confused with another very 
different thing, namely, the agreeing or disagreeing 
of food with the person who eats it. Different per- 
sons are differently constituted with respect to the 
chemical changes which their food undergoes and the 
effect produced, so that it may be literally true that 
"one man's meat is another man's poison." Milk is 
for most people a very wholesome, digestible and nu- 
tritious food, but there are persons who are made ill 
by drinking it. They should avoid it. Some persons 
have to avoid strawberries. Indeed, cases in which 
the most wholesome kinds of food are hurtful to indi- 
vidual persons are unfortunately numerous. Every 
man must learn from his own experience what food 
agrees with him and what does not. How much harm 
is done by the injurious compounds sometimes formed 
in the body from ordinarily wholesome foods is sel- 
dom realized. Physiological chemistry in revealing 
the fact that these compounds may effect even the 
brain and nerves and that some forms of insanity are 
caused by products formed by the abnormal transfor- 
mations of foods and body material. 

METABOLISM EXPERIMENTS. 

As already stated, a knowledge of food and its uses 
in the body is obtained from studies of composition, 
digestibility, etc., and from complicated experiments 
in some of which the balance of income and out go 
of matter and energy is studied. The latter are called 
metabolism experiments, the balance of matter being 
measured in terms of nitrogen or of nitrogen and 
carbon, and sometimes other elements also, and the 
balance of energy being measured in terms of heat. 
In determining the balance of income and outgo of 
nitrogen, special attention is paid to the amounts of 
this constituent in food, urine and faeces. When 
the balance of carbon is also taken into account a res- 
piration apparatus is very convenient and almost nee- 



THE CHEF 



essary. This apparatus permits of the measurement 
and analysis of the respiratory products since these 
contain a large part of the carbon (as carbon dioxide) 
excreted from the body. Various forms of respira- 
tion apparatus have been devised within the last fifty 
years, among the most important being those invented 
by Pettenkofer and Voit, of Munich. They consist 
of metal-walled chambers, large enough for the sub- 
ject (sometimes a man, sometimes a dog, sheep or 
other animal) to live in comfortably for several days, 
and are furnished with devices for pumping air 
through, and measuring and analyzing it as it enters 
and as it leaves the chamber. With such an appara- 
tus it is possible not only to measure all the food and 
excreta, but also the materials given off from the 
lungs in the breath, and to make accurate determina- 
tion of the matter entering and leaving the body. A 
still more elaborate apparatus, by which not only all 
the matter passing in and out of the body may be 
measured, but also that the heat given off from it, is 
called a respiration calorimeter — that is, a machine 
for measuring both the respiratory products and the 
heat given off by the body. It is like the respiration 
apparatus, except that it is furnished with devices for 
measuring temperatures. Several have been built, the 
majority in Europe, within the last twenty years, 
among the most successful being those of Professor 
Rubner and Professor Rosenthal, in Germany, and 
that devised by Professors Atwater and Rosa in the 
United States. The latter form, which represents a 
great advance on any previously devised, was elabor- 
ated at Wesleyan University in connection with the 
nutrition investigations carried on under the auspices 
of the Office of Experiment Stations of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. Its main feature 
is a copper-walled chamber, seven feet long, four feet 
wide and six feet four inches high. This is fitted with 
devices for maintaining and measuring a ventilating 
current of air, for sampling and analyzing this air, 
for removing and measuring the heat given off within 
the chamber and for passing food and other articles. 
It is furnished with a folding-bed, chair and table, 
with scales and with appliances for muscular work, 
and has a telephone connection with the outside. Here 
the subject stays for a period from three to twelve 
days, during which time careful analysis and meas- 
urements are made of all material which enters the 
body in the food, and of that which leaves it in the 
breath and excreta. Record is kept of the energy 
given off from the body as heat and muscular work. 
The difference between the material taken into and 
that given off from the body is called the balance of 
matter, and shows whether the body is gaining or los- 
ing material. The difference between the energy of 
food taken and that of the excreta and the energy 
given off from the body as heat and muscular work is 
the balance of energy, and if correctly estimated 
should equal the energy of the body material gained 
or lost. With such apparatus it is possible to learn 



much of the real nutritive value of foods, and what 
effect different conditions of nourishment will have on 
the human body. In one experiment, for instance, 
the subject might be kept quite at rest, and in another 
do a certain amount of muscular or mental work, 
with the same diet as before. Then by comparing the 
results of the two the use which the body makes of 
its food under the different conditions could be de- 
termined. An improved form of this apparatus has 
been devised by Atwater and Benedict in which oxy- 
gen is supplied to a volume of air circulating through 
the chamber to replace that used in the body, and the 
income and outgo of oxygen are thus measured di- 
rectly. 

PROSPER GREVILLOT 

Chef of Delmonico's 
ONE OF NEW YORK'S FAMOUS CHEFS 

PROSPER GREVILLOT, whose portrait appears 
on the front page, has been a student of the cul- 
inary art for the past thirty-five years, most of this 
time being spent with the famous house of Delmonico. 

That he has become renowned in his profession is 
due to his untiring efforts and application in a suc- 
cessful endeavor to please an American public who 
recognize good cooking. 

Born in France, he came to this country in 1873, 
when seventeen years of age, starting at the lower 
rung of the kitchen ladder. His energy and willingness 
to learn attracted the attention of that most famous 
chef of America Eugene Lapperruque, now of the 
Plaza Hotel, who was then chef of Delmonico's, and 
when the Twenty-sixth Street house was opened in 
1876, took Grevillot with him as larder cook, and ad- 
vanced him until in 1880 he became chef "entre- 
metier" in The Brunswick Hotel, where he remained 
for three years. 

Grevillot in 1883 returned to Delmonico's as out- 
side parties chef, and remained in that position until 
1891, when he became chef of Delmonico's Broad 
Street house, and so remained until 1893, when the 
house was torn down. 

He then became assistant chef to the great "Ren- 
hofer," chef of Delmonico's Forty-fourth Street house, 
who died in 1899, and from that time Grevillot has 
been the chef of that famous house until the present 
writing, practically thirty-five years' continual ser- 
vice, a great record for one of New York's most fam- 
ous cooks in one of New York's oldest and most 
famous restaurants. However, who will say that it is 
not the cook that makes the house famous. 



Van Antler : "I think we are sure of a good din- 
ner to-night. You know my new butler does the en- 
tire catering for the household." 

Grubb: "Can you rely on him to ?" 

Van Antler: "Not always, but this evening I re- 
quested him to send us up something from the kitchen 
table." 



THE CHEF 



SUBJECT OF THOUGHT FOR THE ECO- 
NOMICAL HOUSEKEEPER. 

Losses in the Cooking of Vegetables. 



IN their natural condition the texture of most 
vegetables is hard and resistant, and they require 
some treatment which shall render them fit for food. 
This treatment is found in the application of heat, 
usually either by boiling, frying or baking, the first 
being the method most commonly used. 

Vegetables contain a large amount of water, or as 
it is frequently called "juice." Dissolved in the juice 
are considerable amounts of soluble inorganic com- 
pounds of salt, and more or less soluble organic sub- 
stances, such as sugar, and soluble protein (nitrogen- 
ous) compounds. 

The solid matter of vegetables consists largely of 
microscopic cells filled with starch grains. The walls 
of these cells are composed of cellulose or woody 
fiber, which resists the action of the digestive juices 
so that these cannot get to the starch contained within. 
It for this reason that the raw vegetable is, as a rule, 
unfit for food. When, however, heat is applied the 
starch grains absorb water from the juice, swell up 
and finally burst the cell walls, so that the texture 
of the vegetable becomes soft and the nutrients are 
easily attacked by the digestive juices. 

During the process of boiling vegetables there is, 
of course, more or less opportunity for nutrients sol- 
uble in water to be dissolved out and lost. Indeed, 
much of this matter is already in a state of solution 
in the juices. The nutrients which would be liable 
to suffer such loss are, as mentioned above, some of 
the protein compounds, some of the mineral constitu- 
ents, such as salt of potassium and sodium, and espe- 
cially the sugars. The starch would suffer no appre- 
ciable loss in this way, owing to its insolubility. It 
might, however, be removed mechanically from the 
soft cooked vegetables under certain conditions. Of 
the protein compounds, those which are of the most 
value to the body are coagulated before the boiling 
point is reached, and thus rendered insoluble, behav- 
ing like the white of an egg under simliar conditions. 
The loss of the more valuable portion of the protein 
would therefore take place before the water got suffi- 
ciently hot to cause coagulation. Some nitrogenous 
substances are, however, soluble in water at all tem- 
peratures, and would therefore be liable to loss during 
the entire process of boiling. Sugar is present in con- 
siderable amounts in some vegetables, as for example, 
beets and carrots. In some cases the loss of nutrients 
may amount to a considerable fraction of the original 
nutritive value. 

Some interesting experiments have been recently 
made at Middletown, Conn., in connection with work 
on food and nutrition, carried on in co-operation with 



the United States Department of Agriculture. In 
these experiments vegetables were boiled under differ- 
ent conditions, and the loss of nutrients determined. 

The first series of experiments was made with pota- 
toes, which were taken as representative of the class 
of vegetables known as tubers, and in fact, as the most 
important tuber in common use. These were boiled 
under different conditions and the loss determined. 
When peeled and soaked for several hours before boil- 
ing, the loss amounted to 52 per cent, of the total 
nitrogenous matter and 38 per cent, of mineral sub- 
stance; when the potatoes were peeled and cut into 
cold water, which was then brought to a boiling point 
as soon as possible, the loss was much less, amounting 
to about 16 per cent, of the nitrogenous matter or 
protein and to 19 per cent, of the mineral matter ; 
potatoes peeled and placed at once in boiling water 
lost half as much nitrogenous matter as in the preced- 
ing case, although the loss of mineral salts was prac- 
tically the same ; when, however, potatoes were cooked 
with their skin on, there was but a very trifling loss 
of matter, either nitrogenous or mineral. The char- 
acter of the water; i. e., whether "hard" or "soft," 
has but little influence on the result. In none of the 
experiments was there any appreciable loss of starch 
other than that resulting from the abrasion of the 
peeled potatoes when, during the latter part of the 
boiling, they had become soft and mealy. At times, 
however, this loss amounted to nearly 3 per cent, of 
the whole nutritive value of the potato. When boiled 
with the skins on, it was almost entirely avoided. 

In order, therefore, to obtain the highest food value, 
potatoes should not be peeled before cooking. When 
the potatoes are peeled before cooking, the least loss 
is sustained by putting them directly into hot water 
and boiling as rapidly as possible. Even then the 
loss is very considerable. If potatoes are peeled and 
soaked in cold water before boiling, the loss of nu- 
trients is very great, being one-fourth of all the albu- 
minoid matter. 

Experiments were made with carrots under much 
the same condition as those with potatoes. These 
were taken as likely to show the possibility of loss 
during the cooking of roots, such as beets, parsnips, 
etc. The carrots used in the experiments were cut in 
wedge-shaped pieces, averaging about four inches in 
length. Some pieces were cut larger and some small- 
er. The loss was greatest with the small pieces, 
amounting to 30 per cent, of the total food material, 
or, more especially, to 42 per cent, of the nitrogenous 
matter, 26 per cent, of the sugar and 47 per cent, of 
the mineral constituents. It seems to make compara- 



THE CHEF 



9 



tively little difference whether the water used was 
hard or soft, or if it were hot or cold at the start. 
The mediurn-sized pieces lost the same amount, of. 
sugar as the small pieces, but less nitrogen and less 
mineral matter. As was to be expected, the least loss 
! occurred when the large-sized pieces were used, but 
even then it amounted to. one-fifth of the total nutri- 
ents, one-fifth of the nitrogenous matter, one-sixth of 
the sugar and over one-fourth of the mineral constitu- 
ents. When it is considered that carrots really con- 
tain as much water as is found in milk, it is readily 
seen that with the loss of from one-fifth to one-third 
of the whole nutritive matter there is no great food 
value left in the cooked carrots. The loss of sugar 
during the boiling of carrots is equivalent to nearly 
one pound of sugar in a bushel of carrots. 

It appears, therefore, that in order to retain the 
greatest amount of nutrients in the cooking of carrots 
(i) the pieces should be large rather than small; (2) 
the boiling should be rapid, in order to give less time 
for the solvent action of the water to act upon the 
food and ingredients; (3) as little water as possible 
should be used ; (4) if the matter extracted be used 
as food along with the carrots, instead of being 
thrown away the loss of 20 to 30 per cent., or even 
more, of the total food value may be prevented. 

Taking cabbage as a type of pot herbs in which the 
leafy portion is the part eaten, experiments similar to 
those with potatoes and carrots were made. From 
the results of these tests it appears that the kind of 
water (hard or soft) has more effect on the loss of 
nutrients than the temperature of the water when the 
cabbage is placed therein. In any case the loss of 
nutrients was found to be very great, amounting to 
one-third the total nutrients when "soft" water was 
used and two-fifths when the water was "hard." The 
loss of the more valuable albuminoids was compara- 
tively small, although the total loss of nitrogenous 
matter ranged from 32 to 46 per cent, of the total. 
More than half the mineral salts were removed, and 
from 28 to 42 per cent, of the carbohydrates. 

In a cabbage weighing three pounds there are but 
four ounces of dry matter; the remaining two and 
three-fourths pounds is water. Of this four ounces 
from one and one-fourth to one and three-fourth 
ounces may be lost during the cooking, leaving as 
much nutrients available from a three-pound cabbage 
as would be contained in about two heaping table- 
spoonsful of sugar used. This is frequently the case 
when it is cooked with corned beef. 

The losses which occur in cooking potatoes, carrots 
and cabbage vary with the different methods of boil- 
ing followed, ebbing quite considerable in some cases. 
These losses must be taken into account in computing 
dietaries, and made good by adding other materials 
to supply the nutrients lost. When the loss is not so 
great as to render it imperative that people in com- 
fortable circumstances should abandon methods of 
preparing these foods which they consider make them 



most palatable, there are very large numbers who 
cannot afford to permit even the comparatively small 
waste of food observed in these, experiments. 

The purpose of such investigations as those de- 
scribed above is to learn what actually takes place in 
the process of preparing food by the common meth- 
ods. Those having charge of preparing food must 
determine how far it is desirable under individual 
circumstances to apply the information obtained. 



NEW WINE MADE OLD. 

TO age wine by keeping it in wood or glass ties 
up capital and entails a loss by evaporation. It 
has been discovered that a similar improvement can 
be accomplished by exposure to oxygen. One ap- 
proved process consists in the introduction of oxygen, 
and its transformation into ozone in the interior of 
the mass of wine. A tubular electrode connected with 
an oxygen tank and an induction coil is inserted into 
the cask, and a portion of the oxygen thus introduced 
is converted into ozone by the electric current. The 
operation is continued for a period varying from 
twenty to ninety minutes, according to the quality and 
quantity of the wine. For distilled spirits it may be 
necessary to continue the treatment six hours. This 
rapid treatment must be followed by natural aging for 
a short time, but new Bordeaux wine acquires by this 
method, in from forty to sixty days, the quality of 
wine kept for many years in bottles. 



FOOD IN COLD STORAGE PLANTS. 

ALBERT M. READ, secretary of the American 
Warehouse Men's Association, which include^ 
thirty-two cold storage and refrigerating plants in 
various parts of the country, issued a statement en- 
deavoring to show that foodstuffs were not being 
hoarded in the cold storage plants and that no at- 
tempts were being made by the warehouse men to 
conceal the quantities they had on hand. Mr. Read 
asserted that the butter and eggs stored in twenty 
of the cold storage plants in the association belonged 
to 2,446 different persons or firms, which, he says, 
indicates there would be great difficulty in cornering 
those products. 

Mr. Read's statement of the products in storage in 
thirty of the houses shows 15,000,000 pounds of but- 
ter in storage on February 1, 1910, as against 23,000,- 
000 pounds on February 1, 1909. There are, how- 
ever, 134,000 more cases of eggs in storage this year 
than there were on February 1, 1909. According to 
Mr. Read's figures, there were more than 500,000 
cases of eggs in storage January 1, and there were 
but 183,000 there on February 1, showing that more 
than 300,000 cases were taken out of storage during 
January. 



IO 



THE CHEF 



MENUS FOR ALL SEASONS 


By "The Chef" 




MENU 




MENU 






j* j» 




•£* «3* 






Cocktail au clam 




Caviar Imperial 

sur Canape 






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THE CHEF 



II 



KIDNEY SAUTE WITH MUSHROOMS 

A la Windsor 

NOTE.— The following Three Recipes are so detailed that they may be as successfully cooked by the 

novice as by an expert. 



IN the preparation of kidneys, be they mutton, veal 
or beef kidneys, the following rules must be ob- 
served : 

ist. Conduct the operation of sauteing the kidneys 
very rapidly. 

2d. Never allow kidneys to boil in the sauce into 
which they are added, because they are not added to 
the sauce to complete their cooking, but simply to heat 
them again, their cooking having already been com- 
pleted in the first instance, by sauteing, and kidneys 
which have been previously sauted or cooked when 
placed in a sauce which is allowed to come to a boil, 
will become tough. 

Without further preamble we will proceed, giving 
all the details which are necessary and useful as we 
go along : 

PROPORTIONS FOR SIX PERSONS. TIME NECESSARY, 

25 MINUTES. 

10 mutton kidneys, or 2 veal kidneys, or I small beef 

kidney. Take your choice. 
About 6 ozs. of mushrooms, fresh or canned. 
4 ozs. of butter. 
4 tablespoonsful of olive oil. 
y 2 oz. flour. 
1 gill of bouillon. 
3 tablespoonsful of Madeira wine. 
Salt and pepper. 
One pinch of chopped parsley. 

PREPARATION THE KIDNEYS. 

The choice of kidneys is left to the taste. 

As to the weight of the different kind of kidneys, 
the mutton kidney weigh about i l / 2 oz. each, or about 
10 to the pound. 

The veal kidneys weigh about one-half pound a 
piece or two to the pound. The weight of a small 
beef kidney weighs about one pound to one and one- 
fourth pounds. 

Their freshness can always be detected by the very 
thin skin which covers all kidneys, which, if not torn, 
indicates that they have not been handled much and 
are fresh. 

TO CUT KIDNEYS. 

Mutton Kidneys. — Cut them in half through their 
thickest part, remove the skin, likewise the fat grizzle 
that is found on the interior, and proceed to cut each 
half diagonally into five pieces, making ten in all. 

Veal Kidneys. — Remove the skin which envelopes 
them, split them lengthwise, remove the fat substance 
found in the center, and cut each half into small pieces 
about one-half inch thick. 

Beef Kidneys. — Remove the skin and split them 
lengthwise, remove every and all particles of fat found 



in the center, then split each half, making four quar- 
ters and cut each piece into small slices of about one- 
half inch thickness. 

A beef kidney is known to be fresh by its color, 
which should be a light red, a kidney having a dark 
red color is one from an old animal and can also be 
detected by its strong smell of ammonia. 

While most beef kidneys smell more or less of am- 
monia, this is removed as follows : 

Place the kidney cut in small pieces in a colendar 
and plunge in a pan containing boiling hot water for 
about one second, shake the colendar well to drain 
the water therefrom, and spread the kidneys on a dry 
cloth and dry them well. 

Attention is called to the following : 

Beef kidney after being sauted and placed on a dish 
will be found to give a reddish liquid or juice, this 
should not be used, as it usually has a strong ammonia 
taste which, if put into the sauce later with the kid- 
neys, will tend to give it that flavor. This, however, 
is not so with either mutton or veal kidneys. There- 
fore, when removing beef kidney from the sauteing- 
pan, it is best to put it into a strainer or colendar until 
ready for further use. 

PREPARING THE MUSHROOMS. 

Use medium-sized mushrooms (6 oz.) whether fresh 
or canned. If fresh mushrooms are used, remove the 
earthy end, and wash them quickly in two baths of 
cold water and dry them thoroughly. 

If canned mushrooms are used, drain and dry them 
thoroughly also, for the reason that to properly saute 
mushrooms these should not be wet or damp when put 
in the fat. 

After being dried as indicated, remove the stems 
from the mushrooms and cut them in half, and pro- 
ceed to cut the mushroom ball into four or six parts, 
according to the size of the mushroom. 

COOKING THE MUSHROOMS. 

In a saucepan heat one oz. of butter and two table- 
spoonsful of oil until it begins to smoke lightly, there- 
upon add the mushrooms, and with the saucepan on 
the open fire, let them cook until they acquire a light 
brown color, remove the saucepan to the side of the 
stove, where the contents can be kept good and hot, 
and just before using the mushrooms, reset the sauce- 
pan on the open fire, and saute them again. 

SAUTEING OR COOKING THE KIDNEYS. 

Note. — While it is well known that repetition is 
monotonous, in this instance it is beneficial, therefore 



12 



THE CHEF 



we again call attention to the definition of the word 
"sauteing," which means cooking with fat in a shal- 
low saucepan, and also calling attention to the fact that 
in cooking, if copper utensils, which are all tinned on 
the inside, are used, then there are no chances taken 
of burning the food, being cooked therein, therefore 
we advise as much as possible the use of copper 
utensils. 

As soon as the mushrooms have been set to cook, 
in another saucepan heat one oz. of butter and two 
tablespoonsful of olive oil until it begins to smoke, 
season the kidneys lightly with salt and pepper, place 
them in the saucepan, which is placed on the open fire, 
so that they will cook quickly, or as might better be 
said, "sauted" quickly, and which will not take more 
than five or six minutes, in which time the pieces of 
kidney assume a hardened appearance. 

Then take them out of the saucepan with a skim- 
mer and deposit them on a platter (if beef kidneys, set 
them in a colendar), cover them over with a reversed 
soup-plate and keep them hot. 

PREPARING THE SAUCE. 

Now remove the fat, butter and olive oil from the 
saucepan from which the kidneys were taken from, 
and put one oz. of butter therein and place it on the 
stove on a medium fire, add the flour (one-half oz.) 
and stir with the wooden spoon until the flour has at- 
tained a light brown tint. Then add the bouillon (one 
gill) , which is poured on the flour little at a time, stir- 
ring continually with the spoon while so doing, and 
while so stirring let it come to a boil. 

Quickly then remove the mushrooms from the sauce- 
pan which contained them into a strainer, for the pur- 
pose of draining the fat therefrom, and add them to 
the sauce and let the whole boil again for about five 
minutes. 

Then add the kidneys, with the blood or juice that 
has escaped therefrom while on the platter while 
waiting to be used (but not the juice of beef kidneys), 
also add the three tablespoonsful of Maderia wine, 
cover the saucepan and let them stand in the sauce 
for about two minutes, with the saucepan still on the 
fire, but do not let them boil, the reason for not doing 
so has been given above. 

Then add the rest of the butter (one oz.) which is 
broken in small pieces the size of a bean, that it may 
melt quickly, and taking the saucepan by the handle 
agitate it briskly, giving it a circular motion, which 
expedites the melting of the butter and its mixing 
with the sauce. 

The seasoning must be done by tasting the sauce 
and adding more salt and pepper if necessary. 

TO SERVE. 

Pour the whole into a deep dish, care being taken 
to have the dish warm, which can be quickly done 
by pouring hot water therein before using and drying 
is thoroughly. 



Sprinkle the chopped parsley over the kidneys and 
serve. 

Baked potatoes served with this dish leaves nothing 
more to be desired. 



EGGS A LA CAMPAGNE. 

Suburban Style. 

' I ''HIS style of preparing eggs is considered very 
** simple, in other words, it is not classed with the 
grand recipes, but it comes from the good country 
housewife's recipe-book. It takes over one hour to 
make, but it is worth all of that, and there is only one 
recommendation to make concerning it — Use good, 
fresh cream, the best butter and Swiss cheese. 

Again we say, follow the proportions and directions, 
and the best chef in the world will not get better 
results : 

PROPORTIONS FOR SIX PERSONS. TIME NECESSARY 

I>4 HOURS. 

9 eggs. 

12 ounces of potatoes (weighed when peeled). 
2 large onions (weighing together about 8 oz.). 
2 tablespoonsful of rice. 

2 gills of bouillon, uncolored. 

3 ozs. of butter. 

2 gills of cream. 

3 tablespoonsful of grated Swiss cheese. 

i J/2 tablespoonsful of grated toasted bread crumbs. 
Salt, pepper, nutmeg and powdered sugar, as will be 
indicated. 

ORDER OF PREPARATION. 

With the onions, the rice and the bouillon prepare 
a thick concoction called puree (and this puree being 
called "soubise"). 

Cook the potatoes, as later directed. 

Cook the eggs, peel them and keep them hot. Fin- 
ish the puree of potatoes and the puree of onions. 

Lay the eggs on a platter, put them in the oven, 
cover with grated bread crumbs and brown, "gra- 
tines." 

Note. — "Puree" is pronounced puray, and is usually 
applied to a thick pea, bean or potato soup, and very 
often to creamy mashed potatoes, therefore, anything 
of a more or less thick consistency, thicker than a 
cream, in the vegetable line, is called a puree. 

A puree of onions and rice, or practically any sauce 
the foundation of which is onion, is called a "soubise," 
pronounced "suebiz." Gratines is pronounced "gra- 
tinay," and is usually applied to any dish which is 
completed by sprinkling grated bread crumbs, crack- 
ers or cheese over the top and set in the oven until 
browned. 

PREPARING THE PUREE OF ONION (SOUBISE). 

This preparation taking the longest time, we will 
commence with it first. 

BLEACHING THE ONIONS. 

Chop the onions very fine, lay them in a saucepan 



THE CHEF 



13 



with sufficient cold water to cover them well, set the 
saucepan on the stove, boil them for eight minutes. 

Pour them then into a strainer and drain them thor- 
oughly. The boiling or bleaching as above is done 
to remove the butter or acrid taste which is common 
with the onion, and particularly with the winter or 
late onion. 

COOKING THE ONIONS. 

After being well drained, restore them in the sauce- 
pan and set it on the stove, add one oz. of butter, and 
let the onions stew for about ten minutes, stirring 
them frequently in the meantime. (The stirring is 
done so that they will not attain any color while 
stewing). 

Then add the rice (two tablespoonsful), the bouil- 
lon (two gills), a pinch of pepper, a small pinch of 
nutmeg, a small pinch of powdered sugar. 

Let the whole come to a boil, cover the saucepan 
and put it in the oven, watching, however, that the 
boiling continues slowly for about forty minutes ; that 
is to say, until the onions and rice are well cooked, 
which will take about that time. 

When this has been done, pour the onions and rice 
into a fine strainer and with a small wooden pestle or 
potato-masher, proceed to quickly force the rice and 
onions through the strainer in a platter, and we now 
have the puree. 

Set the puree in a small saucepan, which set on the 
stove and add about three-fourths gill of cream, let 
it come to a boil, stirring it continually, remove the 
saucepan from the stove and add one ounce of butter, 
then set it on the stove to keep warm only, until it 
is to be used. Under no circumstances must it now 
be allowed to boil. 

PREPARING THE PUREE OF POTATOES. 

This puree should not be prepared more than one- 
half hour before its use ; in other words, it must not 
be left to stand too long. Therefore, with a little 
judgment, the puree of potatoes can be timed to be 
cooked just when ready for further use, which can 
be done by slow boiling. 

Peel and cut the potatoes in quarters, set them in 
a saucepan with enough cold water to cover them 
well, season with about one-third of an ounce of salt 
to a quart of water. 

Let them come to a boil and let them boil until soft 
which can be ascertained by the slight pressure of a 
spoon under which pressure they fall apart. 

And when so cooked, turn them into a colendar, 
shaking it well to drain the water therefrom thor- 
oughly. 

Then turn them into a strainer over a platter, and 
with a small wooden pestle or potato-masher, force 
the pulp through onto the platter ; do this quickly, and 
while the potatoes are hot, as it tends to facilitate the 
operation. 

Thereupon restore the potatoes (which is now called 



puree) into the saucepan, set it on the stove over a 
moderate heat, and- work the puree for about three 
minutes with a wooden spoon which will tend to make 
the puree very light. 

Then add a pinch of salt, a small pinch of pepper, 
a small pinch of nutmeg and one oz. of butter. Con- 
tinue to work it with the spoon until the butter has 
been well mixed, then add the rest of the cream (ij4 
gills) little by little while stirring the puree, and leave 
it on a warm part of the stove. 

Note. — This puree has not the consistency usual 
with potato puree, it being made a trifle thinner for this 
purpose. Also, should it be found unhandy to pro- 
cure cream, it can be replaced by reducing milk by 
boiling, which tends to partially thicken it; however, 
the puree would not be as fine as with cream, but 
would be much better than using poor cream. 

THE EGGS. 

Generally, two eggs are a portion for one person, 
but when hard-boiled eggs are considered and with 
a rather copious garnishing, one and one-half eggs 
should be found sufficient. 

Set the eggs in boiling water, which will naturally 
stop to boil when the nine eggs have been placed 
therein, due to their cooling effect on the water, and 
when the water has begun to boil again, count ten 
minutes from that time, if the eggs are extraordinarily 
large, allow one and one-half minutes longer. 

Remove them and place them in cold water for two 
minutes, remove the shells and place the eggs in warm 
water until the last one is shelled. 

PREPARING THE EGGS TO BE "GRATINES." 

Drain the water from the eggs, cut them in half 
lengthwise. Pour the potato puree in a round or oval 
moderately deep platter, set the eggs close together on 
this puree, the yolk side down, pressing them lightly, 
to sink them in the puree. 

Then cover the eggs with the puree of onions (sou- 
bise), over which sprinkle the Swiss cheese (three 
tablespoonsful, grated) with which has been mixed 
the grated toasted bread crumbs (one and one-half 
tablespoonsful). 

Divide in small pieces the rest of the butter which 
is laid on over the top of the cheese. 

Then set the platter in the oven to brown the top, 
which is done in about two minutes. 

The "gratin" being created by the combination of 
the cheese, bread crumbs and butter. 

A gas oven is very good for this purpose ; in fact, 
it is the best for this kind of "gratin." 

It is very essential that the "gratin" should take, 
place quickly, otherwise the heat will tend to dry the 
contents, therefore, see that there is a hot oven to 
"gratin" quickly. 

However, when it has attained a rich brown color, 
remove the platter from the oven and serve. 



14 



THE CHEF 



PINEAPPLE FRITTERS 



With Filbert Cream 



THE fritters as herein prepared, make an excel- 
lent dessert, on condition, however, that the de- 
tails of their preparation are followed as directed. 

While attention and care is necessary in these de- 
tails, it does not follow that they are complicated nor 
difficult. 

To a finished cook, this recipe could be given in 
probably from fifteen to twenty lines, but as we wish 
to reach the novice as well as the master of the art, 
we are therefore particular in details that the same 
results may be obtained by both. 

In this recipe particular attention is called to that 
part, where the pineapple slices are to be enveloped 
in the cream, also to their proper covering of batter: 

PROPORTIONS FOR EIGHT PERSONS. 

One can of sliced pineapple. To soak the slices, use : 

2 tablespoonsful of powdered sugar. 

4 to 6 tablespoonsful of kirsch or brandy. 

To make the cream, use : 

zyi ozs. of flour. 

2 l / 2 ozs. of powdered sugar. 

i whole egg and 3 yolks. 

2 l / 2 gills of milk. 

1 inch piece of vanilla bean. 

1 oz. butter. 

To prepare the filberts, use : 

I oz. of powdered sugar. 

1 oz. of shelled filberts. 

To prepare the batter, use : 

6 ozs. of flour. 

2 tablespoonsful of melted butter. 
1 egg. 

1 pinch of salt. 
1 pinch of sugar. 
V/ 2 gills of water. 

To sugar coat and glaze the fritters use very fine 
powdered sugar. 

ORDER OF PREPARATION. 

Prepare the batter three hours before using. Im- 
mediately thereafter prepare the almonds. Two hours 
before serving set the slices of pineapple to soak, pre- 
pare the cream, and when cool, cover the pineapple 
slices therewith. 

In about fifteen or twenty minutes, dip the cream- 
covered slices of pineapple in the batter, and fry them. 

When fried, powder with sugar, set them in the 
oven to glaze. 

PREPARATION OF THE BATTER. 

After sifting the flour (six oz.) place it in a bowl, 
hollow the center of the flour, and place therein the 
salt (one pinch), the sugar (one pinch), the melted 
butter (two tablespoonsful) and the egg. 

Using a small wooden spoon, proceed to mix the 



whole together, adding little by little, about a spoon- 
ful at the time of water {i]/ 2 gills), mix thoroughly, 
but carefully, without working the dough or batter 
more than necessary, until it has become smooth. 

A good thing to remember is that when batter is 
worked too much in the mixing, it is very apt to be- 
come tough and have an elasticity that prevents it ad- 
hering to that which is dipped into it ; however, where 
it is to set for some time before being used, even 
should it become so when worked, it will lose this 
elasticity ; however, it is better to mix it as above 
directed. 

The quantity of water mentioned herein may vary 
from one to two tablespoonsful more or less, there- 
fore, a little judgment must be used. 

Simply note that the batter is of sufficient consis- 
tency to adhere to the slices of pineapple when dipped 
therein. 

When finished preparing the batter, cover the bowl 
and let it stand until wanted. 

PREPARATION OF THE FILBERTS. 

The quantity necessary must weigh one oz. when 
shelled. And when so shelled, must be placed on a 
pan in the oven for about from three to five minutes 
for the purpose of drying them to facilitate the re- 
moval of the skin, which can easily be done by wrap- 
ping them in the corner of a towel and rubbing them 
briskly, whereupon the skin should drop off. 

Thereupon take a small saucepan or casserole into 
which put the powdered sugar (one oz.), place it on 
the stove and let it melt slowly, and as soon as the 
sugar has become a light brown, add the filberts and 
leave them stand in the sugar on the stove for about 
one minute. 

Thereupon pour the whole contents upon a pie-plate 
or similar utensil that has been previously but very 
lightly oiled with sweet oil, to prevent sticking. 

Upon the mixture becoming cool, proceed to crush 
it with a pestle or other similar utensil, until it has 
become quite fine, then pass it through a sieve, rub- 
bing it through until all has passed, should there still 
remain any particles in the sieve, renew the crushing 
process until the whole has gone through the sieve. 

Leave this stand in a bowl until required. 

PREPARATION OF THE PINEAPPLE. 

Remove the slices from the can, and dry them thor- 
oughly, lay them on a large platter, sprinkle the pow- 
dered sugar (two tablespoonsful) over them, and add 
the kirsch or brandy (four to six tablespoonsful) and 
allow same to soak, while preparing the cream, turn- 
ing over the slices three or four times in the mean- 
while so that the sugar and liquor may soak through 
thoroughly. 



THE CHEF 



15 



PREPARATION OF THE CREAM. 

Boil the milk (two and one-half gills), and when 
boiled add the vanilla bean (one-inch piece) and let 
it stand for about fifteen minutes. 

In a medium-sized saucepan put the sifted flour 
(two and one-half ozs.), the sugar (two and one-half 
ozs.), the whole egg and the three yolks, and with a 
small wooden spoon mix the whole thoroughly for 
fully ten minutes. 

Thereupon add the warm milk slowly, mixing con- 
tinually. When this is done place the saucepan on 
the stove on a slow fire, and while continually stir- 
ring let it come to a boil. 

Care must be taken not to allow the cream to stick 
to the bottom of the saucepan, and particular attention 
is called to the fact that while stirring same, to keep 
the cream agitated on the bottom and sides of the 
saucepan to prevent it burning. 

When it has reached the boiling point allow it to 
boil for about two minutes, always stirring it. 

Then remove it from the stove, remove the piece of 
vanilla, and immediately add the prepared filbert sugar 
and the butter (one oz.). 

Thereupon allow it to cool, leave the spoon stand 
in the saucepan, as it will require being stirred every 
three or four minutes to avoid a skin forming on the 
cream. 

TO COVER THE SLICES OF PINEAPPLE WITH CREAM. 

While the cream is cooling take the slices of pine- 
apple from the platter, lay them on a towel and dry 
them well. 

This is done for the reason that were they wet the 
cream would not adhere to the slices when dipped 
therein. 

Now prepare a large platter, which is very lightly 
oiled as before. It might here be mentioned that 
sweet almond oil may be used, if handy, for that pur- 
pose instead of olive oil. 

The cream being cooled, or almost so, proceed to 
dip each slice of pineapple in the cream, and that they 
may be covered thoroughly it may be well to lay them 
in the cream and remove them with a fork and lay 
them on the platter prepared for that purpose. This 
is an operation that requires great care to do properly, 
and is also important for successful results. 

COOKING THE FRITTERS. 

In the general household, the utensil used for cook- 
ing crullers and fritters is usually of medium size, 
therefore, it is best to cook half the fritters at a time 
and thereby obtain the best results. 

However, it is best to use an iron pot of about 
three- or four-quart size at least, into which there 
should be sufficient lard that when melted and hot and 
the fritters placed therein they can easily float. 

When the lard has become quite hot and begins to 
smoke, take the slices of pineapple, which are covered 
with the cream, using a fork, or even two, if neces- 



sary, and one after another dip them cream and all 
into the batter, taking pains to see that they are well 
enveloped in the batter, and drop them carefully into 
the hot fat. 

The reason that particular pains should be taken to 
see that they are well enveloped in the batter is that 
the cream would escape through any opening left, 
when put in the fat, which would tend to spoil the 
fritter. 

Otherwise with a complete covering of batter, upon 
being dropped in the hot fat, the batter quickly forms 
a crust and retains the cream and juice of the pine- 
apple which is the success of this dessert. 

However, when the fritters are in the fat, to turn 
them over use a skimmer only. And when they have 
become nicely browned, remove them with the skim- 
mer onto a dry cloth which will drain them of all fat. 

Return the pot to the stove, and again let the fat 
get hot until it smokes, and renew the operation as 
before. 

When the fritters have all been cooked, place them 
on a large flat dish and glaze them. 

TO GLAZE THE FRITTERS. 

Sprinkle the top of the fritters with the finest pow- 
dered sugar possible, the finer the sugar the better the 
glaze. Set them immediately in a hot oven, but watch 
them continually until it is seen that the sugar has 
melted, leave them for about two minutes after that 
and remove them. 

Take a round dish on which a napkin has been laid 
and set the fritters on the napkin and serve. 

Sixteen slices of pineapple can be used with the 
above ingredients if desired. Should a less number 
be used, very little waste will have resulted. 

However, it is well to mention here that a fresh 
pineapple can be used as well as the canned, and can 
be sliced into as many slices as desired. 

TROUBLE FOR HUBBY 

AT a recent tea-party, where the fare provided 
could not, by any stretch of courtesy, be termed 
palatable, a guessing game was instituted, and the lady 
who won it was asked to say what she would have 
as a prize. 

She greatly flattered her young hostess by request- 
ing a slice of the cake with which some of them had 
desperately struggled at tea-time. 

"Why did you ask for that stuff?" a disappointed 
and still hungry youth asked her. "You know very 
well it isn't fit to eat." 

"I have a definite purpose in view," answered the 
young lady, carefully placing the piece of cake where 
there would be no possibility of her forgetting it. "I 
mean to make my husband eat it — if necessary, to force 
it down his throat, crumb by crumb, and thus con- 
vince him that somewhere in the wide, wide world 
there is an even worse cook than he imagines his in- 
experienced young wife to be." 



i6 



THE CHEF 

CAULIFLOWER A LA POLONAISE 

Polonaise Style 



CAULIFLOWER, prepared as will here be ex- 
plained, is more suited for a lunch dish than for 
a dinner dish; however, for a family repast it will not 
make much difference if served for either meal, as it 
is a vegetable that is always appreciated. 

PROPORTIONS. 

For 6 persons. Time necessary to cook, 35 minutes. 
1 cauliflower, devoid of the leaves and weighing about 

1 pound. 
3 hard boiled egg yolks. 
]/ 2 tablespoonful of chopped parsley. 
1 tablespoonful of fresh bread crumbs. 
3 ounces of butter. 
The juice of J4 lemon. 
Salt and pepper. 

COOKING THE CAULIFLOWER. 

Particular attention should be given in choosing a 
good cauliflower. In the first place the flower should 
be entirely white, compact and firm. Should it not 
be so it will show it to be 'an old flower, and will fall 
to pieces in cooking. 

And then again, a cauliflower having a yellowish 
appearance, while it might be fresh, will have a very 
strong and displeasing taste. When having removed 
the leaves from around the flower, proceed to sepa- 
rate or part the flower into pieces in sizes as equal as 
possible. This will be indicated by the stems, the 
many of which form the whole flower. 

Proceed to remove with a small knife the stringy 
covering of the stems and also all the small leaves 
that will be found protruding in between the stems 
and the flower. 

When this is accomplished lay the pieces of cauli- 
flower in a basin or bowl of water into which a table- 
spoonful of vinegar has been added to each quart of 
water. 

About five minutes after the last piece of flower 
has been in this water, drain off the water, and put 
them into a pot of boiling water on the open stove 
and to which has been added one-half ounce of salt, 
and when setting them therein the water will cease 
to boil, but after a few moments it will resume boil- 
ing and from that moment count at least twenty-five 
to thirty minutes in which time the cauliflower will 
be cooked ; it is, however, better to have them firm 
than overcooked, which can be ascertained by prick- 
ing with a fork. 

PREPARATION OF THE EGGS, PARSLEY AND BREAD 

CRUMBS. 

THE EGGS. 

Cook the eggs in boiling water for ten minutes, then 
set them in cold water until entirely cold ; remove 
the shell, split them, take the yolk only and chop it 
fine, set it aside until needed. 

THE PARSLEY. 

Chop the parsley and mix with the egg yolks. 



THE BREAD CRUMBS. 

Crush about one ounce of very old, stale bread 
(excepting the crust) and pass it through a moder- 
ately fine sieve, of which use about a tablespoonful. 

SHAPING AND SERVING THE CAULIFLOWER. 

The cauliflower having cooked while preparing the 
eggs, etc., drain the water off, then take a bowl and 
commence by laying each piece around the side of 
the bowl and finishing by filling the center, which 
will tend to give the cauliflower the appearance of 
being whole and not having been cut, thereupon drain 
the water from the bowl, and then remove the cauli- 
flower on to a round platter, the bottom of which has 
been well buttered, being careful that the cauliflower 
retains its shape, to appear as a whole cauliflower. 

Season the top with a pinch of salt and one of 
pepper. Then sprinkle the top with the chopped egg 
yolks and parsley, which were previously mixed. 

This being done, put the butter (three ounces) in 
a saucepan on the stove, and on a slow fire let it 
melt until it assumes a very light brown color, and 
care must be taken here not to let it burn. There- 
fore, as soon as this color is obtained, add the bread 
crumbs (one tablespoonful), and stirring the sauce- 
pan for about three seconds the crumbs will become 
a light brown, then pour the whole over the top of 
the cauliflower and serve immediately. 

REDUCED TO DRINK WINE. 

Queer Plight of French Schooner's Crew 
—Made a Fair Exchange. 

A SHIP'S crew who exchanged casks of claret 
and cases of champagne for a few barrels of 
plain drinking water and were exceedingly glad 
of the bargain was that of the French schooner 
Argus, from Dieppe to Marseilles. After fifteen 
days' hard battle with contrary winds and waves the 
Argus had only struggled as far as Cape Finisterre, 
the stormy northeastern corner of Spain, when she fell 
in with the British liner Oceana, bound for Bombay. 

The schooner signalled "Short of water. Want 
doctor." For three days the crew had not had a drop 
of water to drink, and had been reduced to living on 
champagne and claret. These temporarily stimulat- 
ing beverages of course tended to heat up the blood 
and create more thirst, and in the absence of water 
the sufferers had to drink more wine. 

The consequence was that most of the men were 
disabled through acute gastritis and fever. In ex- 
change for water, the Argus gave away a large quan- 
tity of wine to the crew of the Oceana. "We are 
tired of it," the Frenchmen said. 



THE CHEF I7 

THREE FISH DINNERS ALWAYS IN SEASON 

Must Be Cooked Carefully, and Served Temptingly— Salmon, Bluefish 
and Weakfish Can Always Be Found at the Market 



T^ISH to be prime must have three considerations — 
-*- first, it must be absolutely fresh ; second, it must be 
properly cooked in the manner prescribed in the recipe 
chosen, and, third, it must be properly dished and 
served daintily to be not only appetizing but acceptable. 
There is no other food so dangerous to take into the 
human stomach as fish that is not fresh, it being pe- 
culiarly poisonous under adverse conditions' There is 
nothing so uninviting as underdone or improperly 
cooked fish, either, and there is no food that looks less 
tempting than badly broken or mussily served fish. 
Here is a good fish menu: — 

Little Neck Clams on Half Shell. 

Clam Bisque. 

Broiled Bluefish. 

Baked Potatoes. Asparagus Tips. 

Endive Salad. 
Roquefort Cheese. Apricot Pie. 
Whipped Cream and Coffee. 
The clam bisque is made in the usual way, the richer 
the milk the better the bisque, and unsalted butter 
should be used if possible. In broiling the bluefish be 
sure that it is wiped dry and have the broiler well 
greased with good suet. Have the serving platter hot 
and cook it over a moderately hot but even fire. Gar- 
nish it with sliced lemon and watercress. The aspar- 
agus tips serve on toast with a rich drawn butter. The 
potatoes may be scooped out of the skins, seasoned 
with butter, pepper, sale and a little rich cream and 
placed back in the skins and heated if the cook has 
the time to do them. The salad bowl must be lined 
with crisp white lettuce leaves well chilled, then the 
endive cut in small pieces, a green pepper cut into thin 
strips and a piece of Roquefort cheese crumbled 
through the endive. Just before serving add the 
French dressing. The apricot pie is excellent, made 
of dried apricots, soaked and stewed, cooled and 
tucked into the puff paste flaky crust. 

A second menu shows other methods of fish serving 

that are quite as acceptable as the first: — 

Oysters on the Half Shell. 

Fish Chowder. 

Boiled Salmon, Sauce Tartare. 

Glazed Sweet Potatoes. Panned Spinach. 

Cream Cheese Salad. 

Pineapple Shortcake. Coffee. 

The fish chowder is made from three pounds of 

fresh codfish. In the bottom of the kettle place a few 

slices of salt pork that have been fried a delicate brown, 

then a layer of finely minced onion and a layer of the 

fish. Sprinkle with a few bread crumbs and a layer 

of thinly sliced potatoes. Season well and cover with 

water and cook slowly ; when done add two quarts 



of hot milk and scald up once all together and serve. 
The salmon, the king of fishes, should be boiled 'in 
a linen cloth and carefully drained. Garnish it with 
the white rings of hard boiled eggs with parsley drawn 
through them. The potatoes are first boiled, then put 
in a pan with butter, sugar, pepper and salt and a 
little water to brown and glaze. The spinach is boiled 
and drained, then browned in a pan with hot butter. 

The salad bowl for this salad is lined with crisp 
cold lettuce leaves and one package of cream cheese is 
put through the ricer over it, then the French dressing 
is added. The shortcake is made in the same way that 
the strawberry ones are, and whipped cream may be 
put on it if liked. The cake is best of the biscuit dough 
if it is light and soft. 

Now for a third dinner, and it would certainly seem 
to the proverbial onlooker — the man up a tree — that 
the devout should not grow gaunt and thin upon a fish 
diet of this sort, but rather wax sleek and fat. The 
menu : — ■ 

Caviar on Toast. 

Scallop Saute. 

Stuffed and Baked Weakfish. 

Potatoes au Gratin. French Peas. 

Lobster Salad, Cheese Straws. 

Iced Rice Custard, Whipped Cream. 

Turkish Coffee. 

To saute the scallops, mince a shallot fine and put 
it in the porcelain saucepan with two tablespoons of 
butter. When all is melted add the scallops and keep 
turning them lightly. Add a wine glass of sherry, 
pepper, salt and a gill of cream, to which two egg yolks 
have been added, and a little finely chopped parsley. 
When the scallops are done serve immediately, over 
the most delicately toasted slices of bread with the 
crusts cut off. The fish stuffing should be savory and 
highly seasoned, and when basting the fish a little 
melted butter and a trifle of white wine add a delicious 
flavor to it. Garnish the fish with hard boiled egg, 
sliced, and sprays of parsley. Make the lobster salad 
with the usual heavy mayonnaise. 

Be sure, in making the custard, to have it firm, but 
also very rich and creamy, and a few finely chopped 
nuts may be added to the whipped cream to serve over 
it if it is not too rich. 

Hot biscuits are particularly nice with all sorts of 
fish and may be added to these menus. Parker House 
rolls and the raised biscuits are the greatest favorites. 

Relishes may also be added — those that are the best 
liked — such as olives, radishes, celery, devilled eggs, 
pickles, beets and other sweet or sour pickles, salted 
nuts and sauces. Cocktails, wines or any of the dinner 
wine cups or punches that may be favored, can also be 



i8 



THE CHEF 



included. Very few sweets go with the serving of fish 
dinners, as a rule. 

A FRIDAY LUNCHEON 

Appetizing and Healthy 

TAKE three small eels, cut into pieces less than 
two inches long, wash, and while they are drain- 
ing put two tablespoonsful of butter into a saucepan, 
and in this butter brown a small onion cut up very fine. 
Slightly salt the eels, throw them into the saucepan 
and let them stew gently for about ten minutes. Into 
this stew pour a tin of green peas, add some parsley 
choped fine, salt and pepper to taste and stew gently 
for another half hour. Serve very hot and with it 
serve baked potatoes. 

For the dessert bake Indian meal mush — the po- 
lenta, which to the Italian is what rice is to the Oriental 
— slightly flavored with ginger (and sprinkled with 
tiny dabs of butter) in individual pudding cups, and 
serve with cream and sugar. 

CANAPE OF KIPPERED HERRING 

Pick out all bones, skin and mash through a colan- 
der ; then mix with whipped cream to proper thick- 
ness, add Maderia, pepper, salt, if necessary, and a 
suspicion of onion juice. Serve on fresh made thin 
toast. 

VEAL MAY BE SERVED IN VARIOUS 
WAYS. 

Cheaper Than Beef— Must Not he Overlooked 
by the Housewife— How it Is Best Cooked. 

A GREAT deal is said by scientific dieticians for 
and against the use of veal. In spite of its 
supposed qualities that lack nutrition, are relaxing 
and prone to give the too frequent eater indigestion, 
the good qualities are too many to afford overlooking 
by the home cook. 

A famous French cook once called veal the "chame- 
leon of the kitchen," for it is subject to so many 
metamorphoses. Then, as it comes to market plenti 
fully, its prices are less, but as its keeping qualities 
are not so great as those of beef it has to be watched 
most carefully. 

From March to October veal is prime ; the rest ot 
the months it is fair, and the whiter the meat the 
better it is. The usual manner in which veal is cut 
for market is in four quarters, with eleven ribs to each 
forequarter. The large pieces are the roasting pieces, 
such as the fillet, the knuckle and the loin. The breast 
of veal is favored for stews. 

Calves' feet, besides being used for the daintiest 
of jellies, are boiled after having been "frenched," 
and are served with parsley and butter for a luncheon 
dish, or fricassed, after boiling and boning, they. are 
dipped into a rich butter and fried in hot lard. 

The sweetbreads are a most toothsome delicacy, and 
may be prepared in a number of ways, combined with 



mushrooms or peas, and are a great favorite addi- 
tion in the chafing dish cookery. The calf's head is 
used for the famous mock turtle soup, and the tongue 
is used in it diced. The brains make most excellent 
fritters. They are first boiled in salted water, which 
is thrown off once ; then they are blanched and the 
large veins cut away, and then they are chopped for 
the batter. 

The shoulder boned and stuffed with a savory 
dressing and roasted is fine when it is hot, but is even 
finer still when it is cold sliced thin down through 
the dressing and all. Or the slices may be placed on 
a plate on a steamer, and when it is hot covered with 
a rich tomato sauce. 

All remnants of roasts are left overs, and may be 
chopped fine, be well seasoned, adding bread crumbs, 
butter and eggs and made into croquettes or a veal 
loaf and baked. A little bit of cold boiled ham 
chopped with it adds to the flavor. The white veal 
bones are specially used for bouillon, white soups and 
sauces. As veal is quite mucilaginous it is always 
easy to jelly any of the dishes. 

Veal cutlets, plain broiled, breaded or baked, are 
always liked, also cooked in casserole with butter, 
parslev. sherry, a slice of lemon, juice of an onion 
and one clove. 

Calves' liver may be larded and roasted, delicately 
broiled and served with butter, pepper and salt, or 
fried with good bacon. It is also occasionally boiled 
and chopped fine and made into hash served on toast 
as a breakfast or luncheon dish. 

The famous veal and ham pie is usually made from 
the cutlets, thin slices of pink ham and light, flaky puff 
paste. Veal croquettes and veal sausages are also 
excellent as luncheon dishes. 

The home menu may be most varied by taking any- 
one of these suggestions and working it in between 
more expensive meat dishes. Any of the dishes given 
will prove to be economical, tasty and not in the least 
unwholesome. 

While veal is not considered as an aristocrat of the 
meat market, its sweetbreads are to be found compos- 
ing some of the daintiest dishes served to the most 
exclusive inner circle of the smart set. 

BRUNSWICK STEW 

Cut in small pieces about five pounds of gray squir- 
rels, one-half pound of fat salt pork into dices, brown 
well together; remove the fat, add two tablespoonsful 
of flour, mix well and let brown a little while in the 
oven; moisten with veal stock; let boil a few minutes, 
then add six sliced raw potatoes, six sliced raw toma- 
toes, two sliced raw Spanish onions, two chopped 
green peppers ; season to taste and let simmer for a 
half hour. Then add one pint of shelled lima beans, 
six raw corn cut off the ears; let simmer again for 
a half hour. Remove all the fat before serving. 

N. B. — If you cannot get the squirrels, use hare or 
chicken in place. 



THE CHEF 



19 



SOUPS AND VEGETABLES 



SPLIT PEA SOUP. 

Otherwise Known as Puree of Peas. 

CLEAN by washing one pint of split green peas, 
put them in a three-quart size saucepan, with one 
quart of fresh water, two pinches of salt and about 
one-half pound of raw ham. 

Set to boil on a good fire, and when it has boiled 
for about fifteen minutes, add (chopped in small 
pieces) one large size carrot, two small onions, a 
large branch of celery, a sprig of thyme, one bay leaf, 
a pinch of sugar and salt to suit; set to cook slowly 
until the peas are of a thick creamy consistancy. 

Pass through a strainer, replace in the saucepan, 
and add about one quart of boiling hot water and 
about two ounces of butter. Let it come to a boil 
and serve, with or without, small dice-like squares of 
bread that have been browned in butter in a 
frying-pan. 

BAKED SPLIT PEAS PUREE 

Soak a pint and a half of split peas over night, pour 
off the water and put over the fire in cold water to 
which has been added a pinch of baking soda. Boil 
until soft and rub through a colander to a thick puree. 
Stir this up well with a teaspoonful of celery salt, a 
tablespoonful of melted butter and a tablespoon ful of 
hot milk. At the very last add the whites of two eggs 
beaten to a stiff froth. Pour into a pudding dish and 
bake in a brisk oven for fifteen minutes until a rich 
and golden brown. Serve hot. 

CARROTS A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL 

' I V AKE small new carrots, of an size equal as 
-*- possible, set them in a pan containing salt water 
enough to cover them, and let them boil for about five 
minutes ; remove and drain them and set them 
into a saucepan and sprinkle them with about five to 
eight tablespoonsful of uncolored bouillon, about one 
ounce of butter, a good pinch of salt, a tiny pinch of 
sugar. Set the saucepan on the stove and let them 
cook until the bouillon has reduced about one-half ; 
remove the carrots to a vegetable dish and add to the 
sauce about one teaspoonful of corn-starch and about 
one ounce of butter, which is added little by little while 
the sauce is being stirred, and when well mixed pour 
over the carrots and serve. 



CORN STARCH— TOMATO SOUP. 

Otherwise Known as County Fair. 

PLACE one ounce of butter in a two-quart sauce- 
*■ pan, and fry therein one ounce of bacon which 
has been cut in small dice-like pieces, add also a 
small carrot, or the one-third of one of ordinary size, 
a pinch of thyme and one bay leaf. Allow this to 
fry until the bacon has become absolutely crisp. 

Then add one-half can of tomatoes (about one 
pint), a pinch of sugar and one-half pint of boiling 
water or beef broth, if any is at hand ; let it come to 
a boil, and cook for about five minutes after which 
remove and pass through a fine strainer, replace the 
strained liquid in the saucepan, add one quart of boil- 
ing water and about one ounce of corn-starch dis- 
solved in cold water. Let the whole boil for about 
five minutes, then add one-half pint of cold milk, and 
serve, with or without, small dice-like squares of 
bread that have been browned in butter in a frying- 
pan. 

SWEET POTATOES, GEORGIA STYLE 

Have the sweet potatoes well boiled, peel and form 
them in a banana shape, fry in butter until a nice 
golden color, lay them in a deep silver platter, pour 
crumbled chestnuts over the potatoes, add a liberal 
quantity of Jamaica rum, set on fire and serve. 

EGG PLANT, SICILIENNE STYLE 

Slice an equal quantity of egg-plant and fresh toma- 
toes. Put them in layers into a deep baking dish, 
season with salt and pepper, add a little fine chopped 
shallots, moisten with a good chicken broth, put some 
fresh bread crumbs and Parmesan cheese on top, add 
a few small pieces of fresh butter and bake for twenty 
minutes. 

BAKED BEAN PUREE 

AFTER soaking in cold water for an hour or two, 
thoroughly boil pint of dried white beans until 
perfectly soft; rub through a colander into a thick 
puree. Add parsley, thyme or celery salt, pepper and 
salt to taste and fill into a pudding dish. Moisten the 
top with a very little milk or cream, and cover with 
a thick layer of cracker crumbs well sprinkled with 
tiny dabs of butter. Set into a moderate oven and 
bake to a rich golden yellow. Serve hot. 



A TOAST 

"We may live without books, — what is knowledge but 
grieving ? 

We may live without hope, — what is hope but de- 
ceiving? 

We may live without love, — what is passion but pin- 
ing? 

But where is the man who can live without dining?" 



20 



THE CHEF 



MABEL'S CAKE RECIPES 



MABEL'S BLACK LAYER OR LOAF 
CAKE 

PROPORTIONS. 

H cup butter, 

i cup sugar, 

ij^ cups sour milk. 

2 egg yolks. 

i teaspoonful cinnamon, 

i teaspoonful ground cloves, 

i level teaspoonful of baking soda. 

J4 teaspoonful cream of tartar. 

I cup chopped raisins. 

2^2 cups flour. 

Cream the butter and sugar, then add the egg yolks, 
sift in the flour with the baking-soda and cream of 
tartar, add the spices and raisins, then the milk ; stir 
thoroughly until well mixed, and bake either for layer 
or loaf. 

FINE POUND CAKE 

PROPORTIONS. 

Y 2 lb. butter. 

i lb. pulverized sugar. 

6 eggs. 

1 lb. flour. 

i heaping teaspoonful of baking powder. 
i cup of milk. 

Cream butter and sugar until very light, beat the 
yolks of the six eggs until light and add them with 
the creamed butter and sugar, mix thoroughly. Then 
add milk a little at a time while mixing. 

Sift the flour and baking-powder five times and 
mix with the above, beat the whites of the eggs until 
they become very stiff, which are also added, and 
with flavoring extract preferred, the whole is stirred 
and mixed thoroughly. Bake for one hour in a mod- 
erate oven. 

TASTY MUFFINS 

PROPORTIONS. 
y 2 cup butter. 

2 tablespoonsful sugar. 
2 eggs. 

2 cups flour. 

i J4 teaspoonsful of baking-powder. 

1 cup of milk. 

2 pinches of salt. 

Mix the butter and sugar, and add the two eggs 
well beaten, sift and add the flour, salt and baking- 
powder, mix well, then add the milk and mix lightly. 

Bake in muffin-tins in a hot oven. 



CHESTNUT PATTIES 

Beat together until smooth one egg and one cupful 
of pulverized sugar. Add one cupful of chestnut 
meats that have been put through a meat grinder, 
five tablespoonsful of flour and one teaspoonful of 
baking-powder. Beat lightly, then drop by spoonsful 
on buttered tins. Dust with pulverized sugar and 
cinnamon and bake in a quick oven. 

GERMAN MARDI GRAS CAKE 

Half a pound of flour, three tablespoonsful of sugar, 
four tablespoonsful of butter, a teaspoonful of salt, 
two eggs and the yolks of two others are worked into 
a dough, then cover with a cloth and let stand for 
three hours in a cool place. Roll out to the thickness 
of a knife-blade and with a pastry wheel cut into 
strips four, inches long and one inch wide. Bake in 
briskly boiling lard to a delicate light brown, sprin- 
kle liberally with sugar and cinnamon and serve while 
still warm. 

FIG ALMOND PASTE 

Pick over and chop fine a pound of choice figs, cover 
with boiling water and simmer until very soft, then 
drain off the water and boil it down to a cupful. Rub 
the figs through a hair sieve and return the paste to 
the water with the addition of three pounds of gran- 
ulated sugar. Simmer until the paste is so thick it 
cannot be stirred, being careful not to let it scorch ; 
then pour into pans lined with oiled paper and stud 
the top with split blanched almonds. When nearly cold 
cut the paste into inch squares with an oiled knife of 
into three-inch strips. 

COCOANUT BUTTER DROPS 

To make cocoanut drops take one cup of sugar and 
one-half cup of butter and thoroughly blend them. 
Add two eggs, one-half cup of milk, one teaspoonful 
of vanilla, two level teaspoonsful of baking-powder 
sifted with two cups of flour and, last, one cup of 
shredded cocoanut. To have a very palatable change 
you could add cinnamon and ginger. Drop the mix- 
ture by spoonsful on a buttered tin and bake in a good 
hot oven. 



FILLING AND ICING 

Take one and one-half cups of sugar, boil in one- 
half cup of water until it hairs or becomes stringy, 
pour the sugar on the beaten whites of two eggs and 
beat the whole until cold, flavor with any extract 
preferred. Lemon is considered the better. 



"I drink to one, and only one, — 
And may that one be she 
Who loves but one, and only one,- 
And may that one be me." 



THE CHEF 



21 



HOW THE JAPANESE STRENGTHEN THE 

STOMACH. 

A Healthy Stomach the Basis of All Strength— What the Japanese Eat in 

Summer and in Winter. 



T N the opinion of the samurai of old Japan the first 
*■ step to the upbuilding of the physical body lay in 
the direction of choosing a sound, sensible diet. This 
did not mean a diet in which meats and condiments 
figured largely. Unlike the Chinese, the Japanese sel- 
dom cared for meat, even when they could well afford 
it. In fact, meat has but little vogue among the na- 
tives of Japan to-day. 

In 1899 the Emperor appointed a commission to 
investigate for determination as to whether it would 
be advisable to take steps that would bring about taller 
and bulkier physique among his subjects. The Japa- 
nese are notably smaller than their brethren of Europe 
and of America ; and the Emperor had a passing no- 
tion that his race might be improved through attain- 
ment to greater size. One of the questions that his 
Majesty propounded to the commission was as to 
whether the successful encouragement of a partial 
meat diet would be of advantage. The report of the 
commission, when its long and arduous labors had 
been completed, was to the effect that no material 
advantage could result from increase in height or 
weight. So far as meat diet went, the commission 
reported that the Japanese has always managed to do 
without it, and that their powers of endurance and 
their athletic prowess exceeded those of any of the 
Caucasian races. Japan's diet stands on a foundation 
of rice. This is prepared either by boiling or steaming. 
This grain as it is prepared by the Japanese house- 
wife, bears no resemblance to the sodden mess that 
is placed occasionally on American tables. The grain 
comes to the table — which in Japan is usually the floor 
— soft, steaming and a palatable food that requires no 
condiments to make it highly acceptable to the stom- 
ach. When the rice is boiled it is never stirred. When 
the rice is steamed it, of course, requires no stirring. 
Of late years an attempt has been made to introduce 
white wheat flour into Japan. While a few of the 
natives have added this to their diet, wheat flour is 
still unpopular. The Japanese find rice more pala- 
table, more healthful and productive of greater 
strength and energy. When these little people crave 
something in the semblance of bread or cake they 
make most delicious little "pats" with rice flour as 
the basis. 

In one form or another rice finds its way to the 
Japanese table — or floor — at every meal. Of late years 
potatoes have found their way into Japan. These 
tubers are to be found in the markets of all the large 
cities, but if the Japanese eat them at all they do so 
mainly as a matter of curiosity. Rice still continues 



to take the place of white wheat flour and of potatoes. 
It is the essential thing in the diet of the people of 
the "Land of the Rising Sun." 

When making phenomenal marches Japanese 
troops often carry no food except a small bag of rice. 
When practicable, barley and beans are issued in small 
quantities, though this is done only for the sake of 
adding variety to the diet. A small handful of rice 
thrown into boiling water over the camp-fire furnishes 
a meal that gives ideal nourishment — that is, the sus- 
tenance that brings endurance without reaction. 

A traveler approaching the Japanese coast will see 
so many junks that he cannot be blamed for conclud- 
ing that every family in the Empire must own at 
least one of these odd, serviceable craft. There is 
not a point along the inhabited coast where a fleet 
of junks is not to be seen. One globe-trotting wag 
of a naturalist has declared that in the Japanese wa- 
ters there are forty thousand varieties of fish, all but 
three kinds of which are edible. He added that there 
are something more than forty thousand ways of pre- 
paring these fish. There are nowhere in the world 
such prolific fishing-grounds as are to be found around 
the shores of Japan. The fish are caught in such 
numbers, and with so little difficulty, that naturally 
they form an important item in the Japanese diet and 
apparently with the best of results. 

Very often the fish is served raw, either in a nat- 
ural state or in very mild pickle. When the fish are 
boiled no condiment but salt is used. Broiled fish is 
not often met with, but in the wealthier families it is 
served with a dressing of melted butter. By far the 
commonest way of preparing fish is first to dry it, and 
then to boil it with a little salt. Dried fish is served, 
either with or without, boiling over rice. A bowl of 
this grain and a handful of fish is considered an ample 
meal for the coolie who is called upon to perform 
ten or twelve hours of hard manual toil in a day. 

Vegetables and fruit form a most important part in 
the diet of the Japanese. While rice comes first of all 
in their estimate of nourishing properties, vegetables 
play a second part, with fish a good third, and fruit 
fourth in the scale. With the exception of potatoes 
the Japanese have an abundance of all the vegetables 
that grow in the United States. They are fond of 
lettuce, and especially so at night, their claim being 
that these green leaves serve excellently as a sedative 
to the nerves. As nervous disorders are seldom en- 
countered among these little people, their claim is en- 
titled to some respect. Tomatoes and carrots are held 
in high esteem, and although the Japanese are un- 



22 



THE CHEF 



doubtedly the most polite people in the world, few of 
them let a week go by without eating two or three 
dishes of sliced raw onions. There are some features 
of the Japanese cuisine that are sure to seem odd to 
the American housewives. While onions are never 
served in the cooked state — as the Japanese contend 
that heat destroys their food value — cucumbers are 
boiled and served hot. Radishes are boiled and of- 
fered in a very mild pickle. Celery is served in this 
same way. Fruit is not often seen at table. It is 
eaten generally between meals. 

Upon first acquaintance a Caucasian who glories in 
his "three square meals" is not likely to be satisfied 
with the meals that are served in a Japanese house. 
A very good idea of the ordinary diet of a Japanese 
laborer may be gained from the conversation with a 
native coal-heaver on a ship in Nagasaki harbor. A 
coal lighter lay alongside. Native men, women, boys 
and girls were working like beavers. The coal was 
shoveled into baskets, the weight of these loaded bas- 
kets running anywhere from thirty to fifty pounds. 
These baskets were passed up through an open port, 
the Japanese standing close enough to each other to 
toss and catch the baskets, which in this manner ar- 
rived at their destination in the ship's bunkers. From 
the chattering and laughter of the heavers one would 
have fancied that it was all play — but it was down- 
right hard work. At noon word was passed, and all 
the heavers of both sexes and of all ages clustered 
on the deck of the lighter. Accompanied by a Jap- 
anese friend, I crossed the plank to the coal-laden 
craft. None of the laborers resented my very evident 
curiosity as to their noonday hour. Few had begun 
to eat. Approaching one stalwart-looking little man 
whom I had already picked out as the Oriental Her-> 
cules of the crowd, I asked : 

"Have you no food?" 

"Oh, yes," he answered, smilingly, and held up a 
little fragment of dingy blue cloth in which something 
was wrapped. He opened the bundle to display his 
noonday meal — an apple, a tomato and an onion. 

"Is that all you have to eat?" I asked. 

"Why, yes," came his reply. "I would not care to 
eat more just now. I have five hours more of work 
to do this afternoon." 

"How about your friends here? Have they brought 
no more to eat than you have done?" 

"Perhaps." came the smiling, shrugging response. 
"They will show you." 

A woman near by had in a little tin something like 
three heaping tablespoons ful of cooked rice. Another 
produced from her bundle two raw tomatoes and a 
thin rice cake of a diameter of a little more than two 
inches. A child had two similar cakes and an apple. 
And this gives a very fair idea of what these hard- 
working people found sufficiently nourishing food on 
which to do five hours more of work of coal-passing. 
Returning to the man whom I had first questioned I 
inquired : 



"What did you eat for breakfast this morning?" 

"Oh, something very nice — a bowl of rice with a 
few strips of dried fish." 

"And what will you eat to-night when your day's 
work is done?" 

"I do not know. That is for my wife to say. Prob- 
ably she will give me some boiled fresh fish, some let- 
tuce, tomatoes, onions and cucumbers or radishes. But 
it will be dark before we reach home, for as soon as 
we leave here we shall go on to the baths. You know 
we people who handle coal all day long must be very 
dirty at night." 

I inquired of the man if there was not something I 
could get him from the ship. He replied that he would 
be very glad to have some water, and handed me a 
bucket in which to bring it. I returned to the lighter 
with distilled water that had passed through an ice- 
packed worm. My man thanked me, took a sip of the 
water and spat it overboard. 

"Too cold," he remarked, "I will set it in the sun 
for a little while." 

That same evening I had the good fortune to be 
invited with my native friend to the house of a well- 
to-do and liberal Japanese merchant. My host, his 
wife, two sons and a daughter, my friend and myself 
seated ourselves in a circle on the floor, while three 
trim little maids set out before us the evening meal. 
Just as nearly as I can remember it to-day the menu 
of the repast ran as follows : 

First a bowl of fragrant tea. The tea was renewed 
through the meal as often as a bowlful had been con- 
sumed. The first dish consisted of a rather tiny bowl 
of fish chowder. Then came rice with more fish. 
With this were served lettuce, tomatoes and onions 
accompanied by boiled cucumbers and celery. A little 
dish of chopped raw carrots came to each guest. A 
small dish of some preserved fruit was served with 
dessert, and with this well-browned cakes of rice flour. 
Still more tea was brought on, and the men lighted 
cigarettes. 

Fearing that my Caucasian tastes in food might not 
be satisfied, the host asked, early in the progress of 
the meal, if he should not send one of his people to 
the hotel for a steak or a cut of roast beef. But the 
meal was so dainty and appetizing that to have tainted 
it with meat would have seemed like a desecration. 

It will be noted in Japan that milk is seldom found 
in the diet. For this there is a very good reason. 
The people so seldom use meat that there is no profit 
in keeping cows. Butter is often met with, but this 
is usually tinned butter imported from the United 
States or from Australia. Practically the only differ- 
ence between winter and summer diets is that in the 
former the food is used to obtain heat, hence more 
fish is used in winter. Rice is more frequently served 
in baked or toasted cakes. The fruits are dried for 
winter use. Hard-boiled eggs are much eaten as heat- 
ing food. The amount of food is slightly increased in 
winter, but at first the beef-eating Caucasian would 



THE CHEF 



23 



find any Japanese meal too light. The Japanese be- 
lieve that at all seasons we eat too much, give the 
stomach too much work to do and therefore cannot 
develop the utmost strength. Undoubtedly they are 
right ; at least they have proved the value of their own 
system of feeding. 

Meat is not used as a heating food even in the cold- 
est days of winter. Neither are potatoes. The Jap- 
anese do not heat houses. If they are cold they 
dress to meet their requirements of the outside weath- 
er. On rare occasions they light hibachi. These are 
little charcoal stoves that do not add greatly to the 
heat of a room, and are used principally as a means, 
of lighting pipes or cigarettes. The Japanese do not 
believe in artificial, external heat as a means to health 
in cold weather. 

Here are sample menus of the food eaten by a 
healthy adult person in a Japanese family where the 
cost of living is not a troublesome consideration : 

SUMMER. 

Breakfast. — Fruit, a bowl of rice, a small portion of 
cooked fresh fish and a bowl of tea. 

Luncheon. — Very often nothing is eaten but fruit, 
sometimes augmented by a little rice or vegetables in 
small quantities, either alone or a little rice are taken. 

Dinner. — Rice with fresh fish, and two or three 
vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, carrots, radishes, 
celery, lettuce, turnips, cabbage (raw) and spinach, 
either cooked or boiled. Tea of course is part of the 
meal. 

WINTER. 

Breakfast. — Rice with fresh fish or more often with 
dried fish, possibly a hard-boiled egg or two and 
browned rice cakes, with tea. Dried fruits, either 
uncooked or stewed, are often served. 

Luncheon. — Rice cakes or boiled rice with stewed 
fruit and tea. 

Dinner. — Boiled rice and fish, stewed dried fruit, 
hard-boiled eggs, more rice-cakes and tea. 

This is the diet of the Japanese — the kind of food 
that kept the samurai in the best of health, in phe- 
nomenal strength and with muscles that defied strains 
that would be appalling to the average Caucasian. If 
any hearty eater among the white races believes such 
a diet would prove weakening let him try it for a few 
weeks, and he will discover that his strength is on the 
increase. Such stomach troubles as indigestion will 
have disappeared. The man who goes to Japan with a 
dyspepsia cure, unless he can find trade enough among 
the foreign residents, is sure to fail. 



Ouericus. — "Who is the happier, a man who has 
£100,000 or one who has seven daughters?" 

Rabbi.— "The latter." 

"Why?" 

"The man with the £ 100,000 wants more ; the other 
doesn't." 



NEW USE FOUND FOR GRAPE FRUIT. 

An Agreeable Salad. 

MRS.- NEWHOME met her neighbor, Mrs. Old- 
erone, in the new market in Main Street yester- 
day morning. Mrs. Olderone was talking with the 
greengrocer about grapefruit. A large one had been 
cut open and was on the glass case before her, and 
she was saying, "You may send me a box just like 
that one." Her new neighbor then exclaimed, "What 
fine looking grapefruit. We do like them so much. 
But they are expensive — from fifteen to twenty cents 
each. And they are so poor this year. They are dry 
and thick skinned." 

"So they are, my dear," responded Mrs. Olderone, 
"if you don't know how to buy them. You know that 
there are two kinds. The Florida grape fruit is very 
different and far superior to that which comes from 
California. I always make an effort to get those from 
Florida. They are thin skinned, full of juice and have 
the genuine flavor of Catawba grapes. 

"Of course, you know that the usual way to serve 
grapefruit salad is either with French dressing or 
mayonnaise, but we have discovered that such concoc- 
tions are rather rich if served every night with other 
heavy food. 

"The other day my sister came to take luncheon 
with me, and knowing her aversion to olive oil, I 
prepared the grapefruit in a different way and called 
it 'grapefruit relish.' I'll give you the recipe: 

"Peel and slice thin two russet apples. Pour the 
juice and pulp of one large grapefruit over the ap- 
ple and set away in a cold place. Chop very fine one 
root of celery, using all of the green top as well as 
the stalks. Add to this one dozen English walnuts 
chopped, and season the two with a little salt, add to 
the fruit and serve with the meat course. It takes 
the place of pickles and makes a delightful relish. 

"There is a certain flavor about grapefruit which 
no orange has, and it makes a delicious dessert, sprin- 
kled with sugar and served with home-made sponge 
cake. 

"I don't feel as if I could keep house without a box 
of grapefruit. They are far ahead of medicine." 

A TOAST 

TO A LOST LOVE. 

Who wins his love shall lose her; 

Who loses her shall gain, 
For still the spirit wooes her, 

A soul without a stain, 
And memory still pursues her 

With longings not in vain, 
He dreams she grows not older 

The land of dreams among; 
Though all the world wax colder, 

Though all the songs be sung, 
In dreams doth he behold her 

Still fair and kind and young. 



24 



THE CHEF 



SOME JOKES ON ROYALTY 

Even the German Kaiser With All the Majesty that 

Hedges Him, Cannot Overawe the Funny Man 

Who Sometimes Trifles With His Dignity. 

RULERS do not always escape the practical joker, 
although royalty, as a rule, is impatient of trifling 
and sensitive to ridicule. Even the Kaiser is ruffled, 
now and then, by an irreverent jest at his expense. 

What makes these jokes the funnier to the world 
in general is the fact that the joker has to beware of 
diverse and dreadful penalties for lese majeste. The 
monarch himself may not notice them, but there are 
always obsequious officials who think to recover the 
royal dignity by pursuing the humorist. 

A couple of years ago a German paper, presumably 
for a joke, published a paragraph to the effect that 
the favorite flower of the Kaiser was a red carnation. 
The paragraph was copied in almost every paper in 
the country, and when, a few days later, the emperor 
visited Aix-la-Chapelle, all those deputed to receive 
him wore red carnations in their buttonholes. 

The Kaiser frowned angrily, but no one knew why 
until next day, when some one, a little wiser than the 
rest, informed them that the flower was the emblem 
of his pet abominations, the Social Democrats. 

One of the most extraordinary hoaxes on record is 
said to have been played upon the Dewan Lalla Mool- 
raj, a native potentate of the Punjab, during the sec- 
ond Sikh War, in the winter of 1848- 1849. The British 
army, commanded by Sir Hugh Gough, had shut up 
the Dewan and his forces in the fortified city of 
Mooltan. One day the besiegers were amazed by the 
thunderous sound of a most extraordinary cannonade, 
followed, not by shot or shell, but by an assortment of 
miscellaneous provisions in a very fragmentary con- 
dition raining into the British lines. 

The Sikh chieftain, it was afterward discovered, 
had found in the city a large store of canned meats, 
of the nature of which he was completely ignorant. 
A native spy in British pay gravely informed him that 
they were powerful explosives, and, hence, for some 
days the British camp was greeted with showers of 
Strasburg pates and other more or less mangled but 
perfectly eatable tinned food. 

SHEEP'S COAT MADE MAN'S IN 
HALF A DAY 

A Remarkable Manufacturing Record Established 
Ninety-six Years Ago Has Yet to Be Beaten 

TO ECORDS are made and broken with such fre- 
-*■ »-quency that it is difficult for them to live more than 
a day or two, yet there are a few achievements, hoary 
with age, which still remain unbeaten. One of them, 
which has reached the ripe age of ninety-six years, is 
the making of a coat from the growing wool between 
sunrise and sunset. 

The scene of this remarkable record-making was the 
village of Newbury, in Berkshire, England. In the 
year 181 1, John Coxeter, a well-known manufacturer 



and mill-owner, remarked to Sir John Throckmorton 
that he believed, with the machinery lately introduced 
into his mill, he could take the coat off the baronet's 
back, reduce it to wool, and turn it into a coat again. 
This led to an argument, and finally to a wager. Coxe- 
ter assured Sir John that it was possible to make a 
coat from the raw wool between sunrise and sunset 
of a summer day. 

A short time after this conversation, Throckmorton 
laid a wager of a thousand guineas that at eight o'clock 
on June 25, 181 1, he would sit down to dinner in a 
well-woven, properly made coat the wool of which 
formed the fleeces of sheep's backs at five o'clock that 
same morning. 

The accomplishment of the feat was entrusted to 
Coxeter, and shortly before five o'clock on the morn- 
ing stated the early-rising villagers of Newbury were 
astonished to see their worthy squire, accompanied 
by his shepherd and two sheep, journeying toward the 
mill. Promptly at five o'clock, operations commenced, 
and no time was lost in getting the sheep shorn. 

All implements to be used were placed in readiness 
on the field of action, and the smallest actual operations 
in the making of the coat were performed between 
the hours mentioned. The sheep being shorn, the 
wool was washed, stubbed, roved, spun, and woven, 
the weaving being performed by Mr. Coxeter, Junior, 
who had been found by previous competition to be the 
most expert workman. 

The cloth thus manufactured was next scoured, 
fulled, tented, raised, sheared, dyed, and dressed, being 
completed by four o'clock in the afternoon, just eleven 
hours after the arrival of the two sheep in the mill- 
yard. 

In the meantime, the news of the wager had spread 
abroad among the neighboring villages, bringing 
crowds of people eager to witness the conclusion of 
this extraordinary undertaking. 

The cloth was now put into the hands of the tailor, 
James White, who had already got all measurements 
ready during the operations, so that not a moment 
should be lost; and he, together with nine of his men, 
with needles, all threaded, at once started on it. 

For the next two hours and a quarter the tailors 
were busy cutting out, stitching, pressing, and sewing 
on buttons — in fact, generally converting the cloth 
into a "well-woven, properly made coat" — and at 
twenty minutes past six the coat was presented to 
Sir John Throckmorton, who put the garment on be- 
fore an assemblage of over five thousand people, and 
sat down to dinner with it on, together with forty 
gentlemen, at eight o'clock in the evening. 



Prosecuting Attorney (Frozen Dog). — "Your hon- 
or, the sheriff's bull pup has gone and chawed up the 
Court Bible." 

Judge. — "Well, make the witness kiss the bull pup, 
then. We can't adjourn Court for a week just to hunt 
up a new Bible." 



THE CHEF 



25 



SOME THINGS USEFUL TO BE KNOWN 
IN EVERY HOUSEHOLD 

THINGS WORTH KNOWING 



HOT SALT BAGS 

THREE thicknesses of heavy unbleached cotton 
made into a liberal sized bag and stitched twice 
around will hold any sort of salt without sifting. A 
bag with a draw string made of some bright canton 
flannel adds to the comfort of handling and the at- 
tractiveness of this homely appointment. If you have 
an aged friend who suffers with cold feet make her 
a present of such a bag and you may be sure of its 
value to her. The use of such a bag of hot salt 
will greatly relieve in case of a chill coming on in an 
attack of disease. 

EFFICIENT DISINFECTANT 

A solution of chloride of zinc, which can be obtained 
at any druggist, used in proportion of one pint to four 
gallons of water, forms a most efficient deodorizer and 
disinfectant, promptly neutralizing noxious effluvia 
and arresting animal and vegetable decomposition. As 
a cleansing and purifying agent for sink spouts, water 
closets, etc., it is invaluable. 

SWEEPING IN SICK ROOM 

How the Carpet Can Be Disinfected as Well as Cleaned 

1 REAT care should be used in the cleaning of car- 
' pets, particularly the carpet of a room used by a 
person who is ill. The carpet should be disinfected, 
swept thoroughly, and at the same time no dust should 
rise when this is being done. 

An excellent way to accomplish this is to tear news- 
papers into bits and soak in a solution of creolin and 
water. Wring out the superfluous water from the 
fragments, and scatter them on the floor. Then sweep 
the room in the usual way, and if ordinary care is used 
little or no dust will rise. The carpet will have been 
thoroughly disinfected as well, and the water will have 
given it a fresh appearance, bringing out the color and 
pattern. 



STRING BEANS seasoned with mint are delicious 
served with roast lamb. 

Jelly cake should have the edges pared off care- 
fully to make it roll easily. 

Whole peppers are better for seasoning soups and 
sauces than ground pepper. 

Instead of using barley and rice for thickening soup, 
try oatmeal occasionally. 

A teaspoonful of vinegar put into homemade candy 
keeps it from being sickly sweet. 

A few minced nasturtium leaves sprinkled over an 
omelet give a snappy flavor. 

Baked stuffed tomatoes or peppers will be much 
improved if brushed over with olive oil. 



Fresh mint may be always at hand for cooking 
purposes by growing it at home in a glass of water. 

Butter will keep sweet much longer in a crock 
jar with a tight fitting cover than in any other way. 

Chopped preserved ginger, added to the sauce 
served with cottage pudding is a delicious accompani- 
ment. 

The small end of a potato should be pricked be- 
fore it is placed in the oven to bake to keep it from 
bursting. 

Lard is much better to grease cake pans than but- 
ter. Butter will burn and cause the cake to stick 
and char. 

Bananas that are not quite ripe may be baked in 
their skins for from 20 to 30 minutes and served hot 
with cream. 

When cooking tomatoes to strain and use for to- 
mato jelly, the flavor will be improved by a bay leaf 
and a piece of mace added. 

When milk, soup or other foods boil over on the 
stove, cover the spot quickly with salt. It will do 
away with any unpleasant odor. 

Corks may be kept in bottles when traveling by 
sticking them in with adhesive plaster, such as sur- 
geons use. 

Gold edged glass ware should not be washed in 
strong soapsuds. The soap will in time make inroads 
upon the gilt. 

A clean cloth dipped into hot water and then into 
a saucer of bran will speadily clean white paint with- 
out injury. 

When bleaching linen or lace keep it in the bright 
sunshine. To keep dust out of the bowl, place a 
piece of glass over it. 

Never keep paraffin in an uncovered receptacle. It 
gathers dust. A tin box with a tight fitting cover is 
best for the purpose. 

Old loose kid gloves worn while ironing will keep 
the hands in good condition and free from calouses. 

There is nothing in a drug store that will relieve 
the pain of a bee sting quicker than a handful of mud. 

Faded plush may be brightened by brushing it 
lightly with a clean sponge dipped in chloroform. 

Witch hazel and rose water, half and half, is good 
for wind tortured complexions. 

Wood ashes mixed with kerosene will remove rust 
from iron. 

TO SAVE THE BARREL 

To keep a barrel or pail of water from bursting 
when out of doors where it will freeze up in cold 
weather put a piece of board slanting in the barrel 
and a stick in the same way in the pail. 



26 



THE CHEF 



TO TRIM LAMP WICKS 

When Frau Muller, our German flat neighbor, at- 
tends to her lamps she always cuts her straightest 
duplex burner wick with her nail scissors, thereby 
getting them beautifully round and entirely avoiding 
the sharp and protruding corners which are bound to 
make the forked lamp flame so destructive to lamp 
chimneys. 

TO REMOVE INK STAINS 

Use citric or tartaric acid, which are quite harmless 
and will not injure the most delicate fabric. It can 
be used even on books, for it does not injure printer's 
ink, because it has no iron in its composition, al- 
though all writing ink is made with much iron be- 
cause the black color is dependent on the iron. 

TO PROTECT COMPLEXION 

To protect the face when sweeping or doing other 
dusty work smear cold cream on face and neck gen- 
erously and dust talcum powder over it. This saves 
the pores of the skin from getting clogged with the 
dust. 

THINGS ARE NOT WHAT THEY 
ARE CALLED 

Wrong Names for Every-Day Things Are Common, 
but We Use the Words So Often That We Can't 
Stop to Change Them 
"^TOTHING succeeds like mistakes. Fasten a 
-*■ ^ wrong title to a thing, and the name will almost 
outlive the language. There is the case of Irish stew. 
It is no more an Irish dish than American or English, 
and the term "Irish stew" would not be understood 
in the Emerald Isle ; but the name is bound to stick. 

No more does "Prussian blue" depend for its supply 
on the output of the kingdom of Prussia. Its name is 
derived quite otherwise, from prussiate of potash. Nor is 
there anything specially German about "German silver" 
The alloy can be made, like Irish stew, anywhere you 
will. India ink is unknown in India, while the turkey 
is really a native of the New World, and has no more 
reason to be called by his present name than a bad 
guess on the part of Englishmen, when he was newly 
imported, that he came from the realm of the Sultan. 

Rice paper is not made from rice. Catgut is not 
levied from the domestic cat, but from the compara- 
tively silent sheep. Galvanized iron is zinc-coated, but 
no longer by the process of Galvani. The copper pen- 
nies which form a part of our small change are not 
made from copper, but from an alloy more properly 
termed bronze. 

It is among the little articles of dress and personal 
use that the false names are most plentiful. Dogskin 
gloves rob few dogs, and kid gloves fewer kids. As 
with catgut, the sheep again supplies the material; 
the other animals do nothing except to furnish the 
name. We can be pretty sure that our linen — collar, 
shirt, and cuffs — is cotton. Even our sealing-wax is 
waxless. 



INTERNATIONAL MENU FOR A DIN- 
NER PARTY 

Seven Dishes Represent Seven Countries 

OEVEN dishes characteristic of seven nations were 
^the features of a dinner given in the Hotel Astor. 
The host gave the order in ample time, so that the 
chef could arrange a menu which would be compli- 
mentary to the guests from each country. The name 
of each dish was written in the language of the coun- 
try in which it represented. The menu was : — 
Caviar d'Astrackhan (Russia). 
Green Turtle Soup (America). 

English Sole (England). 

Selle de 'Pres' Sale (France). 

Giant Asparagus (Germany). 

Canvasback Duck (America). 

Bisqua Tortoni (Italy). 

Malaga Grapes (Spain). 

The "Royal Smile" cocktail, lately introduced at 

the Astor, was part of the decoration, which also 

included pink roses. 

AMERICAN AND CONTINENTAL 

A N hotel visitor had taken his dinner elsewhere 
■* *-with a friend. When, on coming to pay his bill, 
he found himself charged with a day's board he pro- 
tested vigorously. It was explained to him that the 
American plan adopted there was based strictly on 
a day rate, and that if he chose to eat elsewhere it 
was his own lookout. The man, however, refused to 
be pacified, and paid the bill under protest. Then, to 
everyone's surprise, he asked if dinner was "still on." 
He was informed that it lasted till nine in the evening. 

"I've eaten one dinner," he exclaimed, "but I'm go- 
ing to get my money's worth out of this house if I 
suffer all the torments of dyspepsia!" 

He rushed into one of the dining-rooms, seized a bill 
of fare, and ordered everything he could think of. 
When he finally reached his limit the waiter handed 
him a bill for a good round sum. 

"What's that for?" he demanded. 

"Your dinner, sir." 

"But I have already paid for my dinner in my bill," 
protested the unfortunate man. "I am staying here 
on the American plan." 

"Then you should have gone into the other dining- 
room," said the waiter. "This is the restaurant part 
of the hotel, and the terms are strictly cash at prices 
on the card." 

FOR THE WANT OF GOOD COOKING 

MANY A HOME IS BROKEN UP- 

SO SAYS JAMES J. HILL 

JAMES J. HILL, the railroad builder, who is con- 
tinually urging the farmers along the line of in- 
creased production of crops, but who turned his atten- 
tion to cooking when visiting the National Corn 
Exposition in Omaha. He told the director of the 
cooking school that for the want of good cooking 
more homes are broken up and more divorces result 
than from any other cause. 



THE CHEF 



27 



DRINK TWO QUARTS OF WATER EVERY 

DAY 

By W. R. C. LATSON, M. D. 
Here Is a Simple and Inexpensive Way in Which to Keep in Perfect Health 



npHREE-QUARTERS of the earth's surface is 
■*■ covered by water. The body of a man is about 
four-fifths water. Even your teeth, the hardest and 
densest tissue of the body, contain about four per 
cent, of water. The bones contain from eleven to 
fourteen per cent, of water ; the muscles are three- 
quarters water. The blood varies from four-fifths to 
seven-eighths water. Water makes up ninety-seven 
per cent, of the gastric juice, ninety-eight per cent, of 
the perspiration and ninety-nine per cent, of the saliva. 

The vital processes are carried on very largely by 
means of water. As one authority has expressed it: 
"Water is a very important food element, as all the 
physiologic changes take place in a watery solution. 
Water is the medium through which the body is nour- 
ished." That is to say, digestion, circulation, assimi- 
lation — all these are possible only as a result of the 
presence of water in the body. Without food a man 
can exist sixty, seventy or eighty days, as has been 
demonstrated by experience, but if deprived of water 
for five or six days he dies. 

In the prevention and treatment of disease the elim- 
ination of waste is by far the most important factor. 
In many diseases it is only necessary to increase elimi- 
nation in order to cure the case. Disease, as a rule, 
is merely an effort on the part of the body to rid itself 
of impurities. 

To secure proper elimination the most important 
measure is the free drinking of pure water, water 
which shall wash the system as water poured through 
a sponge would cleanse it of all its impurities. 

There are very few people who drink enough 
water to insure the elimination of the poisons which 
the body is constantly making. For the removal of 
these poisons the two or three glasses of water daily 
which many people drink is absurdly inadequate. 

Fluids such as tea, coffee, wine, beer, milk and so 
on will not act upon the system in the same way. In 
the first place, all such fluids, with the exception of 
milk, contain impurities, if not actual poisons. Coffee 
contains caffein, tea contains thein, wine and beer con- 
tain alcohol. Not only, therefore, do they poison the 
system and disturb the operation of the vital organs, 
but they impose upon certain organs the added task 
of separating the solid from the fluid matters before 
the liquid can be used by the system. 

It must be understood that the only liquid which 
the body can use in its activities is water, and that 
other fluids taken are useful only because they con- 
tain water which may be filtered out by the appropri- 
ate organs. This act of filtration, however, imposes 



a certain strain upon the system — a strain which in 
many cases leads to direct and incurable disease. 

An insufficient supply of water in the system is one 
of the most frequent and far reaching causes of dis- 
ease. As a practical physician, the writer has found 
that in the vast majority of cases, lack of fluid in the 
body was an important factor in the causation and 
maintenance of the patient's disorder. And in every 
day practice it has become a routine measure to pre- 
scribe an increase in the quantity of water taken. 

Lack of water is nearly always a factor in the pro- 
duction of such disorders as indigestion, constipation, 
rheumatism, gout, catarrh and biliousness. In consti- 
pation especially the free drinking of water is often 
the only treatment needed for complete cure. Water 
is better than any combination of drugs — better than 
pills or other concoctions, which act only by irritating 
the delicate membranes of the stomach. 

In indigestion the difficulty is generally due to an 
insufficient supply of gastric juice, combined with in- 
activity on the part of the stomach. Both of these 
conditions are traceable to a deficiency of water in 
the system. In such cases the free drinking of pure 
water acts helpfully in several ways. It tones up the 
stomach and cleanses it. It increases the volume of 
blood and thus conduces to increased secretion of sa- 
liva and gastric juice. 

It is not intended, of course, to imply that water 
drinking alone is sufficient to cure every case of in- 
digestion and constipation ; but it is the firm convic- 
tion of the writer that without an abundance of pure 
water as part of the treatment all other measures, such 
as diet, exercises and drugging, adopted for the relief 
of those other troubles will fail and must fail. 

For a person in average condition it would seem 
that the system needs about two quarts of pure water 
daily. In cases of disease this amount may reason- 
ably be increased to three, four or more quarts of 
water. 

To one unaccustomed to the free drinking of water 
it is not always easy to form the habit. Some self- 
education is necessary. A good practical rule is to 
make it a habit to drink ten or twelve tumblers of 
water every day. This water should be taken on ris- 
ing, on retiring and between meals. Little or no fluid 
should be taken at mealtimes nor during the period 
for the half hour preceding and the two hours after 
the meal. • 

"A little change of heir," remarked the old man as 
he altered his will, cutting off his nephew in favor of 
a distant relative. 



28 



THE CHEF 



THE TWO PIES 

RUTH, who has been married just two weeks, lives 
in a little flat on Congress Street, and there keeps 
house for her lord and master. She has read a little 
and is wise beyond her nineteen years. On Sunday, 
after their dinner had been served by the wife, she 
went to the kitchen and returned with a pumpkin pie. 

"What's that?" asked the L. and M. 

"I made a pumpkin pie yesterday," his wife an- 
swered, timidly. 

He attacked the confection with a knife and fork, 
but could not make much headway and was about to 
declare himself when Ruth announced : 

"I have another in the pantry, dear. Your mother 
sent one over yesterday." She then produced the sec- 
ond pie, which was as tender and appetizing as the 
first had been tough and unsavory. 

"That's something like it," he said, patronizingly. 
"Of course you couldn't expect to become expert at 
once, my dear." 

The girl laughed. "You're eating the one I made 
now," she said. And in her diary for the day is 
written : 

"An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." 

MANY WILL BE FORCED TO GO 
BACK TO THE FARM 

T TUNGER will eventually prove the solution of the 
*■ A problem of high prices, by driving the people out 
of the cities and back to the farms, in the judgment 
of Secretary Wilson, of the Department of Agricul- 
ture. 

"It will be the loss of the three square meals," he 
said, "which will send laborers to the farmer, who is 
now doing the best he can without them, and equalize 
the production and consumption of farm products. 
We have been educating the young man away from 
the farm and into the city. They have made doctors, 
lawyers, dentists and clerks. They have not been 
taught practical farming. As the result the parents, 
left alone in the country, have turned their farm over 
at a rental, and it has deteriorated. To-day the sup- 
ply of farm products does not equal the demand." 

IS THE FAMILY AS A UNIT PASSING 
AWAY? 

Boys Once Built Things, But Now Can't Hammer 

in Flats— Big Machines Now Do the Work 

That Formerly Kept Household; 

Busy on the Farm. 

TTVOCTOR LUTHER HALSEY GULICK, direc- 
-L-'tor of the Department of Child Hygiene of the 
Russel Sage Foundation, believes that the family, as 
a unit, is passing. 

"The house at present, particularly in the city," Dr. 
Gulick says, "has been stripped of its individuality. 
To take the simplest thing, the tools are gone. My 
boy does learn to use a hammer, but under the pro- 



test of the neighbors. It is unconventional to have 
pounding in an apartment house, and the conventions 
must be observed. 

"The home no longer contains the interesting things 
for the boy and girl to do, so play also is leaving the 
home. The home was always the center of children's 
play. It is yet in the case of little children, but it is 
no longer a center of activities, and children want to 
be where something is doing. We have taken out of 
the home the social life, more so in the city than we 
have in the country. 

"The school is a far more interesting place, for 
there things are happening — things can be done and 
there is companionship. The city home is too small 
to permit many children to come in and play. The 
old-fashioned, large hall, with its fireplace, we no 
longer have. Think of making a Harlem kitchenette 
a center of social life." 

Dr. Gulick calls attention to the fact that the many 
functions of the old family are now being performed 
by the community in other and, in the main, better 
ways. 

"The first important change," he says, "is in refer- 
ence to work. The home used to be the place where 
the work of the world was done. All the activities 
which were there carried on by the father have gone 
forever from the home. Our great-grandfathers 
nearly all of them lived on farms. Each farm was a 
complete unit. There was made the clothing from 
the backs of sheep, and all tasks involved in provid- 
ing the food were performed for the family by the 
various members of it. The members of the family 
not only furnished their own meat and vegetables, 
they made their own tools and harnesses, they shod 
their own horses. 

"Even the preparation of food has largely gone 
outside of the city home. So much of our food is 
prepared by machinery that only a small part of the 
cooking is done in the home. Our cakes, pies, bread 
and much of our meat are cooked outside of our 
homes, and the preserving of fruit is rapidly becom- 
ing a lost art, so that a woman who can do this now 
is able to command high prices for her product. 

"Everywhere the family is ceasing to be the center 
of the activities of the world. In the West the steam 
gang plows sixteen furrows. There is no place for 
the boy to take the lines of the horses and act with 
his father in the operation of breaking the soil. And 
with the woman the same change of relation to the 
home can be seen. The girl no longer is prepared 
for a woman's work by co-operating with her mother. 
The chances are that her mother's duties, whether 
the family is in the city, village or country, have so 
changed that such co-operation is impossible. 

"It was through these activities that the children 
of the world got that moral development we call char- 
acter. And for this development nothing in the world 
can take the place of work — straightforward hard 
work. 



THE CHEF 



29 



IS HIGH COST OF LIVING DUE TO 
WOMEN? 

Dr. Patten Gives Some Reasons for Present 

Conditions, the Chief One Being That 

Industry Is Lacking in the Home 

T N an article on "The Crisis in American Home 
-■■Life" in the current number of the Independent, 
Professor Simon N. Patten, Ph. D., LL.D., of the 
chair of political economy in the University of Penn- 
sylvania, discusses the subject of the high cost of 
living in an original and startling manner. 

Dr. Patten says we are so used to pounding mil- 
lianaires and denouncing trusts that the underlying 
fact of the lack of capital is overlooked. Families 
with incomes of $5,000 a year have set a new stand- 
ard of liberality in expenditures. The constant pres- 
sure to keep up appearances, along with a decay of 
the moral instruction emphasizing the benefits of fru- 
gality and saving, has taken from industry the peo- 
ple who formerly were the great source of its capi- 
tal. Because the day laborer still saves we assume 
that all classes above him are likewise saving. The 
new standard of living has cut down on the amount 
of saving as it has likewise cut down on the number 
of children per family. Small families and small sav- 
ings are two effects of one cause, a high standard of 
living. The family with no children is also the fam- 
ily with no saving. 

Another cause which Dr. Patten finds in the present 
crisis is in the new status of women. Forty years 
ago a man could live comfortably on $1,000 a year. 
Under the magic of the wife's hand this $1,000 be- 
came $1,500 or $2,000. The wife created more value 
by industry in the home than her husband did out of 
it. In her hands cloth became clothes, flour bread 
and fresh fruits the winter preserves. Now all things 
are done outside the home and must be purchased with 
the $1,000 income. The wife no longer contributes 
to the family income by creating value, and with the 
increased standard of elaborate dressing, she is often 
its chief burden. 

"There is nothing striking about this," says Profes- 
sor Patten, "except in the emphasis that is placed on 
the need of capital. When religious scruples are no 
longer checks to extravagance and the Quaker, Puri- 
tan and Scotch-Irish have ceased to exist, we shall 
realize, if we do not before, that the essential condi- 
tions of home life cannot be neglected without bring- 
ing prosperity to a standstill and putting discord and 
rebellion in the place of peace and harmony." 



There had been a domestic squabble at breakfast. 

"You monster !" snapped the matron, who was al- 
ways scolding, "you are not like my two former hus- 
bands. They were tender men." 

"I never doubted that they were tender, Maria," 
ventured the meek man, "when you kept them in hot 
water all the time." 



THE AVERAGE AGES OF ANIMALS 

Elephant Holds the Record for Longevity if We 

are Content to Regard the Whale, With His 

Thousand-Year Possibility, as a Fish 

LfLEPHANTS are probably the longest-lived 
-*— 'members of the animal kingdom, averaging be- 
tween 100 and 200 years. 

It is said that when Alexander conquered India he 
took one of King Porus' largest elephants, named 
Ajax, and turned him loose with this inscription, 
"Alexander, the son of Jupiter, dedicated Ajax to the 
sun," and that this elephant, bearing this inscription, 
was captured 350 years later. 

As a general rule, it may be said that there is a 
direct relation between the duration of life and the 
time required to develop fully; but to this there are 
exceptions. The cat is mature before it is a year old, 
and may live twenty years. 

Size also seems to have a certain relation to lon- 
gevity, the elephant and whale being the longest lived 
of mammals, but here again we have the little beaver 
with a life more than twice as long as that of the 
rhinoceros. 

The average ages of other animals are as follows : 



Years. 

Ass 30 

Bear 20 

Beaver 50 

Camel 75 

Cat 15 

Chamois 25 

Cow 15 

Deer 20 

Dog 14 

Fox 14 

Goat 12 

Guinea-pig 4 

Hare 8 

Hippopotamus 20 

Horse 25 

Hyena 25 



Years. 

Jaguar 25 

Leopard 25 

Lion 40 

Monkey 17 

Moose 50 

Mouse 6 

Ox 30 

Pig IS 

Rabbit 7 

Rat 7 

Rhinoceros 20 

Sheep 10 

Squirrel 8 

Stag 50 

Tiger 25 

Wolf 20 



While the average age of the whale is somewhere 
between one hundred and two hundred years, Baron 
Cuvier, the celebrated French naturalist, asserted that 
it was probable that some whales attain the age of 
one thousand years. 

PRICES TOO HIGH, SAYS GIBBONS 

Cardinal Declares Cost of Living Altogether 
Unreasonable 

' TV/TOST of the prices for food products are 
-L~A c i ear ]y out of all reason," said Cardinal Gibbons 
recently, "and the people cannot go on paying such 
prices when they are not earning any more than they 
were some years ago, when prices were not so high." 
The cardinal was unable to give a reason for the 
high prices, but he said: "Something evidently is 
wrong, when many of the commonest necessities in 
foods are priced at such enormous figures." 

"Something must be done soon," said the cardinal, 
"to put the prices of foods on a reasonable basis, and 
any method which will bring this about I endorse." 



3<3 



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WE will gladly send our subscribers menus 
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Learn the "Cailler taste" by sending to-day for a free sample to 

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READ WHAT 
"THE CHEF" SAYS: 




/^HEERFUL homes are those where the 

housewife knows how a good meal should 

be prepared, during the eating of which there 

are happy discussions, creating healthy digestion. 

l¥E who eats slowly, eats well, which is al- 
ways a compliment to the cook, therefore 
it behooves every woman to study to please. 

rCONOMY is an art, home is the school, 
the kitchen is the primary class, and ex- 
perience the teacher, 'The Chef" is the 
primer. 

PORTUNATE is the man whose wife 
prides herself on being, and is a good cook, 
what a happy home she makes for both! 


"THE CHEF" MAGAZINE 

225 Fifth Avenue - • - New York 
SUBSCRIPTION $1.00 PER YEAR 









Cte 0KT magazine 



Volume 1 



MAY, 1910 



Number 4 



. . . TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . 

PAGE 

Portrait of Justin Ealard — Chef Cafe Martin Front cover 

Our Contributors 2 

The Spring Wedding Breakfast — Rose Standish 3 

A Spring Table. Courtesy of Mrs. McNally, Wanamaker Store 5 

A Course from Trimalchio's Dinner. Gaius Petronius 5 

Banquet of French Cooks — Illustrated 8 

You Can Live to Be 120 Years Old o 

Table Linen for All Occasions — Lily Haxworth Wallace 10 

Old Woman's Fancy. — A poem — Laurana W. Sheldon n 

Valuable Detailed Recipes — For Novice and Expert — "The Chef* — 

Braised Beef — Flemish Style i 12 

Plain Omelet 14 

Mushroom Omelet 15 

Eggs With Codfish — An economical dish 15 

Soup Julienne — Onion Soup 16 

Fish — - 

Trout — Boiled, Fried, Baked, Collared 17 

Sauces for Trout, Dutch Sauce for Fish 17 

Vegetables — 

Stewed Rhubarb. Artichokes Boiled and Fried, Stuffed and Braised Lettuce 18 

Asparagus Boiled, French Method, Green String Beans, Potatoes, Black Butter Sauce, 

Dressed Cabbage 10 

Egg Plant. Chicken with Peas, Lamb Steak, Left-over Meat Pies, Eggs Divorcons. . . 20 

Foods for the Month of May 20 

Desserts — - 

Strawberry Chartreuse, Strawberry Cream Ice, Rhubarb Pie, Rhubarb Tart 21 

Rhubarb Fritters. Ribbon and Mildred Cakes, Marrow and French Puddings 22 

The L T se of Cheese 23 

Original French Recipes— in French — by noted Chefs — Trout, Spring Chicken, Ar- 
tichokes, Asparagus, Strawberries 24 

Nutritive Value of Foods 28 

Thirjgs Worth Knowing in Every Household 31 

Felines as Food , r 

Flaxseed Meal Breeds the Moth 32 

Potpie for Everybody * 2 

Discusses Causes of High Cost of Living -,-, 



Eugene F. Vacheron, President. 



J. B. Sabine, Treasurer. 



H. Herbert Vacheroh, Secretary, 225 Fifth Ave. 



YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION, $1.00 SINGLE COPY, 15 CENTS 

Copyright, 1910, by "The Chef" Publishing Co. Trade-Mark Registered 
Published Monthly by "The Chef" Publishing Co. 

Address all Communications to "The Chef" Magazine 
225 Fifth Avenue, New York 



THE CHEF 











OUR CONTRIBUTORS 






SOME OF 






The Best Known French Chefs In New York 






Mr. Eugene Lapperruque Chef Plaza Hotel, N. Y. 






" Prosper Grevillot Delmonico's 

For 35 Years, New York 






" Emile Bailly " St. Regis Hotel, N Y. 






" J. Balard " Cafe Martin, N. Y. 






" E.Gigoux " NewGrandHotelN.Y. 






" Leony Derouet Grand Union Hotel, 

New York 






" J. Colombin Belmont Hotel, N. Y. 






" Jules Biron " St. Denis Hotel, N. Y. 






" Henri Rosier Windsor Hotel, 

Montreal, Canada 






" X. Kuzmier " Gotham Hotel, N. Y. 






" Henri Dousseau Metropolitan Club, 

New Y ork 






" Lucien Bernard Hotel Brevoort, N.Y. 






" J. Gancel " " Belleclaire, N.Y. 






" Louis Seres Holland House, N.Y. 






" Henry Pauchey Hotel Gramatan, 

New York 






" Teilliaud " of Col. J. J. Astor, 

New York 






" Negre " of D. O. Mills, N. Y. 






" Valta " M.Orme Wilson, N.Y. 






" Drederick " of George Widener, 

Philadelphia 






" Adams " of Robert Goelet 






" Rhiel of Clarence Mackay 






" Ribeyre of H. McKay Twombley 






" Labeille " of Mrs. Sloan 




> 







©CLB810S00 



"THE CHEF" MAGAZINE 



Vol. 1. No. 4 



MAY, 1910 



15 CENTS 




THE SPRING WEDDING BREAKFAST 

By Rose Standish 

For the repast, the following is a suggestive menu : 



WHILE the character of the wedding breakfast 
naturally depends upon many circumstances, 
and especially upon the number of persons who are to 
be invited to partake of it, the very fact that it is a 
breakfast pre-supposes that it is not to be an especially 
elaborate repast, and that the list of guests will be 
confined to the more intimate friends of the families. 
Of course, it must be remembered that, although 
the repast bears the name of "breakfast," it has little 
in common with the informal meal with which we 
ordinarily begin the day. On the contrary, the formal 
breakfast assumes more of the characteristics of the 
luncheon, except that it is served an hour or two 
earlier in the day, and upon a table set with hand- 
some napery instead of with luncheon cloth and 
doilies. 



MENU. 

Fresh Strawberries, French Style, 

or Clam Cocktails. 

Consomme, in Cups. 

Small Fish, with Green Sauce. 

Lamb Steak, broiled, with Sauce Bearnaise. 

Chicken Cream Loaf. 

Potatoes Souffles. 

Asparagus Tips in Cream. 

Spring Salad. 

Roquefort Cheese, Water Crackers. 

Coffee. 

While such a menu might prove too elaborate for 



THE CHEF 



an ordinarily formal breakfast, it presents about the 
proper choice of dishes for such a "special event" as 
that of the wedding. Moreover, while apparently an 
extensive, and somewhat costly repast, those who 
adopt these suggestions will be surprised to discover 
how easily the dishes may be prepared and how 
cheaply such a menu may be served. 

Thus, if strawberries are not too high in price, they 
should be served — not with sugar and cream, as at the 
informal breakfast, but in the style that the French 
affect. This simply means that the unhulled berries 
are piled attractively around a small mound of pow- 
dered sugar which fills the center of the plate. In 
eating them, each berry is lifted by its "hull" and is 
dipped gently in the sugar before being transferred 
to the mouth. 

If the strawberries seem impossible, there are other 
dishes that will answer the purpose satisfactorily. 
The clam cocktail can scarcely be improved upon as 
a delight to the palate. If the Little Neck clams are 
hard to procure, let the cocktail be made with canned 
lobster, the meat being cut into dice-like pieces before 
the sauce is added. 

Serve the cocktails in small, thin glasses, sur- 
rounded by ice, and with a sauce that has the tastiest 
of tomato catsup for its foundation, and with lemon 
juice, tabasco, salt and a few drops of onion juice as 
additional seasoning — not too much onion juice, but 
just enough to faintly suggest its presence. 

The consomme, being made the previous day, calls 
for but little attention on the morning of the break- 
fast, for it simply requires to be reheated and freshly 
seasoned to the point of perfection. 

Trout, when nicely broiled, makes the ideal fish 
course, but if this particular fish is not obtainable, 
select some other small and tasty variety, but be care- 
ful to choose one that can be broiled, that it may not 
prove a discordant element when served with the 
green sauce that should accompany it. To make this, 
prepare an ordinary tartar sauce — the recipe for which 
may be found in any good cook-book — and color it 
a delicious spring-like green by the addition of spinach 
that has been boiled thoroughly and pressed through 
a fine sieve. 

As the meat dish — the piece de resistance of the 
breakfast — spring lamb naturally suggests itself, but 
as it would be ridiculous to serve a roast at this re- 
past, have the lamb cut in the form of steaks that 
cannot fail to tempt the palate when served delicately 
browned by the coals over which they were broiled. 
Salt the meat, after it has been cooked to taste, and 
pepper it lightly, if you will, but remember to omit the 
butter that the steak may be served with a delectable 
Bearnaise sauce. 

There are many recipes for this sauce, but as some 
of them are not as good as others, I will give the for- 
mula that, though tried with many a test, never yet 
has failed: Put a teaspoonful of minced onions to 
cook in a saucepan with half a gill of tarragon vine- 



gar, and half a gill of cold water. Cover the pan 
tightly. When the mixture has been reduced one- 
half, let it cool ; then blend it with the well-beaten 
yolks of four eggs, and return to the fire. As it heats, 
season with salt and mignonette pepper, and add, 
gradually, three ounces of melted butter, stirring the 
sauce constantly until it has attained the thickness of 
a mayonnaise. Just before serving, strain the sauce 
through a sieve and garnish with chopped tarragon 
and minced parsley the moment before it is to go to 
the table. 

Such a repast always seems incomplete without a 
cold dish — served almost simultaneously with the meat 
— and, for this purpose, it would not be easy to find 
anything more inviting than the chicken loaf. In 
making it, an ordinary aspic is first prepared, well- 
seasoned chicken stock being used in combination with 
the gelatin. If two regulation molds, or one very 
large one, will be required, half a box of gelatin 
should be taken to two large cupsful of the stock. 
When this has jellied, it should be whipped to a froth, 
after which two cupsful of whipped cream are added, 
and into this is folded two cupsful of white meat of 
chicken, chopped fine and .well seasoned and two 
cupsful of cold boiled rice. Place this in a mold to 
harden near the ice, and serve cold. 

In preparing the potatoes for the souffles, they 
should be cut in slices about half an inch thick. As 
they are sliced, drop them into ice water and let them 
lie for about half an hour. In the meantime, arrange 
two kettles of frying fat on the fire. Let one be ordi- 
narily hot, and the other hot enough to fry quickly. 
Place the potatoes, first in the ordinarily hot fat, let- 
ting them cook slowly until they are tender ; then, af- 
ter they have dried for a few moments, drop the fry- 
ing basket into the hotter fat, and stir them con- 
stantly with a long handled spoon until they have 
browned thoroughly. Serve piping hot, salting them 
to taste just before serving. 

To prepare the asparagus, use only the tender tips, 
and cut these into pieces each about one inch in length. 
Boil them then gently in salted water, and as soon 
as they are done, drain them and let them cool. When 
the time for serving them approaches, toast the neces- 
sary number of thin slices of bread delicately, and 
spread them lightly with butter. Place the aspara- 
gus in the frying pan with a little butter, but as soon 
as it has heated through, cover with a cupful or two 
of cream, and just as the latter shows signs of coming 
to a boil, pour the result over the toasted bread and 
season lightly with salt and paprika. 

To be in harmony with such a repast, the salad, too, 
must be redolent of spring, and, of course, this is an 
effect that is easily attained. The basis of such a 
salad should be the tender inner leaves of freshly 
picked lettuce, but with the latter should be mixed 
a little endive and escarole, and if not objectionable, 
fresh dandelion leaves add another delicate touch. 
Over this bed of green spread thin slices of cucum- 



THE CHEF 



ber ; add a tomato or two cut into small pieces with 
one green pepper chopped fine, and let the finishing 
touch be a few small, crisp radishes cut into attractive 
shapes. For such a salad, only a French dressing 
should be used, although a spoonful of minced chives 
will add a flavor that would be missed if it were to 
be omitted. 

A SPRING TABLE 

THROUGH. the courtesy of the John Wanamaker 
store, the preceding half-tone cut represents a 
spring table arranged by Mrs. McNally, who is in 
charge of both the New York and Philadelphia Wana- 
maker restaurants. 

The spring table is set in Royal Doulton china, pink 
and white rosebud design, and imported thin glass. 

Decorations were in Richmond roses and lilies of 
the valley and pink and white sweet peas, maidenhair 
fern. The center-piece was a forced crab-apple tree 
in bloom; little French dolls, cut candle sticks with 
imported pink silk shades. 

The dinner, menu of which was as follows : 

Compote of Fruit. 

Puree of Tomato in Cups. 

Pink Almonds and Bon Bons. 

Creamed Sweetbreads in Cases. 

Spring Lamb Chops. 

Bermuda Potatoes. Peas. 

Chicken Salad. 

Philadelphia Cream Cheese, Bar le due Wafers. 

Fresh Strawberry Ice Cream. 

• 

The bread sticks were tied with pink ribbons and 
placed on a handsome napkin. 

The dining room suit is a faithful reproduction of 
the one designed and made by Thomas Sheraton about 
1790. He was one of the most skillful English cabin- 



et-makers and designers of the eighteenth century. 
He was born in Stockton-on-Tees in 1751, and died 
in London in 1806. The suit is executed in fine Span- 
ish mahogany and inlaid with box wood stringing. 
The sideboard terminates in a dull brass rail, charac- 
teristic of the Sheraton period. 

A dozen of fine Irish linen scallopped tea doilies 
were used ; 40,000 peasants in the Island of Madeira 
are employed in doing this exquisitely fine solid and 
open work embroidery. The demand has become so 
great for this class of work that it is almost impossible 
to supply the demand. 

The doilies are fourteen inches square, scalloped all 
around with beautiful designs in one corner. 

A marvelous twenty-five piece luncheon set of all 
French needlework costing $375.00. 

A twenty-seven-inch center-piece, twelve plate doil- 
ies and twelve glass doilies comprising the set. 

The four virtues are represented in seeded needle- 
work outlined with open work embroidery in the cen- 
ter-piece. Minstrels, knights and royal ladies are ex- 
quisitely embroidered on the doilies. The basis of the 
set is fine sheer French linen. 

The dinner service is of Royal Doulton. The plate 
is encrusted with a delicate relief of gold. The bor- 
der has a strong Empire feeling and is in conjunc- 
tion with a rosebud festooned edge. Sir Henry Doul- 
ton was a famous potter of the eighteenth century. 
He was born at Lambeth, London, Southwest, in 1820, 
and in 1846 he commenced the manufacture of porce- 
lain. In 1848 his works grew to be the largest in the 
world. To him is mainly due the revival of art pot- 
tery. He reproduced many fine examples of Dutch and 
German porcelain, principally Dresden. He died in 
1897. 

Furniture description from Mr. Quinn. 

Linen description from Mr. Moore. 



A COURSE FROM TRIMALCHIO'S DINNER. 

By GAIUS PETRONIUS. 

Translated from the Latin by Harry Thurston Peck, Prof, of Latin, Columbia University. 



\X 7E had already taken our places, all except Tri- 
» " malchio himself, for whom the seat of honor 
was reserved. Among the objects placed before us 
was a young ass made of Corinthian bronze and fitted 
with a sort of pack-saddle which contained on one 
side pale green olives and on the other side dark ones. 
Two dishes flanked this ; and on the margin of them 
Trimalchio's name was engraved and the weight of 
the silver. Then there were little bridge-like struc- 
tures of iron which held dormice seasoned with honey 
and poppyseed ; and smoking sausages were arranged 
on a silver grill which had underneath it dark Syrian 
plums to represent black coals, and scarlet pomegran- 
ate seeds to represent red-hot ones. 

In the midst of all this magnificence Trimalchio 



was brought in to the sound of music and propped 
up on a pile of well-stuffed cushions. The very sight 
of him almost made us laugh in spite of ourselves; 
for his shaven pate was thrust out of a scarlet robe, 
and around his neck he had tucked a long fringed 
napkin with a broad purple stripe running down the 
middle of it. On the little finger of his left hand he 
wore a huge gilt ring, and on the last joint of the 
next finger a ring that appeared to be of solid gold, 
but having little iron stars upon it. Moreover, lest 
we should fail to take in all his magnificence, he had 
bared his right arm, which was adorned with a golden 
bracelet and an ivory circle fastened by a clasp. 

As he sat there picking his teeth with a silver tooth- 
pick, he remarked : 



6 



THE CHEF 



"Well, friends, it was just a bit inconvenient for 
me to dine now ; but, so as not to delay you by my 
absence, I have denied myself a considerable amount 
of pleasure." 

While we were still eating the hors d'ceuvres, a tray 
was brought in with a basket on which a wooden 
fowl was placed with its wings spread out in a circle 
after the fashion of setting hens. Immediately two 
slaves approached and amid a burst of music began 
to poke around in the straw, and having presently 
•discovered there some pea-hens' eggs, they distributed 
them among the guests. 

Trimalchio looked up during this operation and 
said: 

"Gentlemen, I had the hens' eggs placed under 
this fowl; but I'm rather afraid they have young 
chickens in them. Let's see whether they're still fit 
to suck." 

So we took our spoons, which weighed not less 
than half a pound each, and broke the egg-shells, 
which were made of flour paste. As I did so, I was 
almost tempted to throw my egg on the floor, for 
it looked as though a chicken had just been formed 
inside ; but when I heard an old diner-out by my side 
saying : 

"There's bound to be something good here," I 
thrust my finger through the shell and drew out a 
plump reed-bird, surrounded by yolk of egg, well sea- 
soned with pepper. 

I was unable to eat another mouthful ; and so, 
turning to my companion, I tried to draw as much 
information out of him as possible, and to get the 
run of the gossip of the house, asking, in the first 
place, who the woman was who was darting here and 
there about the room. 

"Oh," said he, "that's Trimalchio's wife. Her 
•name is Fortunata. She has money to burn now, but 
a little while ago what do you suppose she was ? Your 
honor will excuse me for saying so, but really in those 
days you wouldn't have taken a piece of bread from 
her hand. And now. without any why or wherefore, 
she's at the top notch and is all the world to Trimal- 
chio — in fact, if she should say it was night at noon- 
day, he'd believe her. As for Trimalchio himself, he's 
so rich that he doesn't know how much money he's 
got ; but this jade has an eye to everything, even the 
things that you wouldn't think about yourself. She 
•doesn't drink, she's as straight as a string — in fact, 
.a really smart woman ; but she has an awfully sharp 
tongue, a regular magpie on a perch. If she likes 
any one, she likes him way down to the ground, and 
if she doesn't like him, she just hates him! Trimal- 
-chio's estates are so large that it would tire a bird 
to fly over them, and he has heaps on heaps of cash. 
Take his silver plate, for instance. Why, there's more 
of it in his janitor's office than most persons have in 
their entire outfit ; and his slaves — well, sir, they're 
so numerous that I don't think a tenth part of them 
would recognize their own master. In fact, when it 



comes to money, he can buy up any of these chumps 
here ten times over; and there's no reason for his 
paying out money for anything at all, because he pro- 
duces everything on his own place — wool and cedar 
wood and pepper — why, if you were to ask for hens' 
milk, you'd get it. To give you an instance: He 
found that he wasn't getting very good wool, so he 
bought some rams at Tarentum and changed the breed 
of his sheep. Again, because he wanted to have 
Athenian honey right here on his estate, he imported 
bees from Athens, and incidentally these improved 
the breed of the native bees also. Only a few days 
ago he wrote and ordered mushroom-seed to be sent 
him from India. He hasn't a single mule on his 
place that wasn't sired by a wild ass. Just see how 
many cushions he has here. Every single one of 
them has either purple or scarlet stuffing. That's what 
I call being rich. But you're not to suppose that his 
associates here are to be sneezed at, for they've got 
plenty of rocks too. Just look at that man who has 
the last place at the table. Even he has to-day his 
little eight hundred thousand, and yet he started out 
with nothing. It wasn't very long ago that he was 
a porter carrying wood on his back through the street. 
But, as the saying goes, he found a fairy wishing-cup. 
I never grudge a man his good luck. It only mean? 
that he knows how to look out for himself ; and this 
chap over here not long ago put up his shanty for 
sale with this sort of an advertisement : 

" 'Gaius Pompeius Diogenes will let this lodging 
from July first, having just bought a large house for 
himself.' 

"Now take the case of that other man over there 
who has the freedman's place at the table. How well 
off do you suppose he is? I don't know anything 
against him, but he's seen the time when he had his 
little million ; only, somehow or other, he went wrong. 
To-day I don't imagine he has a hair on his head that 
isn't mortgaged, and it isn't his own fault either, for 
there's no better man in the world ; but it's the fault 
of his confounded freedmen who made way with ev- 
erything that he had. You know the saying, 'Too 
many cooks spoil the broth,' and the other saying that 
'He who loses money loses friends.' And what a fine 
profession he had, too, just as you can see him now! 
He was an undertaker. He used to dine like a king 
on wild boar with pastry and birds, and he had cooks 
and bakers by the score. They used to spill more 
wine under his table than most men have in their 
wine-cellars. In fact, he was a fairy vision rather 
than a man. When his affairs got into Queer Street 
and he was afraid his creditors would think that 
things were in a bad way, he wanted to raise some 
monev on his goods and chattels ; so he advertised an 
auction of them in this fashion : 'Julius Proculus will 
hold an auction for the sale of his superfluous prop- 
erty.' " 

After this course, Trimalchio left the room for' a 
few minutes, so that, feeling a certain freedom in the 



THE CHEF 



absence of our master, we began to draw each other 
into conversation. Dama, first of all, calling for a 
goblet, remarked : 

"A day is nothing. Night comes before you can 
turn around. That's why I think there's nothing bet- 
ter than to go from your bed straight to the dining- 
room. It's a cold climate we have here. Even a bath 
scarcely warms me up. In fact, a hot drink is my 
wardrobe. I've had several stiff drinks already, so 
that I'm loaded for bear ; for the wine has gone to 
my head." 

At this point Seleucus interrupted him, remarking: 

"Well, for my part, / don't take a bath every day. 
The cold water nips you so that when you bathe every 
day your courage all oozes out of you. But after 
I've swigged a toby of booze, I tell the cold to go 
to the devil. But I couldn't take a bath to-day, any- 
how, for I was to a funeral. Chrysanthus, a fine 
man and such a good fellow, kicked the bucket. I 
saw him only the other day — in fact, I can hear him 
talking to me now. Dear me ! we go around like 
blown-up bladders. We're of less consequence than 
even the flies, for flies have some spirit in them, while 
we are nothing but mere bubbles. But as to Chry- 
santhus, what if he wasn't a total abstainer? Anyhow, 
for five days before he died, he never threw a drink 
in his face nor ate a crumb of bread. Well, well, he's 
joined the majority. It was the doctors that really 
killed him, or perhaps just his bad luck; for a doctor 
is nothing after all but a sort of consolation to your 
mind. He was laid out in great style on his best bed, 
with his best bedclothes on, and he had a splendid 
wake, though his wife wasn't sincere in her mourn- 
ing for him. But I say, what if he didn't treat her 
very well? A woman, so far as she is a woman, is 
a regular bird of prey. It isn't worth while to do a 
favor for a woman, because it's just the same as 
though you'd chucked it down a well. But love in 
time becomes a regular ball-and-chain on a man." 

He was getting to be rather boresome when Phi- 
leros chimed in : 

"Oh, let's think of the living. Your friend has got 
whatever was his due. He lived an honorable life 
and he died an honorable death. What has he to 
complain of? From having nothing, he made a for- 
tune, for he was always ready to pull a piece of 
money out of a muck-heap with his teeth ; and so he 
grew as rich as a honey-comb. By Jove ! I believe 
the fellow left a cool hundred thousand, and he had 
it all in cash. I'm giving you this straight, for I 
have a rough tongue. He was a man of unlimited 
cheek, a tonguey fellow, and he always had a chip 
on his shoulder. His brother was a good sort of 
chap, a friend to a friend, a man with an open hand, 
a generous table. At the start he had a hard row to 
hoe, but his first vintage set him on his legs again, 
for he sold his wine at his own price. But what es- 
pecially kept his head above water was this, that he 
got hold of a legacy, and waltzed into a good deal 



more of it than had been really left him. But this 
friend of yours, because he had quarreled with his 
brother, left his fortune to some outsider. I tell you 
a man has to go mighty far to get away from his 
relatives! Unfortunately he had slaves who babbled 
all his secrets and harmed him. A man makes a mis- 
take who trusts others too readily, especially if he's 
a business man. Nevertheless, while he lived, he en- 
joyed what he had." 

After Phileros had finished, Ganymedes started in: 

"All this talk of yours isn't the least bit to the 
point. No one here seems to care about the high 
price of grain. By Jove, I couldn't get a mouthful 
of bread to-day ! And how the drought keeps on ! 
We've had a sort of famine for a year. Confound 
the officials anyhow, who are standing in with the 
bakers! 'Scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours,' as 
the saying goes. So the public has to suffer for it 
and their jaws get a long vacation. Oh, if we only 
had those roaring blades that I found here when I first 
arrived from Asia! I tell you, that was life! If the 
flour sold wasn't equal to the very best, they used to 
go for those poor devil officials as if Jupiter himself 
was angry with them. I remember Safinius. In those 
days he used to live down by the old archway, when 
I was a boy. He was hot stuff ! Wherever he went 
he used to make the ground smoke ! But he was 
perfectly straight, a man to rely on, a friend to a 
friend, a chap with whom you could safely throw dice 
with your eyes shut. In the court-room, too, how he 
used to make things hum ! And he didn't talk in 
figures either, but straight to the point, and when he 
was arguing his voice used to swell like a trumpet. 
How affable he was. In those days, I tell you, grain 
was as cheap as dirt. If you bought a loaf of bread 
for a penny, you couldn't eat it up even if you hired 
another man to help you, whereas nowadays, I've seen 
bulls'-eyes that were bigger than the loaves. Dear, 
dear, every day things are getting worse ! The town 
is growing backward like a calf's tail. And why do 
we have a mayor who's no good and who thinks more 
of a penny piece than of the lives of all of us? He 
has a soft snap in private, for he takes in more money 
in a day than most of us have in our whole fortunes. 
I know one source from which he got a thousand 
gold pieces. If we had any spunk he wouldn't be so 
stuck on himself. But our people are lions in private 
and foxes in public. As far as I'm concerned, I've 
already eaten up my wardrobe, and if this sort of a 
harvest keeps on I'll have to sell my shanties." 

The thing had gone to a disgusting extreme when 
Trimalchio, sodden with drink, hit upon a new sort 
of exhibition, and had hornblowers brought into the 
dining-room. Then having been propped up on a 
number of pillows, he sprawled himself out upon the 
lowest couch and said : 

"Imagine that I am dead. Play a nice tune over 
me." 

The hornblowers blew a funeral march ; and one 



8 



THE CHEF 



of them, the slave of the undertaker, who was really 
the most respectable man in the crowd, blew such a 
tremendous blast that he roused up the whole neigh- 
borhood. The police who were on duty in the vicin- 
ity, thinking that Trimalchio's house was on fire, sud- 



denly broke down the door and rushed in with axes 
and water, as was their right. Seizing this very fav- 
orable opportunity, we gave Agamemnon the slip, 
and made our escape as hastily as though we were 
really fleeing from a conflagration. 




T 



BANQUET OF THE FRENCH COOKS 

HE forty-sixth anniversary of the "La Societe 



MENU. 



Culinaire Philanthropique" was celebrated by a 
banquet at Cafe Martin on March 14, 1910. 

The committee of the banquet, at which more than 
150 chefs of New York attended, could not have 
chosen a more beautiful dining hall, nor could they 
have bestowed more justly the honor which they did 
on Chef Balard, in choosing him, one of their col- 
leagues, to prepare the menu, which did honor to the 
culinary art of the cooks of America. 

Mr. Gigoux, chef of the New Grand Hotel, and 
president of the society, made a most beautiful wel- 
coming speech, the inspiration of which was certainly 
inspired by the beautiful decorations of the dining 
room and tables in which the French and American 
flags predominated. 

New York City can well be proud of its cooks, of 
■ which there is not a more intelligent class in any 
profession. 

Following is the menu served as prepared by Chef 
Balard, and enjoyed by 150 chefs: 



DUBONNET 
Celeri 



Amandes Salees Olives 
Artichauts a la Grecque 

Huitres Blue Points 
GRAVES 
SUPERIEUR 

Casserolette de Homard a l'Americaine 



Consomme Armenonville 



FLOIRAC 



Filet Mignon saute Durand 

Pommes Virginie 

Petits Pois a l'fituvee 

Sorbet au Kummel 



Poussin de Bruyere a la Liegeoise 
Salade Lorette 



Coupe Thais 
Mirliton de Rouen 



Cafe 



Liqueurs 



Clysmic Water 



CAFfi MARTIN 



THE CHEF 



YOU CAN LIVE TO BE 120 YEARS OLD 

Dr. Van Doren, of Norwalk, Expects to Live as Long as He Likes 



A GE will not begin to wither the cheek of the 
-**-Rev. Dr. De Witt Talmage Van Doren, of Nor- 
walk, Conn., until he is at least 120 years old, and 
even then he does not expect it to stale the infinite 
variety of his beliefs. 

He is pastor of the Norwalk Baptist Church, where 
for the last twelve years he has been giving out his 
ideas of healing through the mind, and he has begun 
to take thought as to just how long he intends to 
remain on this earthly sphere. 

"As for me," said the clergyman in his latest ac- 
count of his faith and works, "I am alive and I 
intend to stay alive as long as I wish. I do not intend 
to think myself old at sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety, 
one hundred nor yet no years, but at 120 I shall be- 
gin to think of being aged. Most persons are inclined 
to be lazy, and that is why the higher mind is not 
thoroughly developed." 

Those desiring to see themselves in the centenarian 
class should remember that the solar plexus is not in- 
tended as the objective point for horny fists. It is 
the center of the subconscious mind, thinks Dr. Van 
Doren, and it is still at work after the other parts of 
the system have had a knockout blow. 

"There is a spot there," continues the cleryman 
savant, "which after all the rest of the body is cold 
in death remains warm for a considerable period." 

According to the valuable receipt of Dr. Van Doren 
a man is then no older than his solar plexus. Dr. 
Van Doren declares that the solar plexus is about as 



large as the hand. Continuing further, he avers that 
the subjective mind is in every part. 

"How do I know that it is there?" he continues. 
"The same as I know that the brain is in the head. I 
can feel the power that runs from this spot to the 
spleen, and I think that the spleen is the reservoir of 
this power. I can feel this like a tremendous power 
as it passes. You are conscious of a shock or of a 
sudden access of joy. It is the subconscious mind on 
which the hypnotist acts. No man can ever make a 
subject murder or steal or do anything against his 
normal will. In the cataleptic state he sees and hears 
other things not visible to you." 

The Rev. Dr. Van Doren is quite sure that one will 
not be any deader when he is dead than when he is 
asleep, as the subjective mind has in death merely left 
the body. 

"It is," he says, "a good thing to get acquainted 
with your subjective mind. Your actual power com- 
pared with what you use is as 1,000 to 1. The most 
intellectual men use only the surface of their brains. 
Shakespeare and others got down into a lower layer." 

According to the testimony of the minister, his pa- 
tients are always in touch with him, for he can tell 
when they are about to telephone or write. He be- 
lieves that mental telepathy will develop as did wire- 
less telepathy, so that ten years from now it will not 
be necessary for anybody to write letters but just 
think what they would transmit to relatives and 
friends. 



JUSTIN BALARD 

Chef of Cafe Martin, an Artist in Culinary Art 



JUSTIN BALARD, whose portrait appears on the 
front page, is recognized by his colleagues in the 
profession as being one of the foremost chefs in 
America. 

Born in France, where he finished his apprentice- 
ship, he was employed prior to coming to this coun- 
try at the Chateau Madrid, the Grand Hotel, at Big- 
nons, and Brebants in Paris. 

He came to New York in November, 1887, and 
was here but a short time when that Prince of "Res- 
taurateurs," Jean B. Martin, with his usual sagacity, 
again seized the opportunity to please his public by 
engaging Balard as his chef. 

That his judgment was good is evidenced by the 
fact that since April, 1888, Justin Balard has been 
the "chef" of the Cafe Martin, beginning in the old 



place, Cafe Martin in University Place, and continu- 
ing until the present time at "Cafe Martin" at Fifth 
Avenue and Twenty-sixth Street, a continued service 
in his one and only position in America of twenty- 
two years. 

This continued service speaks more for his ability 
than anything that could be written. 

While it can be appreciated that a good chef like 
Balard is the making of a house, credit must be given 
Jean B. Martin, the genial proprietor of "Cafe Mar- 
tin," for surrounding himself with the best talent to 
be found, regardless of cost, as long as he can please 
his patrons. 

Therefore, when Jean B. Martin secured Justin 
Balard, two great men met. of which the New York 
public are reaping the benefit. 



"Here's to our wives, sisters and sweethearts! 
Here's to love, honor and fame ! 
Here's to the girl we think of, but — 
The girl we never name !" 



10 



THE CHEF 



TABLE LINEN FOR ALL OCCASIONS 



By LILY HAXWORTH WALLACE 



WHEN the table is being prepared for guests, or 
just for "home folks," its covering and general 
arrangement are of the utmost importance for the 
care and time spent on the foods themselves will not 
be fully repaid if the table is not immaculate in its 
appointments. By "immaculate" we mean clean linen, 
well chosen, well laundered, carefully spread, and 
glass and silver properly cared for and polished. 

Foremost in consideration is the table padding — 
"silence cloth." or asbestos mat, whichever may be 
preferred — which goes under the tablecloth, and 
which serves three purposes : first, it makes the table 
service quieter ; secondly, it saves the table from be- 
ing marred by hot dishes, and thirdly, it adds at least 
fifty per cent to the appearance of the tablecloth by 
giving thickness and body and preventing the flat 
look always so apparent where no such padding is 
used. 

The silence cloth may be of heavy felt, bound on 
the edges, or of quilted muslin-covered cotton. Of 
the two the quilted material is to be preferred be- 
cause it has a smooth surface, whereas, with felt, it 
sometimes happens that the fluffy surface sticks to 
the polished table-top owing to the heat of the dishes 
placed on it. Knitted table padding has the advan- 
tage of being heavy yet soft, and of retaining the 
softness after washing. All the fabrics named may 
be secured in varying widths to fit almost any table, 
be they round or square. 

Asbestos pads are made to fit oval, round or square 
tables, but must be purchased the exact size of the 
table top, while the softer silence cloths should be 
sufficiently large to hang several inches over the edge 
of the table on all sides. The asbestos pads are made 
in sections and are covered with Canton flannel. 
Luncheon mats are also made of asbestos for use on 
a polished table when doilies are used in place of a 
tablecloth. These mats are slipped into plain, or em- 
broidered, linen covers when in use. 

In every case table linen should be the best the 
housewife can afford, for the extra wear will more 
than offset the increased cost. Where economy is an 
object, cloths with small patterns should be bought, 
as these wear best. All tablecloths should be large 
enough to fall fully ten inches over the edge of the 
table on all sides. When buying cloths for daily use 
get them a little longer than is really necessary, as 
with this precaution their time of service may be con- 
siderably lengthened, owing to the fact that a cloth 
first shows signs of wear at the edge of the table, 
and by cutting a small piece from one end of the 
cloth this thin spot is moved to the top of the table 
where it receives less wear, and a stronger part falls 
at the table's edge. 



Weight, not fineness, is the standard in buying table 
linens. They should weigh not less than four and 
a half ounces to the square yard. German linens are 
the most durable, and are best for hard wear, but 
the German cloths lack the daintiness of design of 
the French and Irish damasks. They are also rarely 
of as fine texture, or as highly bleached, as the Irish 
or French cloths, but where it is possible to bleach 
them at home, it is an economy to buy them for every 
day use. Good linen and damask are of an elastic 
texture, and when found to be stiff and "crackly," 
it is safe to assume that they have been stiffened to 
make them appear better than they really are. 

For the ordinary sized family two dozen napkins 
should be purchased for each cloth ; these may be of 
two sizes, the smaller for breakfast and lunch, and 
the full sized ones for dinner service. For better use, 
"Pattern Cloths;" that is, cloths having a border all 
round and not only on the sides, and each cloth com- 
plete in design, are daintier than those made from 
linen bought by the yard. They cost a little more, 
but it is money well expended from the personal sat- 
isfaction it gives the housekeeper. Hemstitched 
cloths and napkins, on the other hand, while beautiful 
in appearance, are anything but economical, as the 
stitching soon breaks with washing, and it is almost 
impossible to repair. 

Carving cloths are a great economy, and when 
buying tablecloths, it is an excellent plan to get a 
little extra linen and make two or three carving 
cloths to be used with each tablecloth. Being of the 
same design, they will be hardly noticeable on the 
table, and being small are easily laundered when the 
carver meets with an accident. 

It is becoming quite common in these days of light 
breakfasts to use either small doilies or table runners 
in the morning instead of a tablecloth. These may 
be of white or natural-toned linen, or of heavy linen 
crash, and are placed on the table crossing each other 
at right angles. Especially in summer they are dainty 
in appearance and thev materially reduce the laundrv 
bill. 

Centerpieces are larger now than they have been 
for some years ; and while sometimes embroidered in 
colors, they are infinitely more dainty in appearance 
if the needlework is done in pure white. They may 
be as richly embroidered as the taste and pocketbook 
of the owner permit, but are always in good form if 
left severely plain with, perhaps, an initial carefully 
worked in Old English a little to one side of the cen- 
ter. Where a tablecloth is initialed, or rhono- 
grammed, it is now correct to have the work in such 
a position on the cloth that it may be seen a little 
distance from the edee of the table when the cloth 



THE CHEF 



ii 



is spread. Some have the monogram repeated at 
diagonally opposite corners of the table. 

Where doilies are used on a polished table at lunch- 
eons, or little suppers, there is ample scope for the 
display of individuality. They may be perfectly plain 
hemstitched, or of filmy drawn-work, or edged with 
cluny lace, which always seems specially appropriate 
for this use. They may be made at home according 
to the owner's fancy or purchased in sets from a very 
reasonable price — suited to a limited pocketbook — up 
to almost any price one chooses to pay where the 
decoration is handwork or real lace. They are gen- 
erally sold in matched sets of twenty-five pieces — one 
dozen plate doilies, the same number of small tumbler 
doilies and a center-piece. Finger bowl doilies may be 
included in the set, but it is not necessary for these 
to match the other linens, and they are frequently , 
seen in "odd sets," every one- a different design. 

It is interesting to note that this word "doily" has 
come to us from the Dutch, and is corrupted from 
their word "dwaele," meaning a towel. 

Some judgment should be used as to the suitability 
of the doilies used at different functions. While the 
lace and embroidered ones would be perfection at a 
gathering of debutantes, or a luncheon of grand 
dames, they would be entirely out of place at a feast 
of kindred souls revelling in Welsh rabbit, or a Bo- 
hemian spread of the good things served at the witch- 
ing hour of midnight out of the useful chafing-dish. 
Then the plainer linens are best and may even be 
made from Russian crash, which can go into the wash 
tub, or boiler, and come out fresh and clean, a treat- 
ment which would spell ruin to the dainty confections 
of lace and needlework. 

It is well to have at least a dozen small squares of 
fine linen, fringed or hemstitched, and plain or mono- 
grammed, which may be used as napkins at afternoon 
teas, or when ice cream and cake, or sandwiches only, 
are being served. Many a young housekeeper's cour- 
age has failed her after a gathering of her friends 
when she sees a pile of her best napkins which must 
be "done up" the next day. The small squares serve 
every purpose and are easily laundered. 

The laundering of table linens requires great care. 
Tablecloths may be very slightly starched, but only 
very slightly, for the gloss on well laundered linens is 
secured by ironing them while damp with very heavy 
irons, and continuing the process till the cloths are 
absolutely dry. There should be as few folds as 
possible in a cloth ; absolute perfection demands one 
fold only down the middle of the cloth, which should 
not be folded crosswise, but rolled on a heavy stick 
or roller. The same applies to tray cloths. 

Napkins must be ironed so that the edges are per- 
fectly even. They must be folded into an exact 
square; never at any time into fanciful forms. 

Fringed doilies and napkins must have the fringe 
well brushed with a whisk broom to separate the 



threads and make them soft and straight. All em- 
broidered articles must be ironed on the wrong side, 
on a well padded board, that the design may stand 
out clearly. 

SHERLOCK IN THE LAUNDRY 

/ I v O comply with the woman's request seemed so 

■*■ much like giving away State secrets that the 
laundryman confessed himself "up a stump." 

"I want to know," said she, "how many shirts, col- 
lars and cuffs John Billings has in the wash every 
week." 

"Are you a relative of Mr. Billings?" he asked. 

"Yes," said she. "That is, I may be some time. 
He wants me to marry him and I am making up my 
mind. I want to assure myself first of his personal 
habits. Is he neat? Is he clean? He always looks 
so when he comes to see me, but nothing but his 
laundry bill will show whether he is always so or not." 

The laundryman produced Mr. Billings's laundry 
list with alacrity. 

"Four shirts," he said, "six collars, five pairs of 
cuffs, four union suits and six pairs of socks, and 
Mr. Billings's wash runs a little below the average 
this week. Are you satisfied?" 

"I am," said she, and John Billings's fate was 
sealed. 

OLD WOMAN'S FANCY. 

By Lurana W. Sheldon. 

JUST a quaint, old-fashioned teapot with a figure 
on its side 
Of a quaint, old-fashioned woman, garbed, I fancy, 
as a bride! 

Just a quaint, old-fashioned fancy of a woman's 

thoughtful mind — 
Was she really very happy or just patient and re- 

* signed ? 
Just a quaint, old-fashioned woman gazing at her tea- 
pot there 
With time's shadows on her features and time's silver 
.in her hair. 

Was she truly, truly happy, this quaint bride of long 

ago? 
Strange, indeed, that I should ask it — that I even 

wish to know ! 

Ah, my quaint, old-fashioned teapot, little do you 

dream, my friend, 
Of the solemn thoughts and fancies that your fading 

pictures lend ! 

Was she truly very happy, this quaint woman that I 

knew? 
Was she happy to be wedded on the day one gave 

her — vou ? 



12 



THE CHEF 



VALUABLE DETAILED RECIPES -FOR NOVICE 

AND EXPERT 



BY 

"THE CHEF" 



Braised Beef, Flemish Style (Boeuf Braise A La Flamande) 



Note. — This recipe for Braised Beef, Flemish style, 
is diversely understood, in its details at any rate, be- 
cause the culinary world knows it always as being a 
piece of beef partly boiled, partly braised ; but most 
always entirely braised, and garnished with cabbage, 
carrots, turnips, potatoes, bacon and small sausages. 
In other words, it is known as a very substantial dish. 

In some family households, to avoid the work at-» 
tending the use of too many cooking utensils, the 
housekeeper will oftentimes half braise the beef, and 
will then garnish it with the vegetables and set the 
whole to cook together and finish it in that way, and 
call it braised beef, Flemish style, which is not proper, 
as that would be more of the style known as the 
"farmer style." 

While we know that in the preparation of a recipe 
there are many who proceed according to their way 
of thinking, by modifying and simplfying the recipe 
according to their respective tastes ; still, however, it is 



best if you conclude to make a dish known by a cer- 
tain name, to follow that recipe correctly and as ad- 
vised, and thereby obtain proper results and also 
satisfy the appetite of those who have prepared them- 
selves to eat a dish prepared and known by its name, 
which dish can only be prepared one certain way. 

The advantage of the real braised beef, Flemish 
style, prepared as hereunder indicated, is that in the 
garnishing with the vegetables aforementioned, each 
vegetable retains its particular flavor, because each 
vegetable is cooked separately, and they, for instance, 
who do not like the taste of cabbage, are not com- 
pelled to get that taste while eating some of the other 
vegetables. 

Therefore do not consider it of any moment to use 
one or two extra saucepans in the preparation of this 
recipe. 

Its execution is divided into two distinct parts. The 
braising of the beef and preparing the garnishing. 



PROPORTIONS FOR THE BEEF FOR 8 OR IO PERSONS. 
TIME, 4% HOURS. 

4 lbs. of brisket or rump. 

I medium sized carrot. 

I onion. 

1 kitchen boquet (leak, parsley, etc.). 
2}4 tablespoonsful of skimmed gravy fat. 
3 ounces or thereabouts of bacon rind. 

2 gills of white wine. 

i quart of thin veal juice, or bouillon instead. 
Vi oz. of corn starch. 



PROPORTIONS FOR THE GARNISHING. 
TIME ?y 2 HOURS. 

iV± lbs. of cabbage. 

Y2 lb. ot carrots. 

S medium sized potatoes. 

Vi lb. of lean bacon. 

i sausage (servelat) weighing about 6 or 8 ozs. 

i quart of unsalted bouillon. 

2 tablespoonsful of skimmed gravy fat. 

lYz ozs. butter. 

Y2 oz. sugar. 



THE OPERATIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS: 
FOR COOKING THE MEAT. 

Color the piece of beef in the oven for about fifteen 
or twenty minutes. 

Brown the carrots and onion in a saucepan. 

Set the beef in a casserole with the carrots and on- 
ions, the bacon rind and bouquet. Add the white 
wine ; let it cook until it is most entirely reduced ; add 
a little bouillon, and let this again reduce to about 
one-half. Then add the rest of the bouillon and put 
the casserole in the oven. Let it cook slowly for about 
three and one-fourth hours. Then glaze the meat in 
the oven for about fifteen minutes. 

Strain and remove the fat from the gravy, and 
bind with the cornstarch. 

FOR COOKING THE VEGETABLES. 

Bleach the cabbage, and mould them into small 
balls ; cook the cabbage slowly with the bacon and 
sausage for about one and one-half hours. 



Remove the sausage after about thirty-five or forty 
minutes' cooking. 

Remove the bacon after about one hour's cooking. 

Bleach the carrots and turnips. Cook them with 
bouillon for about forty minutes. 

Cook the potatoes for about twenty-five minutes. 

Set the beef on a large platter, surrounded by the 
garnishing. 

Serve the gravy in a gravy-dish. 

THE PIECE OF BEEF TO BE USED. 

The piece to be used should be either brisket or 
rump, and which the butcher should cut so that the 
piece will be of about equal thickness throughout, 
which is a material help in cooking it evenly. 

The weight suggested is that of the meat ready for 
the oven, and while six lbs. is more than is really 
necessary for ten persons, still it has the advantage 
of cooking better than a small piece, and also of cut- 
ting up better in serving, and then again there will be 



THE CHEF 



13 



sufficient left over for another meal, wherein it can 
be served either cold or warmed over in a brown 
sauce. 

Therefore it is not entirely necessary to limit the 
piece of meat to a strict weight either one way or 
another. 

THE COOKING OF THE MEAT. 

To facilitate the handling of the meat it is advisable 
to tie it with a string wrapped three or four times 
around the piece, which tends to keep it firm. 

Lay it in a roasting-pan, sprinkle it with a table- 
spoonful of gravy fat. Put it in a very hot oven, 
when it will have become colored a nice brown color, 
turn it over on the other side until it becomes browned 
also. This will take from fifteen to twenty minutes. 

While the beef is browning take a shallow saucepan 
or a frying-pan, in which put what is left of the 
gravy fat (one and one-half tablespoonsful) and to 
which when hot add the carrot and onion which have 
been sliced about one-fourth inch thick, place the 
pan over a brisk fire and brown the contents. This 
will take about ten minutes. 

Now the reason the above is done in two opera- 
tions is that due to the large size of the meat, it 
would be rather difficult if not impossible to brown 
both the meat and vegetables in the same utensil, for 
while the meat would be browning the vegetables 
would burn. Therefore it is better to color the meat 
in the oven and the vegetables separately before put- 
ting them together in the cooking pot. 

FOR BRAISING THE MEAT. 

Take a cooking pot that will just about contain 
the meat, at the bottom lay the bacon rind, the car- 
rot and onion that have just been browned, and on 
this lay your piece of beef that has been removed 
from the oven ; on the meat lay the kitchen bouquet 
and add the white wine (two gills). 

Set the pot on a brisk fire, but do not cover it, and 
let it boil until the wine entirely boils away. Then 
add about one and one-half gills of the veal juice or 
bouillon and let this boil down, not entirely, but until 
it has boiled thick or to a syrup state, say to about 
two or three tablespoonsful. 

Now add the rest of the veal juice or bouillon ; that 
is to say enough of same so that it will come even 
with the top of the meat. 

Let it come to a boil, then lay a piece of buttered 
paper on the meat, cover the pot, remove it from the 
stove and set it in the oven so that the liquid will 
continue to boil constantly, slowly and evenly. 

Note. — Slow cooking, evenly regulated is one of 
the conditions that are essential in the preparation of 
any braised meat. 

If from any cause the ebullition should stop, do not 
have it resume briskly with the hope of gaining the 
time lost from its stoppage, but let it start over again 
slowly, because quick and violent boiling is equivalent 
to a quick roasting, it toughens the meat, and further- 



more, the juice of the meat then becomes limpid and 
soggy, and it spoils its taste also. 

Neither is it always as important to watch the cook- 
ing pot as it is to watch your fire. 

To keep a good fire to get an even heat it is very 
bad policy to fill it with coal to the brim, keep add- 
ing a shovelful of coal when needed and you will 
obtain a steady fire and even heat, with the aid of 
the stove draughts, which must be attended to with 
care. 

Therefore a cook must always understand the stove 
on which they cook, which is one of the reasons 
that precise time in cooking anything depends as 
much on the stove as the cook, who must use judg- 
ment. However to continue, from the time that the 
meat is put in the oven, you can count on from three 
to three and one-fourth hours until it is cooked. 

After cooking about two hours the liquid will have 
become reduced ; therefore it is advisable to fre- 
quently baste it. 

We will return later to the finishing touches neces- 
sary before removing the meat from the oven, and 
while it is cooking we will give attention to the pre- 
paration of the vegetables. 

THE VEGETABLE GARNISHING. 

The Cabbage. — Pick out two small good hard cab- 
bage, which will weigh together when ready for cook- 
ing not less than one and three-fourths nor more than 
two lbs. 

Cut them in half, remove the heart, remove the 
withered leaves and wash the cabbage in cold water. 

Drain them well, and throw them into a pot of 
boiling water containing about six quarts and which 
has been prepared by adding about one-fourth ounce 
salt to each quart of water, after which when the 
water resumes to boil, let them remain therein for 
fifteen minutes. 

Remove them then, drain well and place them in 
a pan containing cold water, change the water two 
or three times, let them stand in the water for about 
two minutes and remove and set aside. 

The Bacon. — Remove the rind, put the bacon in 
a saucepan with enough water to cover the bacon, set 
it on the stove, and as soon as the water begins to 
boil, count from about fifteen to twenty minutes' time 
to bleach it ; that is to say, to unsalt it. After which 
set it aside until ready for further use. 

The Carrots and Turnips. — Cut the carrots in 
lengthwise into slices about one-fourth inch thick and 
divide each slice into from three to six pieces, de- 
pending on the length of the carrots, place them in 
a pan of cold water. 

Proceed the same way with the turnips, but do not 
mix them with the carrots, in view of the fact that 
they must be bleached separately. 

Put the carrots in one saucepan, and the turnips 
into another, with water enough to cover them. 

Let the water come to a boil, and count from ten 



14 



THE CHEF 



to twelve minutes for their bleaching, after which re- 
move them, place them in turn in a colander, let cold 
water run over them, drain them and set them aside. 
Note. — When new, fresh vegetables are used, it is 
not necessary to bleach them as above, but it is in- 
dispensable in the case of old vegetables. 

COOKING OF THE CABEAGE, BACON AND SAUSAGE. 

The cabbage being well drained, remove about fif- 
teen or twenty leaves therefrom and set them aside. 

Lay the rest of the cabbage on the table, and strike 
them with the back of a large kitchen knife simply 
for the purpose of loosening the leaves, season them 
with salt and pepper, and divide the cabbage into 
eight or ten equal parts, envelope each part into two 
of the leaves that were previously removed and set 
aside, and which will form a small bunch, which pro- 
ceed to form into a ball as follows : Place one of 
the bunches in the center of a cloth, gather up the 
ends and twist the center containing the cabbage. 
This will act as a strainer and remove the water left 
in the cabbage, unwrap the cloth and the cabbage will 
be found to be a tight little ball. Proceed in this way 
with the rest of the cabbage; if desired, forcemeat 
can be put in the center of each ball before laying in 
the cloth. That remains with the cook as to whether 
they desire to take the additional pains. 

Now then take a saucepan (a copper tinned sauce- 
pan is best if you have one) large enough to contain 
the eight or ten cabbage balls laid side by side, with 
the bacon and sausage in the center. 

Pour a pint of bouillon over the whole and let it 
come to a boil, place then a piece of buttered paper, 
the size of the saucepan, over the whole, cover the 
saucepan and set it in the oven in a heat that will let 
it boil slowly. 

Leave it boil this way for about one and one-half 
hours ; at the end of about thirty-five or forty min- 
utes remove the sausage, and in about one hour re- 
move the bacon. 

THE CARROTS AND TURNIPS. 

About thirty-five or forty minutes before serving, 
put the carrots in a saucepan and add about one-half 
pint of bouillon ; the sugar (two lumps) and three- 
fourths ounce of butter. 

Let it come to a boil, and then set the saucepan on 



the side of the fire so that the boiling will continue 
slowly, whereby the carrots will cook and at the same 
time that the juice will be reducing the carrots will 
have been cooked when the juice will have become 
thick and syrupy. Then set them aside, keep them 
warm until ready to garnish the dish with them. 
Proceed the same way with the turnips with the ex- 
ception that no sugar is to be added. 

THE POTATOES. 

Peel and cut the potatoes in quarters and throw 
them in a pan of cold water. It may be said here 
that the potatoes can have been previously prepared, 
but not set to cook before the time needed, about 
twenty-five minutes before serving, boil in water into 
which has been added a good pinch of salt. 

Note. — The carrots, turnips and potatoes can be 
pared into round, oval or any other shapes that may 
suit the fancy. This always helps to make the dish 
more appetizing. 

FINAL OPERATION, GLAZING THE BE»F. 

About fifteen minutes before serving remove the 
beef from the oven and set it on a platter, and re- 
move the string with which it has been tied. 

Strain the juice or gravy through a very fine 
strainer, and let it stand so that the fat in the gravy 
may come to the surface, remove it with a spoon as 
completely as possible, and take about two table- 
spoonsful of the gravy, sprinkle it over the meat 
which is on the platter and set it in the oven. Do 
this two or three times more at two or three minute 
intervals and this will finish the glazing, which is ex- 
plained as follows: 

The gravy or juice, which has thickened in the 
cooking, when poured over the surface of the meat 
as above directed, becomes caramelized by the heat of 
the oven and therefore gives the meat a glazed ap- 
pearance. 

SERVING THE DISH. 

Place the beef in the center of the dish. 

At each end place the cabbage balls, four or five at 
each end. 

And on each side of the meat place the carrots, 
turnips and potatoes, one-half of each on a side, in 
distinct piles, and between each pile place a piece of 
bacon and sausage which has been cut for that pur- 
pose. Serve the gravy separately. Serve hot plates. 



PLAIN OMELET 

Note. — A Plain Omelet can be used for Breakfast or Luncheon 



\ II 7 HY it should be found difficult by some to make 
^ ' so simple a dish as an omelet is often due to 
the fact of overpreparation, which is done by beating 
the eggs more than is necessary, which tends to make 
the omelet light and without consistency And then 
again oftentimes too much butter is put in the omelet 
pan, which, when the eggs are added, becomes more 
of a soup than an omelet. 



But if attention is given to quantities and care 
taken in the cooking, the best results are obtainable, 
and with this end in view, let us proceed and make an 
omelet as it should be made. 

In the first place we will take it for granted that 
this omelet is for lunch, and will be the main or only 
cooked dish. 

We will therefore use two eggs for each person. 



THE CHEF 



15 



and as springtime gives us eggs at a very moderate 
price, we will therefore have a very good dish at a 
very moderate price. We will proceed to make an 
omelet for four persons : 

PROPORTIONS FOR FOUR PERSONS — TIME, IO TO 15 

MINUTES. 

8 eggs. 

1 oz. butter. 

1" tablespoonful milk. 

Salt and pepper. 

1 sprig of parsley. 

Break the eggs into a bowl, and with a wire beater 
(whip) beat them, counting fifty strokes, add the milk 
(one tablespoonful), and beat again three times, add 
the salt and pepper and beat again three times. 

Now prepare your omelet pan (in case you do not 
have an omelet pan, use a medium size fry-pan), set 
this on the stove over a fire that is not too brisk, in 
the pan put the butter (one oz., or about an even 
tablespoonful), let the butter get hot and become very 
lightly colored, thereupon pour in the eggs, and while 



cooking agitate the pan from time to time so that 
they will not burn or become too dry. When it is 
seen that the eggs are beginning to cook through, re- 
move the pan from the stove, and with a knife or 
spatula, begin to fold the omelet by holding the pan 
rn a slanting position as if about to turn it out, and 
when folded, still holding the pan in the above posi- 
tion, turn it out of the pan into a platter which has 
been kept warm, garnish it with the sprig of parsley 
on top and serve. 

MUSHROOM OMELET 

/ ~T~ V AKE a quarter of a one-pound box of mush- 
■* rooms, cut each mushroom into thin slices, about 
six or eight slices to each mushroom, put them into 
a saucepan into which about one-half ounce of butter 
has become heated a light brown, leave the mushrooms 
cook for about five minutes over a brisk fire, make 
a split in the omelet, which has been made as above, 
and pour the mushrooms into the split, and serve. 



EGGS WITH CODFISH 



An Economical Dish 



THE preparation of this dish will be found easy 
and economical to prepare, being very simple 
and making a good luncheon: 

PROPORTIONS FOR SIX PERSONS. TIME TO PREPARE, 

FORTY-FIVE MINUTES. 

Eight eggs, 1 pint of sauce, for which is needed : 

1 ounce of butter. 

1 ounce of flour. 

1 pint of milk. 

2 ounces of minced onion. 
1 pinch of salt. 

1 pinch of pepper. 

1 pinch of nutmeg. 

2 sprigs of parsley. 
]/ 2 lb. codfish. 

2 tablespoonsful of grated Swiss cheese. 
1 tablespoonful of toasted breadcrumbs. 
1^/2 ounces of melted butter. 

THE OPERATIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS: 

Pick the codfish when cooked. 

Prepare the sauce with onion, butter, flour and 
milk. 

Boil the eggs hard. 

Reduce the sauce by boiling and mix the codfish 
therewith. 

Split the eggs in two and remove the hard yolks. 

Mix the minced egg yolk with the codfish. 

Fill the hard whites of the eggs with filling. 

Lay the eggs so filled on a platter and cover them 
with the breadcrumbs and cheese. 

Put in oven to brown for seven or eight minutes. 

PREPARATIONS. 
THE CODFISH. 

Should you have a left over of codfish it can be 
used for this purpose to the greatest advantage, and 
for the use of this recipe it will only be necessary to 



pick it carefully, removing all the fish bones and any 
fragments of skin. 

Otherwise purchase a piece of fresh codfish weigh- 
ing about one-half pound, or should it be necessary 
to buy salted codfish it must be put in a pan of cold 
water for seven or eight hours to unsalt it, which 
should be done over night. 

To cook it, place it in a deep saucepan after hav- 
ing cut the piece of fish in two, cover it with cold 
water, and the instant the water begins to boil, re- 
move the saucepan to the side, so that it may con- 
tinue to simmer for about twenty minutes. There- 
upon drain the fish, lay it on a platter and proceed 
to pick it into small pieces, removing bones, etc., as 
above directed. 

THE SAUCE. 

As soon as the fish has been set to boil, put the 
butter (one ounce) in a small saucepan, and add the 
minced onion and let them stew slowly for five or 
six minutes in the butter without letting them brown ; 
then add the flour, stirring it with a wooden spoon 
for a few seconds, then add the milk (one pint), 
which has been previously boiled. Season with salt, 
pepper and nutmeg ; then let the sauce come to a boil, 
stirring it continuously; then add the parsley (two or 
three sprigs tied together), and leave it to boil very 
slowly for about twenty-five minutes. 

THE EGGS. 

One egg for each person is sufficient (two halves 
filled), but, however, it is better not to limit yourself 
to that number, one or two more than are really nec- 
essary will do no harm, particularly if there are some 
of the guests who desire another helping. 

Place the eggs in boiling water, which will be 



i6 



THE CHEF 



cooled when setting in the eggs, and when the water 
begins to boil again, leave them boil for ten minutes 
from that time ; remove them and put them in cold 
water until they are cold ; in fact, they can remain 
in the cold water until they are ready to be used. 

THE GRATIN. 

On a plate mix the grated cheese and toasted bread- 
crumbs, and have ready the melted butter, which is 
set aside ready for use. 

FILLING THE EGGS. 

Remove the parsley from the sauce, and pour about 
one-half pint of the sauce in a small saucepan (setting 
aside the rest for further use). 

Set it on a brisk fire, and stir it until the one-half 
pint has been reduced to about one and one-half gills, 
or reduced one-fourth ; then to this sauce add the 
codfish, remove the saucepan over to the side to keep 
warm only. 

Peel the eggs, split them lengthwise, remove the 
yolks and chop them coarsely. 



Scoop out the white halves at each end that more 
room may be had for the filling; chop the white so 
removed, add it to the chopped yolks and add the 
whole to the fish, stirring the whole to mix well. 

Now take a deep oval platter, which can be placed 
in the oven before serving ; at the bottom of this 
platter pour the sauce which remained and was set 
aside for this purpose. 

Fill each half of the white of the egg. called a boat, 
heaping with the codfish. Place each half on the plat- 
ter in the sauce, one close to the other; when all are 
on the platter sprinkle the grated cheese and toasted 
breadcrumbs over the top, and with a small brush or 
a large feather paint the top of the cheese and bread- 
crumbs with the melted butter. 

Then set the platter in a hot oven to gratin or 
brown the top ; that is to say, the cheese and bread- 
crumbs prepared as aforesaid with the butter will 
form a crust in about eight minutes, sometimes sooner, 
depending on the heat of the oven. 

As soon as this occurs, remove the platter from the 
oven and serve at once. 



SOUP JULIENNE 

THIS soup is considered one of the most healthful 
soups made, and one of the most strengthening. 

The vegetables therein can be had at all seasons, 
though many make this soup with canned vegetables, 
known as "canned Julienne," which can be bought 
at any first-class grocery store. 

However, it is much better to use the fresh vege- 
tables at all times where possible, only using the 
canned vegetables in an emergency for a quickly pre- 
pared dinner. 

PROPORTIONS FOR SIX PERSONS. 

I large or, 2 medium-sized carrots. 

I potato. 

I small turnip. 

i leek. 

I small onion. 

i branch of celery. 

I branch of parsley. 

i or 2 leaves of cabbage. 

Cut the carrot, potato, turnip and cabbage leaves 
into thin slivers. 

Chop finely the onion, leek, parsley and celery. 

Into a saucepan place a piece of butter the size 
of an egg, and one lump of loaf sugar. Set the 
saucepan on the stove over a moderate fire and let 
the butter come to light brown. 

Then add the vegetables, cut as above indicated, 
and to the whole add a cup of bouillon, salt and 
pepper, and let it simmer gently for about two hours, 
at which time add one and one-half quarts of bouillon, 
let it then simmer again for about fifteen minutes. 



If the soup is too light in color add a little caramel 
to brown it, which is done by burning a lump of sugar 
in a spoon on the stove, and adding it to the soup. 
Serve hot. 

ONION SOUP 

T70R persons not having objection to onions, this 
-■■ is one of the most delicious and cheapest of soups. 
It is eaten to a great extent by the Frenchmen, par- 
ticularly where they have had an elaborate dinner the 
night before, and it is being much appreciated from 
the same point of view in this country, but on the 
whole it is relished by all those who eat it. 

There is undoubtedly great virtues in the onion, as 
can be seen from that sturdy little race, the Japanese, 
who are great onion eaters. 

PROPORTIONS FOR SIX PERSONS. 

V/2 quarts of water. 

2 medium-sized onions. 

% lb. of bread. 
About 1 oz. butter. 

In a shallow saucepan or casserole brown the onions 
(which have been cut in thin slices) in butter about 
the size of an egg, and when the onions are nicely 
browned, add one and one-half quarts of water, salt 
and pepper, and let it come to a boil, and when it has 
boiled about two minutes, pour in a soup turreen in 
which slices of bread have been cut, and serve hot. 

With this soup there can be served grated Swiss 
cheese, which can be added to suit the taste of each 
person. 




THE CHEF 



17 



TROUT, FRIED 

EMPTY, clean and dry fish thoroughly, cut the fins 
and gills, but leave the heads on. Rub them over 
with flour, and fry them in plenty of hot fat. When 
they are brown on one side, turn them carefully upon 
the other. Lift them out, and drain them on blott- 
ing-paper before the fire. Serve on a hot napkin, 
garnish with parsley, and send plain melted butter or 
any other suitable sauce to the table with them. If 
desired, the flour may be dusted off, and the trout 
may afterwards be dipped in beaten egg, covered with 
breadcrumbs and fried as before. Time to fry, six 
(6) to ten (10) minutes. 

TROUT, COLLARED 

WASH, empty arid dry the trout. Cut off the 
head, split the fish open, and take out the bones. 
Sprinkle a little pepper, salt and powdered mace over 
the inside of each trout, roll up separately and tie 
with thread. Lay the fish side by side in a baking- 
dish, pour over them equal parts of beer and vinegar 
sufficient to cover them, and add two (2) or three 
(3) bay-leaves and a dozen whole peppers or more 
into the liquor. Tie a sheet of buttered paper over 
the dish, and bake the trout in a moderate oven. 
When they are half done, turn them over that they 
may be equally cooked all through and baste them 
once or twice with the liquor. Time to bake one (1) 
hour. 

DUTCH SAUCE 

PUT four ounces of butter, three well beaten yolks 
of eggs, a teaspoonful of flour and a dessert- 
spoonful of lemon juice or vinegar into an earthen- 
ware pipkin, or stir it very gently over the fire in 
a bain-marie. As the butter melts, stir constantly, 
and take care it does not curdle, which it will do if 
it is allowed to boil. A few drops of vinegar may be 
added 1 just before serving if thought necessary. This 
sauce has a pleasant sour flavor. It is especially 
adapted for asparagus, cauliflower, sea-kale, arti- 
chokes, boiled fish, meat or poultry ; in fact, anything 
requiring a delicate sharp sauce. The leaves picked 
from a bunch of parsley pounded in mortar to ex- 
tract the juice, simmered for a few minutes and added 
to half a pint of bechamel sauce, with a little salt, 
cayenne pepper and the juice of half a lemon stirred 
in just before serving, make what is called "Green 
Dutch Sauce." Simmer until thick. 

DUTCH SAUCE FOR FISH 

BLEND together two ounces of butter and a small 
teasponful of flour, put it into a stew pan with 
equal quantities of water and tarragon vinegar (two 
tablespoonsful of each) , stir for a minute and add 
the beaten yolks of two eggs ; keep up the stirring 
until the mixture thickens. It must not boil, and 
when ready to serve pour into it half the juice of a 
lemon. Make this sauce in a gallipot, placed in a 
saucepan of boiling water. 



TROUT, BOILED 

AFTER having emptied, scaled and washed the 
fish, have some boiling water ready into which 
put the trout with a good handful of salt only, but 
no vinegar, as it spoils the color of the fish. When 
it is done, drain it well, and serve ,it upon a napkin 
with parsley. Send up lobster sauce separately in a 
boat or Dutch sauce. The length of time it should 
boil is left to the judgment of the cook; the size 
determines the time, but keep in mind that when 
the fish remains long in the water it loses its flavor 
and quality; for this reason take care to boil it pre- 
cisely at the time it is wanted. 

TROUT, BAKED 

CLEAN and dry the fish, and season them inside 
and out with a little salt and cayenne pepper and 
a pinch of powdered mace if desired. Put them in a 
baking-dish and lay little pieces of butter here and 
there upon them. Baste occasionally with the liquor 
that collects in the pan. Baked trout may be served 
hot or cold. If served hot, the fish gravy should be 
mixed with a little good melted butter, and sent to 
table in a tureen. When it is a convenience, several 
trout may be baked together. They should be put 
into a dish in layers, and a little sprinkling of chopped 
parsley, pepper and butter should be placed between 
each layer. The trout are done enough when the 
flesh leaves the bone easily. 

SAUCES FOR TROUT 

ANY of the following sauces may be served with 
boiled trout: Plain melted butter, anchovy 
sauce, shrimp sauce, parsley sauce, Dutch sauce, 
ravigote sauce or a sauce prepared thus: 

Boil half a pint of melted butter with two table- 
spoonsful of thick cream. Mix the yolk of an egg 
with another tablespoonful of cream, and stir the 
thickening into the sauce, first letting it cool for one 
minute ; add the juice of a lemon and a pinch of salt, 
and stir the sauce over the fire until it is on the point 
of boiling. Lift it off, and stir into it an ounce of 
fresh butter until it is dissolved. Serve the sauce in 
a tureen or poured over the fish. 

Another good sauce is as follows : Bone and skin 
an anchovy, and pound the flesh in a mortar with a 
tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a tablespoonful of 
chopped chives, or a dessertspoonful of flour and a 
piece of butter the size of an egg. When the mixture 
is quite smooth, stir it into a pint of liquor in which 
the fish was boiled. Let it boil a minute or two and 
send it to the table in a tureen. Fried trout is very 
good served cold with a salad sauce. 



PACED TOO RAPIDLY. 

"Waiter, ask the orchestra to play something dif- 
ferent.'' 

"Any particular selection, sir?" 

"Something slower. I can't chew my food proper- 
lv in waltz time." 



i8 



THE CHEF 




RHUBARB 

RHUBARB comes into season in the spring of the 
year, just as apples are going out, and before 
fresh fruit comes in. It is therefore a most useful 
production, and it is appetizing as well as wholesome, 
and is excellent for purifying the blood. The parts 
of the plants used are the foot-stalks, and when these 
are very young they require only to be wiped with 
a damp cloth, and afterwards cut into suitable lengths 
before being cooked. When the stalks are fully 
grown and thick the skin should be peeled off. Early 
forced rhubarb, or champagne rhubarb as it is called, 
is especially prized for its beautiful color. When 
rhubarb is grown in the garden this variety may be 
easily cultivated by placing an empty cask over the 
plant at the beginning of the winter. As rhubarb 
possesses ,the quality of imbibing the flavor of any- 
thing with which it is cooked and imparting its own 
flavor very slightly, it is most useful for mixing with 
other and more richly flavored fruits in making pies 
and puddings. 

STEWED RHUBARB 

STEWED rhubarb is of two kinds. When it first 
comes into season it is small, tender and of a bright 
red color, and when stewed makes a very pretty dish. 
The red rhubarb should be cut into little pieces about 
two inches long. Very little water will be required, 
as the rhubarb contains much moisture. The amount 
of sugar added depends entirely upon the taste. The 
stewed rhubarb should be sent to table unbroken and 
floating in a bright red juice. When rhubarb is old 
and green it is best served mashed or like a puree. 
Old rhubarb is often stringy, and can with advantage 
be rubbed through a sieve. It is no use attempting 
to color old rhubarb red, but its color can be improved 
by the addition of a very little spinach juice. 

ARTICHOKES, FRIED 

WASH, trim and boil the artichokes as directed 
in the recipes for boiling. Remove the chokes 
and outer leaves, leaving only the most tender. Cut 
them into about a dozen pieces, then dip them in bat- 
ter, fry in hot olive oil or drippings until they are 
lightly browned, drain and serve with fried parsley. 
Time to fry, five (5) or six (6) minutes. 



ARTICHOKES, BOILED 

SOAK the artichokes and wash them in several 
waters to expel any insects. Cut the stalks even 
and trim away the lower leaves and the ends from 
the upper one. Boil them in plenty of salted water 
with the tops downwards, and let them remain until 
the leaves can be easily drawn o.ut. Send a little 
Dutch sauce to the table with them. Boiled arti- 
chokes form a separate dish. The leaves should be 
pulled out with the fingers, dipped in the sauce, and 
carried to the mouth. Time, if young, about half an 
hour; longer if old. 

STUFFED LETTUCE 

T?OR six persons, take from three to four solid 
■*• heads of lettuce, according to size ; remove the very 
green outer leaves, which are thrown aside, and pro- 
ceed to wash the head in cold water, changing the 
water three or four times, after which drain them 
thoroughly. 

Then plunge them into boiling hot water, which has 
been salted with about one-fourth ounce of salt and 
let them cook for about three or four minutes. There- 
upon put them in a colander and let cold water run 
over them until they are cooled. 

Drain them well, ami split each head partly through, 
separating each head sufficiently to insert in each head 
one-fourth pound of cooked force meat, the place 
therefore being made by removing from each side so 
much of the heart of the lettuce as may be necessary, 
close the halves together, thereby forming the whole 
head again, and tie with thread to keep together ; set 
them in a pan the bottom of which has been lightly 
buttered, sprinkle with a little bouillon, cover the top 
with a piece of brown paper, which has been previ- 
ously buttered ; set in a moderately hot oven for about 
twenty minutes. Then remove them from the oven, 
set them on a round platter, over each of which pour 
a little veal glaze and serve. 

Yeal glaze is made by cooking scraps of veal and 
veal bones, and reducing same to about one-third of 
the original amount. 

BRAISED LETTUCE 

TAKE five or six heads of lettuce. Remove the 
outer leaves and wash carefully the balance : 
bleach them by putting them in a cooking pot with 



THE CHEF 



19 



enough water, lightly salted, to cover them ; when the 
water comes to a boil remove the heads immediately, 
place them in a colander and let cold water run 
on them until they become cool, then drain them thor- 
oughly, and sprinkle a pinch of salt and pepper over 
each head, and tie each head that it may not sepa- 
rate in cooking. 

Set them in a deep saucepan in the bottom of which 
has been laid from four to six slices of bacon, a 
small carrot cut in slices and one-half pint of bouillon, 
and which has cooked for about fifteen minutes. 

After the lettuce has cooked for about twenty min- 
utes over a moderate heat, remove the lettuce, drain 
them to free them of all the fat possible, and which 
can be done between a dry cloth, and set them on 
a platter. 

Take the yolk of an egg and beat it thoroughly, 
add a teaspoonful of corn starch and about a gill of 
bouillon, and beat the whole thoroughly, add to the 
gravy in the cooking pot, let it come to a boil, and 
pour the whole over the lettuce and serve. 

ASPARAGUS, BOILED 

CHOOSE bunches of asparagus which have the 
cut fresh and the heads straight. If the cut end 
is brown and dry and the heads bent on one side the 
asparagus is stale. It may be kept a day or two with 
the stalks in cold water, but is much better fresh. 
Scrape off the white skin from the lower end and 
cut the stalks of equal length. Let them lie in cold 
water until it is time to cook them. Put a handful 
of salt into a gallon of water, and let it boil. Tie the 
asparagus loosely in small bundles and put them into 
it. Toast a slice of bread brown on each side, dip 
it in the water and lay it on a dish. When the as- 
paragus is sufficiently cooked, lay it on the toast, 
leaving the white ends outwards each way. Send 
melted butter to table with it. Time to cook, about 
twenty minutes. Fresh asparagus cooks more quickly 
than stale. 

ASPARAGUS, FRENCH METHOD 

WASH and boil the asparagus about twenty 
minutes ; then drain them and cut off the heads 
and about two inches of the tender part of the stalks ; 
mince them small and mix with them an onion also 
chopped small. Add the well beaten yolk of an egg, 
salt and pepper. Make it hot, put a slice of toast 
upon it and pour a good sauce over all, or sippets of 
toasted bread may be placed under it. Allow fifty for 
mx (6) persons. 

GREEN STRING BEANS 

farmer's wife style. 

QTRING the beans, wash them, break them in half, 
^and put them in a pot of boiling water which has 
been slightly salted, let the beans boil about fifteen 



minutes, remove them then from the boiling water 
into a colander, let cold water run over them until 
they become cool, and then restore them in the pot 
containing the boiling water and let them cook again 
for about ten minutes. 

Take a deep saucepan into which place a heaping 
tablespoonful of butter, allow the butter to melt, add 
salt and pepper and a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 
remove the beans from the boiling water, drain them 
well and put them in the saucepan containing the 
butter and stir them slowly for about five minutes 
and serve. 



POTATOES WITH BLACK BUTTER 
SAUCE 

TJ OIL about six medium-sized potatoes, peel and 
■■-* cut them in small squares, and place them in the 
center of an oval dish, and around them place four 
or five branches of parsley that have been previously 
fried in butter, which takes about one minute. 

Then over the whole pour the brown butter sauce, 
and serve. 

BLACK BUTTER SAUCE. 

The black butter sauce is made as follows: 
Put about one gill of vinegar in a saucepan with 
a good pinch of salt and pepper, and after it comes 
to a boil, let it boil for about two minutes. 

In another saucepan put one-half pound of butter 
and heat it until it becomes very dark brown, almost 
black, let it stand then for about five minutes. Then 
mix it with the vinegar, and keep it warm until ready 
to pour over the potatoes. 

DRESSED CABBAGE 

T_)LACE a medium-sized cabbage in a deep cooking 
■■• pot, cover it with cold water, and let it boil for 
fifteen minutes, after which remove it from the cook- 
ing pot and let cold water run over it until the cab- 
bage has become cool. 

Then proceed to carefully separate the leaves of 
the cabbage, and between each leaf insert as evenly 
as possible a small quantity of force meat. Should 
the leaves have been entirely separated in performing 
this operation it will not materially matter, excepting 
it will take more work to reshape the cabbage into 
its original form, which, when accomplished, should 
be tied to keep it in shape. 

Put the cabbage back into the cooking pot, at the 
bottom of which have been placed small pieces of 
bacon, about one-half pound, and about one ounce of 
butter, cover the cooking pot, and over a medium 
slow fire let it cook for about one hour, and sprinkle 
the cabbage with one pint of bouillon ; remove the 
cabbage ten minutes thereafter, and set on a warm 
platter, over the cabbage pour the gravy from the 
cooking pot and serve. 



20 



THE CHEF 



EGG PLANT 

PEEL an egg-plant, split it lengthwise, cut it in 
slices and sprinkle each slice liberally with salt ; let 
the salt remain thereon for about five or six minutes, 
pass them through cold water and drain the slices, and 
with a cloth dry them, powder them with flour and 
dip them in egg batter, thereupon place them in a pot 
of boiling fritter fat that is ready, and when they have 
attained a golden brown color, remove them and set 
them on a platter on which a napkin has been previ- 
ously laid, salt them and serve immediately. 

CHICKEN WITH PEAS 

FRY the remains of a cold roast chicken in two 
ounces of butter until they are a good brown. 
Have ready on a plate a lemon, flour, chopped pars- 
ley, pepper, salt and pounded mace. 

Mix these ingredients well, and turn each piece of 
fowl as it comes from the frying-pan in the mixture. 
Place the stew pan over the fire, with half a pint of 
broth, or gravy. Use a pint of peas, and a teaspoon- 
ful of sugar ; into this put the chicken and stew .until 
the peas are tender. 

Serve the peas in the center of the dish, and ar- 
range the pieces of chicken in a circle around them. 

STEAK DAGNEAU MADRID 

lamb steak, madrid style. 
By Balard. 

This steak taken from the leg should be sauted in 
olive oil to which add one-half glass of white wine, 
a small piece of shallot and well reduced veal gravy. 

To serve, set the steak on a hot platter, with a few 
fresh mushrooms. Also sauted in the center of the 
steak and around the steak garnish one end of the 
dish with peeled tomatoes, well seasoned with salt, 
pepper and paprika, at the other end French-fried 
potatoes. 

Pour the sauce around the steak and serve very hot. 

FOODS FOR THE MONTH OF MAY 

FISH. 

WEAK FISH, striped bass, sea bass, flounders, 
eels, mackerel, smelts, trout, perch, herrings, 
sturgeon, salmon, lobsters and crabs. 

MEAT. 

Beef, mutton, veal, spring lamb. 

GAME AND POULTRY. 

Fowls, guinea hens, pigeons, squabs, pullets, duck- 
ling and chicken. 

VEGETABLES. 

Asparagus, peas, beans, cabbage, carrots, turnips, 
cauliflower, sorrel, spinach, rhubarb, lettuce, radishes, 
new potatoes, onions, parsley, chervil, chives and 
tarragon. 

FRUITS. 

Musk-melons, cherries, currants, strawberries. 



EGGS, DIVORCONS STYLE 

By Balard. 

Take medium hard-boiled eggs from which the 
shells have been .removed, lay each egg on a piece of 
toast which has been previously dampened with a 
supreme sauce, and set on an oval dish. 

Garnish one end of the. platter with a boquet of 
asparagus tips, and the other end with small French 
peas. Serve hot. 

LEFT-OVER MEAT PIES 

Economical Luncheon Dishes— Old Recipes 

FOR a good and satisfying luncheon dish there is 
nothing more desirable than meat or game pies. 
They are hot and tasty and also economical, for they 
may be made to certain extent out of left overs. The 
principal thing required is to have the pastry for the 
crust light and not too rich. In England the pies are 
always made without the under crust, but the New 
England housewives use the crust, also the small in- 
verted cup in the bottom of the pie, which drew the 
gravy into it and thus did not soak the crust while 
it was cooking, and it was lifted to release the gravy 
just before it went to the table. All meat pies, and 
more especially game pies, require a large opening 
of the crust on the top in order to allow the escape 
of the gas, which if confined by a close crust is con- 
sidered injurious, in fact almost poisonous to delicate 
digestive organs. 

The crust for the pies is all the same, varying only 
in the richness, be it puff paste or plain pie crust, and 
the pies are in most instances quite good cold for late 
suppers as well as hot, especially those of chicken. 

GIBLET PIE. 

Clean a set of duck or goose giblets and put them 
in a stew pan with a pint of water, one onion, pepper, 
salt and a few sprigs of savory herbs. Simmer for 
one and' a half hours, take them out, cut them into 
small pieces and let them cool. Line the shallow pud- 
ding dish with the crust and have one pound of rump 
steak cut in small pieces. Put a layer in the bottom, 
then a layer of the giblets and so on ; then season 
with pepper, salt and some lumps of butter and add 
the strained gravy in which the giblets were boiled. 
Cover with a top crust, leaving a round hole in it, and 
bake in a good oven about one hour and a half. 

The crust may be covered with a piece of writing 
paper to keep the crust from getting too brown. If 
the cup is used in the pie it is put in the bottom and 
must be not larger than the hole in the crust so that 
it may be fished out easily. This is a very cheap and 
very tasty pie. 

CHICKEN PIE. 

Joint carefully a fresh, fat chicken, boil it in fair 
water, adding an onion, a bunch of herbs, pepper and 
salt until it is very tender. Take from the fire and 
while hot strip out some of the largest bones, and 
when slightly cool arrange in the pastry lined dish the 
chicken pieces, add a few slices of hard boiled eggs. 



THE CHEF 



21 



and, if they are liked, a few truffles. Then strain 
over it as much of the water the chicken was boiled 
in as will fill the pie, put on the crust, leaving the 
opening at the top, and bake it three hours, covering 
the crust as before so that it does not get too brown, 
This pie is rich and when it is cold the gravy is jelled 
beautifully. 

VEAL AND HAM PIE. 

Cut two pounds of veal cutlet into small pieces and 
put a layer in the bottom of the dish. Sprinkle over 
them a mixture of pepper, salt, a dash of nutmeg, two 
tablespoons of savory herbs, a strip of lemon peel 
finely chopped and the yolks of two hard boiled eggs. 
Cut two pounds of boiled ham very fine and add in 
alternate layers until the dish is full, the top layer to 
be of ham. Add a half pint of water and the top 
crust and bake in a fair oven from one to one and a 
half hours. When it is removed from the oven pour 
in through a funnel at the top a pint of rich hot 
stock sufficiently rich to jell when it is cold. This pie 
may be made even more toothsome by the addition of 
mushrooms, sweetbreads and oysters. 



BEEFSTEAK PIE. 

Cut three pounds of rump steak into small pieces 
two inches square. Arrange in layers with seasoning, 
salt, pepper, thin slices of carrot, butter and the juice 
of an onion. Half fill the pie with water and cross 
two thin slices of bacon on top. Leave a hole in the 
crust and bake one and a half hours. 

PIGEON PIE. 

Cut one and a half pounds of rump steak into small 
pieces and line the bottom of a pie dish, seasoning 
with pepper and salt. Clean two or three pigeons, 
rub them with pepper and salt inside and out ; put a 
lump of butter inside of each and lay them on top of 
the steak, and a slice of ham on each bird. Add the 
yolks of four eggs and half fill the dish with good 
stock. Cover with the crust and bake in a good oven 
the usual time. 

Other game pies are made in the same way and are 
served with currant jelly. Sweetbreads, oysters and 
such pies have the bread crumbs added, with a dash 
of white wine or sherry to give a savory flavor to the 
filling. 



DESSERTS 



STRAWBERRY CHARTREUSE 

' I V AKE a charlotte mould and line it with a lemon 
-*■ jelly flavored with any liquor ; then slice some 
fine strawberries and cover the jelly with them. Any 
dried fruit or another color may be used in addition 
if desired. Fill the center with a cream made in the 
following manner: To each half pint of thick cream 
allow a quarter of an ounce of gelatine, a gill of 
lemon jelly and a quarter of a pound of strawberries 
cut up and sweetened a little, or soaked in a little 
maraschino or other liquor. The whole should be 
mixed over ice and then put in the center of the 
mould when beginning to set. Set the mould on ice 
and turn out when firm. This may also be made by 
putting the cream around the mould and the fruit in 
the center. 

STRAWBERRY CREAM ICE 

piCK the strawberries, bruise them with a wooden 
*■ spoon and rub them through a fine hair sieve. 
Take one pint of the juice thus obtained and stir into 
it until dissolved five (5) ounces of powdered sugar. 
Dissolve half an ounce of gelatine in very little wa- 
ter, and add this to the Juice. Let the basin contain- 
ing the juice stand upon rough ice, and stir its con- 
tents without stopping until they begin to set. Whip 
a pint of cream and mix it lightly with the iced straw- 
berry juice. Turn the whole into a hermetically- 
closing ice-mould. Put a little butter round the open- 
ing to keep out the water, and place the mould in 
the ice-pail with pounded ice and bay salt around it 
at least three (3) inches thick. Let it remain until 



the cream is thoroughly frozen. When it is to be 
served plunge the mould for one instant into a basin 
of hot water, turn it upside down upon a glass dish 
when the ice will in all probability come out in a 
shape. If, however, it will not come out, dip it 
quickly into hot water. Time to freeze, about two 
hours. 

RHUBARB PIE 

T)EEL the rhubarb, and if it is very large, divide 
-*- it into two or three strips, and then into short 
lengths. Fill the dish as full as possible, sprinkle 
some sugar over it, add a small pinch of salt, and 
if desired, mix with the fruit a flavoring or grated 
lemon-peel and ground ginger, or a little nutmeg 
grated. Line the edges of the dish with pastry, 
moisten these with water and lay a cover of pastry 
over all. Press the edges closely together and orna- 
ment them, then sprinkle a spoonful or two of cold 
water over the pie and dredge a little white sugar 
upon it; bake the pie in a well-heated oven until the 
pastry loosens from the dish. Serve either hot or 
cold. Time to bake, half an hour to one hour, ac- 
cording to size. 

RHUBARB TART 

f~^ UT the large stalks from the leaves, strip off 
^-^ the skin, and divide the fruit into pieces half 
an inch long. With a pint of these pieces put half 
a teacupful of water, half a teacupful of brown sugar, 
a small pinch of salt and a quarter of a nutmeg, 
grated. Stew the fruit gently until it is quite soft. 



22 



THE CHEF 



then beat it with a wooden spoon until it is smooth. 
Line some small dishes or tartlet-pans with pastry, 
and spread on this a layer of the stewed fruit a little 
more than a quarter of an inch deep. Roll out some 
pastry, brush it over with yolk of an egg beaten up 
with a spoonful of milk, and cut it into strips a quar- 
ter of an inch wide. Lay these across the tart. Lay 
a band of pastry round the edge of the dish, trim it 
evenly, and bake the tart in a well-heated oven. When 
the pastry loosens from the dish it is done enough. 
Time to bake, half an hour or more. 

RHUBARB FRITTERS 

PARE five or six rhubarb stalks and cut them small. 
Beat a pint of flour to a smooth paste with half 
a pint of water, add a pinch of salt, a pint of milk 
and two well beaten eggs, then stir the rhubarb into 
the batter. Put a large tablespoonful of lard or sweet 
dripping into a thick-bottomed frying-pan. Melt the 
fat, and when it is boiling hot put in the batter by 
spoonsful, and keep each spoonful separate. Flatten 
the tops of the fritters a little and when one side is 
brightly browned turn them over upon the other. 
When they are done enough drain them, and serve 
them on a hot dish with a little piece of butter, a 
grate of nutmeg and a teaspoonful of sugar over 
each. Time to fry, three or four minutes. 

RIBBON CAKE 

MIX well together half a pound of butter, one 
pound of castor sugar, half a pint of milk, four 
eggs, one pound and a half of flour, a teaspoonful 
of cream of tartar and half a teaspoonful of carbon- 
ate of soda. Divide the mixture into three parts. To 
one part add a cupful of raisins picked carefully over, 
two tablespoonsful of golden syrup, a quarter of a 
pound of chopped lemon-peel and a teaspoonful each 
of ground cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. Bake each 
part in a shallow round tin, and when they are done, 
and while still hot, place the cake with fruit in it 
between the two others, putting white of egg be- 
tween them to make them stick together. Sprinkle 
white icing sugar on top. 

MILDRED'S CAKES 

PUT two ounces of fresh butter into an earthen 
jar, with one pound of best molasses. Place the 
jar over the fire until the butter is dissolved. Pour 
the warmed liquid upon one pound of flour, add a 
tablespoonful of powdered ginger, and a piece of 
pearlash the size of a nut, and the juice of a lemon ; 
beat the mixture until it is smooth, then put it in 
a cool place until the next day. 

Roll it out thin, cut it into small squares and bake 
it in a buttered pan in a moderate oven. 

Time to bake, twenty minutes to half an hour. 
Cost about twenty cents. 



MARROW PUDDING A LA BARTHOLDI 

Grevillot 

UNNERVE, chop, pound and pass through a sieve 
six ounces of marrow or beef kidney suet or 
else half of each ; work it with eight ounces of pow- 
dered sugar, the yolks of ten eggs and add twelve 
ounces of breadcrumbs soaked in a gill of rum and 
half a gill of cream ; salt six ounces of candied apri- 
cots, cut into eighth of inch squares, six ounces of 
cherries cut in four, and two ounces of angelica. 
Mix well and stir in ten very stiffly beaten egg-whites. 
Butter and flour a dome-shaped mould, pour in the 
preparation and cook in a baine-marie for one hour. 
Unmould and pour a Bichoff sauce over the pudding 
prepared as follows : Two gills of white wine, two 
gills of syrup, lemon and orange peel, cut into Juli- 
ennes, shredded pistachios, nine ounces of Malaga 
raisins, currants and Smyrnas softened in water. 
Heat without boiling. 

FRENCH PUDDING 

SHRED four ounces of beef suet very finely, and 
mix with it an equal weight of finely grated bread- 
crumbs. Half a saltspoon of salt, four tablespoonsful 
of moist sugar, half a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg, 
the grated rind and strained juice of a lemon or a 
bitter orange and six large apples chopped small. 

Mix the dry ingredients thoroughly, then add very 
well whisked eggs and a tablespoonful of brandy. 

Put the mixture into a buttered mould, which it 
must quite fill. Tie a floured cloth over it." Plunge 
it into boiling water and let it boil quickly until it 
is done enough. Put three tablespoonsful of apple 
jelly into an enameled saucepan with two tablespoons- 
ful of brandy. Stir them gently until the jelly is dis- 
solved, then pour in gradually one quarter of a pint 
of thick cream and stir the sauce briskly until it is 
on the point of boiling. It is then ready for serving. 

If preferred, this pudding may be baked instead of 
boiled. Time to boil the pudding, three hours ; to 
bake, one and one-half hours. 

Probable cost about twenty-five cents, sufficient for 
five or six persons. 

A NOVEL WAY TO DINE 

Two men who are well-known in New York as the 
proprietors of an old-fashioned hotel set a new fash- 
ion in progressive dinners the other night. They 
entertained a party of guests at a different hotel for 
each course of the dinner. Beginning at their own 
hotel, the hosts provided the oysters, the party sitting 
down at a fully-laid table. As soon as the bivalves were 
disposed of the party took two taxicabs and went 
to the next hotel on the list for soup. A waiter tele- 
phoned to the next stopping-place, so that there was 
no delay. So it went through all the courses to coffee 
and liquors. 



THE CHEF 



23 



THE USE OF CHEESE 

Ways in Which It May Be Served 
Pleasant With Salads 



/"^HEESE of different sorts from different countries 
^-^ brought over and introduced by strangers to this, 
their adopted home, have become quite a feature of 
the menu cards offered at the various public places and 
are finding their way to the home table as well. In 
fact, many of the foreign cheeses are preferred to the 
domestic ones of earlier acquaintance. 

A celebrated gourmand once remarked that a "din- 
ner without cheese was like a woman with but one 
eye," which saying proves conclusively the need of 
adding the cheese dish to the daily menu. It is a well 
known fact that some people are fond of cheese when 
it is in a state of decay ; others when it is "alive," so 
that there is no accounting for taste. 

The sandwich fad has brought forth the cheese 
product put up in jars, and the so-called cream cheeses 
that may be easily spread upon the crackers or bread. 
Then the demands made by the up-to-date salad 
course, requiring the cheese served that best fits each 
peculiar salad, has done much in making discoveries 
both tasty and valuable. For instance, endive salad is 
rarely served without Roquefort cheese, lettuce and 
tomato salad calls for the cream cheese, meat salads 
are usually accompanied by toasted cheese and hard 
crackers, while fish salads call for the highly seasoned 
cheese straws. 

With apple pie old English cheese or sharp domestic 
cheese is generally offered. For the making of the 
Welsh rarebit rich, crumbly cheese is the best, as it 
melts more perfectly than any of the other kinds. 

Cheese usually agrees or decidedly disagrees with 
people at once, which decides the question for each 
individual case whether or not it shall have a place 
in the daily menu. However, there may be "extenu- 
ating circumstances," and a cooked cheese dish may 
often be enjoyed by a person when the stomach has 
rejected it in its natural state. Milk and cheese 
taken at the same meal have been known to bring 
on the most violent case of indigestion. Sometimes 
cheese taken with wine or liquor has been known to 
have the same effect. While it is acceptable to nearly 
all diners at the end of the meal, those of sedentary 
habits should be wary of overindulgence in quantity. 

CHEESE STRAWS. 

The ever popular cheese straws are made in the 
following way : 

Two ounces of butter, two ounces of flour, two 
ounces of breadcrumbs, two ounces of grated cheese, 
salt, pepper. Cream altogether, roll fairly thin, cut 
in finger strips and bake on white writing paper in 
a fair oven. 

There is another way of making them that is also 



good, and that is with puff paste rolled thin and the 
grated cheese sprinkled over it. seasoned with salt and 
pepper. Fold the crust three times and then roll it 
and cut in convenient lengths. Bake a delicate brown. 
When cold pile log cabin fashion on a napkin to 
serve. 

The cream cheese salads are made by putting a 
package through the ricer over crisp, cold lettuce 
leaves and adding the French dressing a minute be- 
fore serving, so that the salad remains light; or by 
rolling the cheese into balls and pressing a half wal- 
nut meat each side like a walnut cream candy, piling 
them on the lettuce leaves and adding a light mayon- 
naise or French dressing. Again the nuts may be 
finely chopped and added to the ball in rolling it. 

Roquefort cheese is served with endive salad, and 
sometimes it is 'crumbled through the salad. 

WELSH RAREBIT. 

The following is one of the best known recipes for 
Welsh rarebit now in use: 

Shave into thin strips or slices two cups of rich 
dairy cheese. Put into a saucepan with enough ale 
or beer to moisten but not to make it too thin when 
it is melted. Add a small lump of butter and stir 
continuously one way until perfectly melted. Then 
add salt, pepper and a teaspoonful of English mus- 
tard. When all is melted take from the fire and add 
an egg well beaten, stir carefully, then turn the mix- 
ture over buttered toast on hot plates and serve. 

Parmesan cheese is made in Italy and of the 
skimmed cow's milk, and none is offered at market 
before it is six months old. The high favor of it is 
due to the rich herbage of the meadows where the 
cows are pastured. English Stilton cheese is often 
called the British Parmesan and is considered the 
finest of table cheeses. 

If a large quantity of cheese is purchased at once, 
part may be covered with thickly buttered white pa- 
per to keep it. Smaller pieces may be wrapped in 
a damp cloth. Cheese keeps best in a damp, cool 
place covered from the air. It may also be covered 
with cloths wet with good brandy, which adds rich- 
ness to the flavor as well as keeping it rich and moist. 

At a card party recently given where refreshments 
were restricted to the use of crackers, cheese and cof- 
fee alone the hostess made mysterious trips to strange 
neighborhoods, and upon the appointed night set be- 
fore her guests twenty-two different kinds of cheese 
and as many more kinds of crackers to eat with it. 
Most of the cheese, needless to say, were almost total 
strangers to the major portion of the guests present, 
and thus made a most novel feast. 



24 



THE CHEF 



TRUITE, POULET DE PRINTEMPS, ARTICHAUT, 

ASPERGE, FRAISE 

Actualities de Saison 
GANCEL 



LA TRUITE 

LA TRUITE a plusieurs varietes qui se caracteris- 
ent par des taches rouges irisees de violet. Le 
genre truite est le plus fin des poissons de riviere, le 
plus delicat, le plus aromatique, le plus facile a digerer ; 
mais aussi celui qui coute le plus cher et le plus 
difficile a conserver. La truite doit etre cuit en 
sortant de l'eau. 

Dans une agape bien construite 
Envisagez, assurement 
L'apparition de la truite 
Comme uns joyeaux evenement. 

Quelques-uns la demandent cuite 
Avec maint assaisonnement 
Pris aux recettes qu'on ebruite 
Je la veux frite simplement. 

Truites blanches ou saumonees 
D'Amerique ou des Pyrenees 
Poissons charmants, soyez benis ! 

Mais je sais les roches hautaines 
Ou se cachent vos souveraines : 
Salut, truite du Mont Cenis! 

Ch. Monselet. 

RECETTES 

TRUITE AU BLEU. 

APR£S avoir enlever les ouies de vos truites, otez 
les intestines en faisant une incision aussi etroite 
que possible pres du nombril, lavez les et humectez le 
limon ; ensuite posez-les dans une plaque a rebords, 
arrosz-les avec une cuillere de vinaigre sale et bouill- 
ant en operant vivement. Vous obtiendrez alors une 
teinte uniforme. Notez, que Ton ne peut donner a la 
truite cctte couleur franche que si elle est bien fraiche- 
Apres cette operation ne touchez plus vos truites avec 
vos doits. Versez-y votre courtbouillon apres l'avoir 
passe, laissez pocher quinze minuets sans bouillir afin 
d'eviter le froissement. Egouttez-les une par une avec 
precaution. Dressez les sur un plat, entourez-les de 
persil et tranches de citrons. Servez au beurre fondu 
ou avec sauce Hollandaise. 

POULET DE PRINTEMPS 

OETIT du coq et de la poule, de l'age de trois a 
-*■ six mois, avant trois mois il prend le nom de 
poussin. Les poulets specialement nourris pour etre 
tue, prenent le nom de poulets de grain ; le pois 
moyen et de une livre et quart. Depuis longtemps 
le poulet est considere a la campagne comme aliment 
de luxe et comme l'aliment par excellence des malades ; 



mais pour qu'il reunisse les qualites de sa reputation 
il doit etre surtout gras et avoir ete nourri a l'etat 
libre ou parque dans un endroit aere, rien de plus 
desegreable qu'un poulet etique dont le sternum lais- 
sent apparaitre le squelette decharme, il y'a done tout 
avantage de laisser engraisser les poulets avant de 
les tuer. 

Le nombre de preperations du poulet est consider- 
able, on en inventes tous les jours de nouvelles. parmi 
lesquelles la plus simple n'en est pas la moins bonne ; 
e'est a dire le poulet roti ou le poulet grille dont 
l'americain est si friand, et qui est toujours savoure 
avec plaisir par tout le monde, lorsqu'il il est prepare 
dans la regie. 

PAUVRES PETITS. 

Vous voir libres est ce que j'aime 

Si je vous plains, 

C'est qu'il vous faut tomber quandmeme 

Entre nos mains. 

Mais c'est un trepas enviable 
Je vous promets 
Que de vous servir a la diable 
A nos gourmets. 

Pourtant j'amais vous voir courir 

Petits et freles 

Quand la poule pour vous couvrir 

Ouvrait ses ailes. 

ACHILLE OZANNE. 

POULET DE PRINTEMPS GRILLE ET 
DIABLE 

APRliS avoir flambe votre poulet; fendez le par 
le dos, enlevez les intestines, croisez les ailerons, 
rentrez les cuisses en dedans, applatissez le legerment 
sans briser les os, essuyez-le, assaisonnez, beurrez et 
mettez le sur le gril afin de le raidir des deux cotes ; 
ensuit, enduisez votre poulet de bonne moutarde 
franchise additioner d'un peu de cayenne et passez le 
leg-erement a la mie de pain fraiche puis fait le griller 
tout doucement Quinze a vingt minutes. Servez sur 
une sauce diable ou bien separee. Decorez le plat avec 
des cornichons et des tranches de citrons. 



ARTICHAUT 



fruit 



PLANTE de la famille des composees, dont 
a la forme d'un gros chardon. Elle croit a l'etat 
sauvage dans tout le midi de l'Europe, dans l'inde et 
en Afrique. 

L'artichaut rentre dans la categorie des legumes 



THE CHEF 



verts, joue un certain role dans l'alimentation, on ne 
mange que la parti tendre des feuilles et la base du 
calice appelee fond en terme culinaire. Le nombre 
des varietes d'artichaut est considerable, les princi- 
pals sont celles de Laon, de Provence, de Bretagne, 
d'Angleterre, de St. Laud, de Genes, de Toscane et 
de Venise. 

L'artichaut est un aliment sain et agreable au gout, 
cru, il a moins de saveur et il est plus difficile a 
digerer ; cuit et prepare d'apres les regies de l'art, il 
devient tendre savoureux et leger. 

Comme un coeur d'artichaut, son coeur de vierge mure, 
Dur viscere barde d'une squameuse armure, 
Au moindre mot d'amour, se herissait hautain, 
Sans soupcon du desir, sans crainte d'entamure. 

Mais coeur q'on garde, tente ; a prude libertin 
Prise de force un soir et quittee un matin 
La vierge, froidment sans larme ni murmure 
Tout d'un coup, par besoin d'amour, se fit catin. 

De baiser en baiser, de vertige en vertige, 
Ce coeur apre d'orgueil, si ferme sur sa tige, 
Et qu'on aurait jamais cru pouvoir emier. 

Feuille a feuille, en sa fleur est alle par l'espace 

Se faner au contact du caprice qui passe, 

Et n'est plus que du foin qui fera du fumier. 

Paul Roinard. 

ARTICHAUTS FARCIS 

ENLEVEZ les premieres feuilles, tournez legere- 
ment le fond, coupez les cimes, faites blanchir de 
maniere a. pouvoir enlever facilement le foin, ra- 
fraichissez et egouttez. D'autre part, foncez une 
casserole avec lard, oignons, carottes, etc. ; emince, 
farcissez vos artichautes avec la farce suivante : 
Echallote, oignons, champignons frais haches et 
revenus au beurre ou a l'huile, ajoutez un peu de 
sauce espagnole et de tomate, laissez reduire, aj outer 
des fines herbes, un pointe d'ail, lors que vos 
artichaut sont garnis, couvrez les d'une bande de lard, 
faites pincez legerement, mouillez vin blanc et faite 
braiser. Passez la sauce et le beurre sur vos artichaut 
et servez. 

L'ASPERGE 

"DRIS dans le sans hygienique en general l'asperge 
■*• est a la fois un aliment sain et savoureux, mais 
l'art culinaire, ici comme ailleurs, peut par l'applica- 
tion d'assaisonnements, par la methode de preparation, 
par ses condiments, ses sauces, ou par l'assimilation 
a d'autre elements donne plus ou moins d'influence 
a ce vegetal de premier choix. 

Pour les malades et les convalescent, c'est la sauce 
Hollandaise, ou le beurre fondu, que Ton sert de 
preference. 



LES ASPERGES. 

Asperges, dont la tete aux paleurs un peu verte 
Se rengorge en un col d'un ton rose de chair, 
Toi, qui sors, en poignard de terre entr'ouverts 
Avec l'apre fierte de qui s'estime cher ! 

Vegetal que pronait le frugal Hippocrate, 
Que cultivait Ravernne et cultive Montreuil. 
Que chante Monselet et qui a chante Socrate, 
Dresse toi, triomphal, je comprends ton orgueil! 

N'as tu pas une histoire aux annales Celeste, 
Toi qu'on servit, a la table des dieux? 
Si le Temps a tue les Immortels, tu reste! 
Du fumier des dieux morts, tu surgis, Radieux ! 

Si l'olympe est defunt, sa cuisine est rivante: 
On peut la retrouver chez quelqu un que je sais, 
Ou se mange une asperge en branche que Ton vaute 
Ce quelqu'un c'est Levy, grand cafe de la Paix. 

La des couples gourmets savourent bien a l'aiie, 
Dans le discret confort d'un souper fin charmant, 
L'asperge dresee a la Sauce Hollandaise 
Que reussit Lepy superieurement. 

Et la comme aux beaux fours des festins grandioses, 
Orgeuilleux Vegetal, gonfle d'exquisites 
Si tu meurs du baiser cruel des bouches roses, 
Tu meurs dans le sourire aimant des Deites. 

Qui faisons lui fete ! 
Legume prudent 
C'est la note honnete 
D'un festin ardent. 

J'aime que sa tete, 
Croque sous la dent, 
Pas trop cependant, 
Enorme, elle est bete. 

Fluette, il lui faut 
Plier ce defaut * 
Au role d'adjointe, 

Et souffrir mele, 
Au vert de sa- pointe 
L'or de l'oeuf brouille. 

Charles Monselet. 

LES FRAISES 

CE fruit exquis, puisquon l'appelle ainsi, n'a point 
de patrie, il est de partout et n'a aucune origine 
connue. II pousse spontanement dans les forets d' 
Amerique, comme dans les montagnes de l'ancien 
continent, C'est l'un des premiers fruits que la terre 
nous produise au printemps ; il fait les delices des 



26 



THE CHEF 



oiseaux, des abeilles comme celui de l'homme. La 
precocite, la fertilite, le parfum, la finnesse du gout, 
sont les qualites vers lesqueles doivent tendre les 
efforts des cultivateurs de fraises. Le nombre de 
varietes de fraises cultives est aujour d'hui incalculable 
et a chaque instant on en cree de nouvelles, soit par 
le moyen de semis, soit en les ameliorant par la 
Culture. 

Voici l'Avril ! Voici la Fraise 

Les amoureux 
Pourront la chercher a leur aise ; 

Toujours a deux. 

I'ls s'en iront avec prudence 

En tapinois, 
Faire la Cueillette en silence 

Dans les grands bois. 

Et nous,— puisque le printemps seme 

Le premier fruit — 
Faisons des mousses a la Creme 

De son produit! 

Que votre fraise soit quelque temps maceree, 
Au sucre ; puis, avec, faite une puree 
Qu'on obtient en passant les fruits dans un tamis 
Pendant que, d'autre part, vous avez deja mis 
Pres du feu se dissoudre un peu de gelatine, 
Qu'on verse sur la fraise a travers l'etamine 
L'appareil etant pret, bien ferme vous fouettez 
Une creme qu'aux fruits vous ajoutez, 
Ce melange produit une mousse bien rose ; 
Moulez-la ; puis qu'en glace une heure elle repose 
Vous aurez un regal d'une exquise saveur. 
Qui refraichit la bouche et rechauffe le coeur 

Voici l'Avril ! Voici la Fraise ! 

Cette reine des entremets 
Degustez-la tout a votre aise 

Heureux gourmets 

Voici la Fraise! 

ACHILLE OZANNE. 

FRAISES AU CHAMPAGNE 

Gancel 

A PRfiS avoir enlever les tiges de belles fraises, 
■*■ *-les mettre dans un saladier avec une quantite 
suffisante de sucre en poudre, ajoutez une puree de 
fraises que vous aurez obtenu en passant au tamis 
vos fraises les plus mures. Sautez les fraises de temps 
en temps tout en les laissant macerer deux heures 
environ, afin d'obtenir un sirop tres sucre, n'oubliez 
pas de les maintenir sur glace pendant cette macera- 
tion. Au moment de servir, arrosez les de bon 
champagne mousseux suivant la quantite de fraises 
que vous avez. Remuez et servez de suite. 



FILET DE BASS A LA PARISIENNE 

Grevillot 

CE poisson vit dans la mer mais remonte ks 
rivieres au printemps pour engendrer par le frai. 
Apres la famille des saumons, c'est certainement le 
meilleur et le plus apprecie ; sa fermete, la blancheur 
de sa chair, son gout parfume. On rencontre de ces 
bass pesant de 30 a 40 livres. Lorsqu'elles arrivent 
a ce poids, ou au-dessus, elles sont coriaces. Les 
meilleures sont celles qui pesent de 8 a 12 livres ; leur 
couleur est sur le dos d'un bleu brun et argentee sur 
les cotes, et au-dessous egalement ; c'est un des plus 
beaux et des meilleurs poissons que Ton puisse trouver 
aux Etats-Unis. 

Filet de Bass a la Parisienne. — (Stripes Bass a la 
Parisienne). — Levez les filets de plusieurs bass de 
deux livres chapue ; enlevez la peau sur les filets ; 
coupez chaque filet en deux ; parez-les bien. Brisez 
les os de la tete et les aretes ; preparez avec debris 
et les peaux un court-bouillon au vin blanc ; assaison- 
nez de sel et poivre ; faites bouillir pendant seize 
minutes, passez et degraissez. 

Jettez les filets dans un plat creux beurre pouvant 
aller au four; jetez dessus une echalotte, un oignon 
et autant de champignons, le tout hache separement, et 
mouillez le court-bouillon dont il est parle ci-dessus. 
Poussez au four quinze minutes. Egouttez le poisson 
et mettez-le sur un autre plat ; couvrez-le et tenez-le 
au chaud. Egouttez le poisson de la cuisson ; degrais- 
sez la dite et ajoutez vin blanc ainsi que le reste du 
cou-bouillon. Reduisez a demi-glace, incorporez 
quatre onces de beurre en travaillant bien au fouet. 
Glacez a la salamandre ou au four tres chaud. 

La delicatesse du poisson depend du court-bouillon. 

MIGNONS DAGNEAU AUS EPINARD 

Grevillot 

Yj NLEVEZ les filets a deux selles d'agneau, parez- 
*~ ' les bien en enlevant la graisse ainsi que la peau 
et les nerfs, et, s'il est necessaire, servez vous des 
contrefilets. Coupez l'un ou l'autre en tranches, 
applatissezles a trois huitiemes de pouce d'epaisseur ; 
parez-les bien au couteau pour les arrondir. Salez- 
les et faites-les sauter sur un feu vif ; cuisez-les juste 
a point. Preparez des croutons en pain d'un quart 
de pouce d'epaisseur et d'un demi-pouce plus larges 
que les migons. Line fois cuits, faites-les frire au 
beurre. D'autre part, vous aurez prepare des epinards 
auxquels vous enleverez au prealable les cotes, puis 
apres les avoir lave a plusieurs eaux, vous les blan- 
chirez a grande eau salee. Egouttez-Ies, bien entre 
vos mains pour en extraire toute l'eau. Hachez les 
finement. Mettez-les dans une casserole avec un 
morceau de beurre. Mettez-les sur le feu, assaisonnez 
avec sel. sucre, muscade ; ajoutez un peu de farine et 
mouillez avec un peu de creme. Mettez une couche, 
d'epinards d'un demi-pouce d'epaisseur sur les mignons 
et masquez le tout avec la preparation suivante. 



THE CHEF 



27 



Champignons frais haches frits au beurre jusqu'a 
ce qu'ils aient rendu leur humidite. Mouillez-les avec 
de la bonne creme ; faites bien reduire et liez. Jetez 
dessus du parmesan rape, arrosez de beurre fondu et 
faites colorer a four tres vif ou bien a la salamandre. 



POTAGE DE POULET AU RIZ A LA 
MODERNE 

Grevillot 

METTEZ deux pieds de veau de trois livres 
chacun, scies en 4 dans une marmite avec huit 
litres de bouillon blanc ; ajoutez une livre de carottes 
emincees, une demi-livre de navets, une demi-livre de 
poireaux, un quart de livre de' celeri et un quart de 
livre d'oignons en grains. Ajoutez deux poulets 
brides pour entree, ecumez, faites bouillir. Quand 
les poulets sont presque cuits, retirez-les, enlevez les 
peaux et detaillez les en vingt morceaux chacun ; 
remettez-les dans une casserole avec le bouillon que 
vous passerez au tamis. Faites blanchir une demi- 
livre de riz, tnettez-le dans le potage et finissez de 
cuire en laissant bouillir pendant vingt minutes. 
Degraissez et servez. 

PIGEONNEAU A LA MORA 

Grevillot 

PRENEZ un pigeonneau desosse et farci avec farce 
•*■ a quenelles et foie gras, quelques truffes hachees 
et une petite truffe entiere dans le milieu de la farce; 
mettez dans un cercle, recouvrez d'une barde de lard 
et cuisez au four en l'arrosant ; dressez-le sur un 
risoto a la Mora. Garnissez de deux jolies pieces de 
champignons tournes et glaces ainsi que d'une crete 
de coq farcie aux fines herbes cuites, panees et frites. 
Servez demi-glace a part. 

Du Risota a la Mora. Preparez un risoto avec 
oignons frits au beurre ; ajoutez le riz lorsqu'il est 
bien chaud, mouillez-le avec du bouillon blanc et 
lorsqu'il est presque cuit a point, ajoutez des piments 
doux coupes en des, ainsi que du beurre, glace de 
viande et fromage de parmesan. 

Melangez bien le tout et servez separement du jus 
corse. 

OEUFS A LA VALENCIENNE 

BALARD 

PRENEZ une belle tomate. Videz-la bien. Assai- 
sonnez de sel et de poivre pour lui faire jeter l'eau 
en la passant 5 minuets au four. Garnissez le fond 
de la tomate avec un riz a la valencienne pas trop cuit 
et surtout pas trop sec. 

Casser un oeuf dessus, sel, poivre et saupoudrez de 
Parmesan. Faites cuir au four. Dressez sur une 
serviette avec persil en branche. 



HOW TO TAKE CARE OF SILVER. 

A Little Housewife Tells How She Keeps 
it Ready for Daily Use. 

The five were again assembled, and as usual the 
little woman again had something to say. This time 
it happened to be silver and its daily care they were 
discussing. 

She of the determined air remarked that she didn't 
believe in using solid silver every day. It only pro- 
voked theft and was a constant worry keeping it clean 
and keeping it from being scratched, and that it al- 
ways had to be locked up at night. 

"Well," said the little woman, "I use my silver every 
day. I have a large basket such as picnic luncheons 
are carried in, and it is fixed to hold all of my flat 
ware. I say I use it every day. Of course I don't 
use all of it, but it is there in the basket to be used 
if necessary. 

"I have made bags for all of it," she continued. 
"Dark green canton flannel bags, bound with dark 
green braid. The bags are made of a strip of the 
flannel the size required for the articles to be placed 
in them. The strip for my coffee spoons is about 
ten inches wide and twelve inches long. I bound one 
with the braid and turned it up four inches on the 
strip, making a bag four inches deep, with a flap of 
two inches. I bound this all round with the braid 
and then stitched it in sections an inch apart, one for 
each spoon. 

"In this manner I have made bags for my knives, 
forks, fancy spoons and forks, which are of a size, 
and all of my small fancy pieces, such as my sardine 
fork, my cream ladle and pieces of that size go to- 
gether in a bag. On the back of each bag is fastened 
a tape, and when the things are put away the tape is 
tied around the roll." 

"Most of my silver came in bags," said Mrs. Re- 
cently Married, "and I keep it in them. There is a 
bag for nearly every piece, except the knives and 
forks, which are in bags something like those you^have 
made." 

"Yes, that is very nice, if you have them all," said 
the little woman, "but in case of fire there is too much 
to be gathered together. Mine are so compact, and all 
being kept together in the large basket it could be 
picked up quickly. 

"What do you do with it when you are out for an 
afternoon?" asked the timid one. "That is usually 
the time sneak thieves help themselves." 

"I have several loose boards in the floor under my 
shirtwaist box in the closet, and I slip it in there with 
very little trouble and it is as safe as a bug in a rug. 
In fact, that is where it goes every night. It is never 
left in the dining-room." 

"Did you ever have thieves in your home?" said 
the timid one. "Only last week they broke into the 
Joneses' across the street from us." 

"Is that so!" said the chorus, and again the subject 
under discussion was forgotten. 



28 



THE CHEF 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS 

Dietaries and Dietary Standards 



The information gained from a study of the compo- 
sition and nutritive value of foods may be turned to 
practical account by using it in planning diets for 
different individuals or classes of individuals, or in es- 
timating the true nutritive value of the food actually 
consumed by families or individuals. By comparing 
the results of many such investigations with the re- 
sults of accurate physiological experimenting it is pos- 
sible to learn about how much of each of the nutrients 
of common foods is needed by persons of different oc- 
cupations and habits of life, and from this to compute 
standards representing the average requirements for 
foods of such persons. The plan followed in making 
dietary studies is, briefly, as follows : Exact account 
is taken of all the food materials. ( i ) on hand at the 
beginning of the study, (2) procured during the 
study, (3) remaining at the end. The difference be- 
tween the third and the sum of the first and second 
is taken as representing the amounts used. From the 
figures thus obtained the amount of the different food 
materials and the amount of the different nutrients 
furnished by them is calculated. Deducting from this 
the weights of the nutrients found in the kitchen and 
table refuse, the amounts actually consumed are ob- 
tained. Account is also taken of the meals eaten by 
different members of the family or groups studied and 
by visitors, if there are any. From the total food 
eaten by all the persons during the entire period the 
amount eaten per man per day may be calculated. In 
making these calculations due account is taken of the 
fact that women and children eat less than men per- 
forming the same amount of work. The various fac- 
tors commonly used in the United States in computing 
the results of dietary studies are as follows: 

FACTORS USED IN CALCULATING MEALS CONSUMED IN 
DIETARY STUDIES. 

Man at hard muscular work requires 1.2 the food 
of a man at moderately active muscular work. 

Man at light muscular work, and boy 15-16 years 
old require 0.9 the food of a man at moderately active 
muscular work. 

Man at sedentary occupation, woman at moderately 
active work, boy 13-14 years and girl 15-16 years old 
requires 0.8 the food of a man at moderately active 
muscular, work. 

Woman at light work, boy 12, and girl 13-14 years 
old requires 0.7 the food of a man at moderately ac- 
tive muscular work. 

Boy io-ii and girl 10-12 years old require 0.6 the 
food of a man at moderately active muscular work. 

Child 6-9 years old requires 0.5 the food of a man 
at moderately active muscular work. 

Child 2-5 years old require 0.4 the food of a man 
at moderately active muscular work. 



Child under 2 years old requires 0.3 the food of a 
man at moderately active muscular work. 

These factors are based in part upon experiemental 
data, and in part upon arbitary assumptions. They 
are subject to revision when experimental evidence 
shall warrant more definite conclusions. 

The preceding table shows the average results of a 
large number of dietary studies made in the United 
States and other countries with persons performing 
different amounts of muscular work and living under 
different conditions. Using such factors as those re- 
ferred to above, the digestible nutrients furnished by 
the diet have also been calculated. 

As will be seen the American dietary standard ex- 
press the food requirements in terms of protein and 
energy only. This is done because of simplicity, and 
is permissible since, theoretically at least, the propor- 
tion of fats and carbohydrates is immaterial, provided 
both are present and in such quantity that the total 
energy supplied is sufficient. As the habits and con- 
ditions of individuals differ, so too, their needs for 
nourishment differ, and their food should be adapted 
to their particular requirements. Climate and other 
circumstances influence the character of the food con- 
sumed, and doubtless in large degree the quantity also. 
However, the amount of nutrients is determined, gen- 
erally speaking, by the age, size of the body and es- 
pecially by the amount of work performed, increasing 
or decreasing according as the amount of work is 
greater or less. It is not necessary that the food each 
day equal the amount called for by the dietary stand- 
ards. A deficiency one day is made good by an excess 
the next, and vice versa. It is believed, however, that 
persons are best nourished when through long periods 
the diet furnishes approximately the nutrients and 
energy which the standard calls for. What has been 
said applies to persons in health and under more or 
less normal conditions ; the diet of the sick, convales- 
cent, etc., is a subject which pertains to the practice 
of medicine. 

To learn whether any given diet conforms to the 
standard the amount of nutrients and energy (or what 
serves the same purpose, protein and energy), must 
be ascertained. To this end the weight of the differ- 
ent food materials provided for the day's diet must 
be ascertained, as well as the composition of each of 
the food materials. This may be readily calculated 
from the tables of percentage composition. The total 
protein and total energy is, of course, learned by add- 
ing together the amounts furnished by the different 
food materials. The amount per man per day, can 
then be learned by dividing the total amounts by the 
number of persons served. If the diet be deficient in 
protein or in energy, food materials should be added 
which supply protein or are especially valuable as 



THE CHEF 



29 



sources of energy (i. e., foods rich in fats and carbo- 
hydrates). If more protein or energy is provided 
than the standard demands, the food materials should 
be correspondingly deminished. In ordinary mixed 
diet, which seems to be the one best suited to man 
in health, the chief sources of protein are meat, fish 
and milk among animal foods, and the cereals and 
legumes among vegetable foods. Beans, peas and oat- 
meal are rich in protein, and hence are especially 
valuable foods. About nine-tenths of fat in the or- 
dinary diet is obtained from the animal foods, while 
the vegetable foods furnish approximately nine-tenths 
of the carbohydrates. 

Too much food is as bad as too little and occasions 
a waste of energy and strength in the body as well as 
a waste of nutritive material. 

Among people who have the benefit of modern 
comfort and culture the palate revolts against a very 
simple and unvaried diet, and for this reason the nu- 
trients are usually supplied from a variety of articles 
— some of animal, some of vegetable origin. With 
a varied diet it is also easier to secure the proper 
proportions of protein to fats and carbohydrates. 

PREPARATION OF FOOD COOKING. 

The cooking of food has much to do with its nutri- 
tive value. Many articles which, owing to their physi- 
cal condition or other cause, are quite unfit for 
naurishment when raw are very nutritious when 
cooked. It is also a matter of common experience 
that a well-cooked food is wholesome and appetizing, 
while the same material badly cooked is unpalatable. 
There are three chief purposes of cooking. The first 
is to change the physical condition so that the diges- 
tive juices can act upon the food more freely. Heat- 
ing often changes the structure of food substances 
very materially, so that they are more easily chewed 
and more easily and thoroughly digested. The second 
is to . make food more appetizing by improving the 
appearance, the flavor or both. Food which is attrac- 
tive to the taste quickens the flow of saliva and other 
digestive juices, and thus digestion is aided. The third 
is to kill by heat and disease germs, parasites, or 
ofher dangerous organisms food may contain. This 
is often a very important matter, and applies to both 
animal and vegetable foods. The cooking of meat 
not only develops the pleasing taste and odor of ex- 
tractives and that due to the browned fat and tissues, 
but it softens and loosens the protein (gelatinoids) of 
the connective tissues, and thus makes the meat more 
tender. Extreme heat, however, tends to coagulate 
and harden the albuminoids of the lean portions and 
also weakens the flavor of extractives. If the heat- 
ing is carried too far, a burned or charred product of 
bad flavor results. Meats lose weight in cooking. A 
small portion of this is due to escape of meat juices 
and fat, but the chief part of material lost is simply 
water. The nutritive value of a meat soup depends 
upon the substances which are dissolved out of meat 



bones and gristle by the water. In ordinary meat 
broth these consist almost wholly of extractives and 
salts which are very agreeable and often most useful 
as stimulants, but have little or no value as actual 
nutriment since they neither build tissue nor yield 
energy. The principles which underlie the cooking 
of fish are essentially the same as with meats. 

In many vegetables the valuable carbohydrates, 
chiefly microscopic starch-grains, are contained in tiny 
cells with comparatively thick walls on which the di- 
gestive juices have little effect. The heat of cooking, 
especially with water, ruptures these walls and also 
makes the starch more soluble ; without water it may 
also carmelize a portion of the carbohydrates and 
produce agreeable flavors in this and other ways. 

In breads, cakes, pastry and other foods prepared 
from flour, the aim is to make a palatable and lighter 
porous substance, more easily broken up in the ali- 
mentary canal than the raw materials could be. Some- 
times this is accomplished simply by means of water 
and heat. The heat changes part of the water in the 
dough into steam, which, in trying to escape, forces 
the particles of dough apart. The protein (gluten) 
of the flour stiffens about the tiny bubbles thus formed, 
and the mass remains porous even after the steam 
has escaped. More often, however, other things are 
used to "raise" the dough, such as yeast and baking- 
powder. The baking-powder gives off the gas carbon 
dioxide, and the yeast causes fermentation in the 
dough by which carbon dioxide is produced. This 
acts as the steam does, only much more powerfully. 
When beaten eggs are used, the albumen incloses air 
in bubbles, which expand and the walls stiffen with 
heat and thus render the food porous. 

PECUNIARY ECONOMY OF FOOD. 

Although the cost of food is the principal item in 
living expenses of a large majority of people, and 
although the physical welfare of all is so intimately 
connected with and dependent upon diet, very few of 
even the most intelligent have any ideas regarding the 
actual nutrient in the different food materials they 
use. In too many cases even those who wish to try 
to economize know very little as ,to the combinations 
which are best fitted for their nourishment, and have 
still less information as to the relation between the 
real nutritive value of different foods and their cost. 

There are various ways of comparing food mate- 
rials with respect to the relative cheapness or dearness 
of their nutritive ingredients. For instance, from the 
proportions of available nutrients and energy in dif- 
ferent food materials we may calculate the cost of 
the different nutrients per pound, and of energy per 
1,000 calories in any given material for which the 
price per pound is known. Thus, for the different 
food materials when the price of any material is that 
given in the first column, the cost of protein and en- 
ergy will be as given in the second and third columns. 
These figures show the relative economy of the vari- 



30 



THE CHEF 



ous foods as sources of protein and sources of energy. 
Of course the amount of energy that would be ob- 
tained in a quantity of any given material sufficient to 
furnish a pound of protein would vary with the 
amounts of fats and carbohydrates accompanying the 
protein ; and on the other hand, the quantities of the 
different materials that would furnish 1,000 calories 
of energy would contain different amounts of pro- 
tein. The figures for cost of protein leave the carbo- 
hydrates and fats out of account, and those for en- 
ergy take no account of the protein. Hence the fig- 
ures for either protein or energy alone give a very 
one-sided view of the relation between nutritive value 
and money cost. A better way of estimating the rela- 
tive pecuniary economy of different food materials is 
found in comparison of the quantities of both nutri- 
ents and energy which can be obtained for a given 
sum, say ten cents at current prices. 

While in the case of certain foods as purchased, 
notably meats, some waste is unavoidable, the pecu- 
niary loss can be diminished, both by buying those 
kinds in which there is the least waste, and by utiliz- 
ing, more carefully than is ordinarily done, portions 
of what is usually classed as refuse. Much of the 
waste may be avoided by careful planning so as to 
provide a comfortable and appetizing meal in suffi- 
cient amount, but without excess. If strict economy 
is necessary, the dearer cuts of meats and the more 
expensive fruits and vegetables should be avoided. 
With reasonable care in cooking and serving a pleas- 
ing and varied diet can be furnished at moderate 
cost. It should not be forgotten that the real cheap- 
ness or dearness of food material depends not only 
on its market price, but also on the cost of its diges- 
tible nutrients. It should always be remembered that 
"the ideal diet" is that combination of foods, which 
while imposing the least burden on the body, supplies 
it with exactly sufficient material to meet its wants, 
and that any disregard of such a standard must in- 
evitably prevent the best development of our powers. 

HYGIENIC CONSIDERATIONS. 

Scrupulous neatness should always be observed in 
keeping, handling and serving food. If ever cleanli- 
ness is desirable, it must be in the things we eat, and 
every care should be taken to insure it for the sake 
of health as well as decency. Cleanliness in this 
connection means, not only absence of visible dirt, 
from worms and other parasites, but freedom also 
from undesirable bacteria and other minute organ- 



isms. If food, raw or cooked, be kept in dirty places, 
peddled from dirty carts, prepared in dirty rooms and 
in dirty dishes or exposed to foul air, disease germs 
and other offensive and dangerous substances can 
easily get in. Food and drink may, in fact, be very 
dangerous purveyors of disease. Experiments have 
clearly shown that fruits, vegetables and other foods 
may readily acquire undesirable or dangerous bac- 
teria if exposed to street dust. The bacteria of ty- 
phoid fever sometimes find their way into drinking 
water ; those of typhoid and scarlet fevers and diph- 
theria into milk. Thus sickness and death are brought 
to large numbers of people. Oysters, which are 
taken from the salt water where they grow and 
"floated" for a short time in brackish water near the 
mouth of a stream, have been known to be affected 
by typhoid-fever germs brought into the stream by 
the sewage from houses where the dejections from 
patients had been thrown into the drains. Celery or 
lettuce has been found to convey typhoid fever from 
having grown in soil containing typhoid germs. 

Food materials may also contain parasites, like 
tapeworms in beef, pork and mutton and trichinae in 
pork, which are often injurious and sometimes deadly 
in their effect. This danger is not confined to animal 
foods. Vegetables and fruits may be contaminated 
with eggs of numerous parasites from fertilizers used 
in growing them. Raw fruit and vegetables should 
always be thoroughly washed before serving if there 
is any doubt as to their cleanliness. If the food is 
sufficiently heated in cooking all organisms are killed. 
Sometimes food undergoes decomposition in which in- 
jurious chemical compounds, so-called ptomaines, are 
formed. Poisoning by cheese, ice-cream, preserved 
fish, canned meats and the like has been caused in 
this way. The ptomaines often withstand the heat of 
cooking. 

Food inspection is maintained in most States, and 
after several years of effort a National pure food law 
was passed by Congress in June, 1906. This law 
prohibits the shipment from one State to another, or 
to foreign countries, of foods, condiments, drugs, con- 
fectionery, liquor, etc., which are adulterated or mis- 
branded. The law is comprehensive and is specific in 
defining what constitutes adulteration and misbrand- 
ing. Its execution is largely placed in the hands of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, which is directed 
to maintain an inspection. Penalties are provided for 
infractions of the law, consisting of fine, imprison- 
ment, or both. 



"Physical culture, father, is perfectly lovely. To 
develop the arms I grasp this rod by one end and 
move it slowly from right to left." 

"Well, well." exclaimed her father; "what won't 
science discover? If that rod had straw at the other 
end you'd be sweeping." 



THE CHEF 



3i 



A 



THINGS WORTH KNOWING IN 
EVERY HOUSEHOLD 

LITTLE salt taken when eating nuts will help 
to digest them. 



China silk waists can be washed, then starched in 
a thin starch and ironed while damp. This makes 
them look like new. 

Even when there is cream in coffee a stain can be 
removed by rubbing in pure glycerine ; leave for a 
while and then wash out with warm water. 



Test for Eggs. — Place one in a glass of water and 
observe its position. An egg if fresh will remain 
resting at the bottom of the vessel; if not quite fresh 
it will rest with the big end raised higher than the 
small end, and the higher the big end is raised the 
older is the egg. As an egg gets older the water 
contained in the white of an egg evaporates and this 
causes the empty space at the thick end of every egg 
to become enlarged. The larger the empty space be- 
comes the more the egg rises in the water, till in the 
course of time it floats. 



To Clean Velvets. — Invert a hot flatiron, place over 
it single thickness of wet cotton cloth, lay on this the 
velvet wrong side next the wet cloth ; rub gently with 
a dry cloth until the pile is well raised ; take off the 
iron, lay on a table and brush with a soft brush. 



To Improve Griddle Cakes. — Mix them with sweet 
cider, diluted about one-half with water. The flavor 
of the cider is not perceptible, but it makes the cakes 
light and feathery. 



Get the seed in as soon as you can, so as to have 
the plants almost ready to flower when planting time 
comes. Sow the seed in shallow boxes and place 
them in the hotbed. They will need transplanting 
into other boxes or into soil in the hotbed when they 
are an inch or two high. 

FOR REMOVING GREASE 

A good compound for removing grease spots, pitch, 
tar or paint from all sorts of woollen goods, or clean- 
ing coat collars, may be made by taking four and one- 
half pounds of castile soap (the older the better), one 
pint of camphor, one-half pound of saleratus and one 
pint of water ; cut the soap into small pieces and melt 
over a slow fire. 

Adhesive plaster put inside the tips of silk gloves 
will add greatly to the usefulness of the gloves. 

When overshoes are almost broken out their life and 
usefulness can be lengthened by applying strips of 
adhesive plaster over the break on the inside of the 
overshoe. 

For croup given an emetic and a warm bath, and 
apply a sponge wrung out of warm water to the throat 
to ease the breathing. 



A small whisk broom kept, in the kitchen sink is an 
invaluable ally in saving the housekeeper's hands. 
Wash all your pots and pans with it. It removes 
sticky substances much more easily than a cloth and 
makes it unnecessary to put your hands in the water 
during the process. 



When the sink becomes greasy, put a little paraffin 
oil on a piece of flannel and rub the sink with it. It 
will easily remove all the grease. The smell of paraf- 
fin can be removed by washing with hot water and 
soap and then flushing with cold water. At the same 
time this will also clean the pipes. 



When the ivory piano keys show signs of growing 
yellow sprinkle a soft damp cloth with very finely 
powdered whiting and with it rub the keys. Polish 
directly afterward with a soft dry cloth or an old 
silk handkerchief. 



One of the brightest and best, if not the brightest 
and best, brilliant red flowering plants for beds or 
borders is scarlet sage (Salvia splendens). 



Sandpaper may be used as a means of warning 
as to the nature of the contents of bottles. Notwith- 
standing every care, mistakes in handling bottles con- 
taining poisons sometimes occur. Sandpaper pasted 
on the outside of the bottle in such a way that it is im- 
possible to take up the bottle without bringing the 
hand into contact with the rough surface may be the 
means of preventing serious accidents through mis- 
takes made when groping for medicines and the like in 
the dark. A convenient form is to paste the sandpaper 
on the bottle in narrow strips. 

FELINES AS FOOD 

IT appears that workmen in breweries in Brussels 
have developed an appetite for stewed cats. It is 
not explained whether cats in breweries acquire a spe- 
cial flavor or whether the appetite originates in econ- 
omy. An old English authority, Topsel, was of the 
opinion that the flesh of cats can seldom be free from 
poison, "by reason of their daily food, eating rats 
and mice, wrens and other birds which feed on poison, 
and, above all, the brain of a cat is most poisonous, 
for it being above measure dry, stoppeth the animal 
spirits that they cannot pass into the venticle, by rea- 
son whereof memory faileth, and the infected person 
falleth into a phrenzie." But Topsel was prejudiced 
against the cat. The people of Savu, who lived the 
natural life when Capt. Cook visited them, preferred 
cats to sheep and goats. In Germany many a cat is 
sold for hare, and jugged cat has been relished there 
by foreign sojourners. The Swiss mountaineers are 
said to eat cats in the winter, when isolated by snow. 



32 



THE CHEF 



FLAXSEED MEAL BREEDS THE MOTH 

Must Be Thrown Away Before March to Prevent Them 

SOME of the neighbors who stepped in one morn- 
ing to call on Mrs. Hilldale were surprised to find 
her overhauling her medicine cabinet. 

"No," she said to her anxious inquiries if anybody 
in the family had been suddenly taken ill, "everybody 
in this house is in the best of health. I am just get- 
ting together all the little packages of flaxseed meal 
that have gathered here during the winter. I am go- 
ing to throw them away. Of course, like every other 
good housewife, I keep flaxseed meal in the house, 
particularly in the winter time, for poultices. Some- 
times a poultice for a wounded finger or a little in- 
flammation of the skin saves pain and doctor's bills. 
But, of course also, I am not going to have it in my 
hduse during March. 

"You never heard of throwing flaxseed away ! Why, 
my grandmother taught me to do it years ago. It is 
the most fruitful source of moths, and March is the 
month of moths. Therefore, yearly, before the begin- 
ning of March, or, better still, before the middle of 
February, I always throw away the flaxseed meal. 
Either that or put it into an airtight bottle. Even 
then I'm almost as afraid of it as I am of dynamite. 

"In March we begin to put away our furs and our 
winter clothes. That is the time when the moths fly. 
If any one wants to understand the danger of flax- 
seed meal in the house about these days let her open 
a package of it that has been allowed to remain in 
the house for a year. It will usually be found simply 
living with little moths. The sight is enough to turn 
any good housekeeper's blood cold and send a chill of 
apprehension down her spine. 

"The simplest way is to obviate all chance of their 
getting about the house and doing damage during the 
summer. That is, to pitch out the meal. It costs lit- 
tle, and if you simply have to keep some in the house 
for emergency, you can keep it in a bottle tightly 
corked. 

"I am not a believer in tying up a lot of clothes in 
moth balls or camphor and laying them away on the 
top shelf, particularly if they are clothes that may 
come in handy before the middle of the next winter. 
The way I do is to just tie them up in newspapers 
and put them in a closet. That is usually safe enough 
if you are careful not to leave a lot of stuff around 
that breeds moths. More clothes are ruined by the 
housekeeper who helps the moths multiply by leaving 
meal of various sorts about than are ever injured by 
not being carefully put away in a house that has none 
of these ravenous little winged pests. 

"Of course, when you put clothes away in that fash- 
ion you must keep an eye on them. Every few weeks 
go to the closet and take a peep inside. Look ovel 
some of the furs and woollens and flannels. The saf- 
est way in the end is to exercise everlasting vigilance 
That applies, so far as I know, to everything excepf 



sealskins if you happen to be so fortunate as to pos- 
sess any. 

"Not within my memory did I ever hear of any 
moth being found in a real sealskin coat or muff or 
neckpiece. For that reason, if you have insurance on 
your household goods it seems foolish to store them, 
unless they are so large that you need the room for 
other things. Some furriers say it is the dye that pre- 
vents the moths from attacking seal. I don't know, 
but they never touch it, at any rate. 

"If you want to be rid of the most prolific breed- 
ing place for moths throw away the flaxseed." 

POTPIE FOR EVERYBODY 

/ "T~ V HE owner of a chain of restaurants has brought 
-*■ joy to many a hungry man by providing chicken 
potpie at an astonishingly low price. 

"I lose money on my chicken potpie every day," he 
said, "but I sell it cheap for sentimental reasons. 
When I was a youngster I got a chance to go into the 
town nearest my home about once in six months. 
Sometimes I went with father, sometimes with a 
neighbor. We always ate at a certain small restau- 
rant where chicken potpie was the cook's crowning 
achievement. 

"Between the ages of six and sixteen my supreme 
delight was a go at that chicken pie. We didn't have 
chicken potpie at home, even if we did live in the 
country. We were poor and what few chickens we 
did raise had to be sold or kept for laying. So from 
one town visit to another I cherished the memory of 
chicken pie. 

"But sometimes we had to cut it out. The proprie- 
tor charged a stiff price for his potpie, and we couldn't 
always afford it. Those were black days in my cal- 
endar, and I made up my mind then that if ever I 
owned a restaurant I would furnish chicken potpie at 
a price so reasonable that the meanest beggar in the 
land could afford to buy. As you see, I have kept my 
word." 

TOMMYS PRAYER 

THE Sunday school lesson had been on the effi- 
cacy of prayer, and the teacher had done her 
best to instill into the youthful mind the belief that 
our prayers are answered. There was one doubting 
Thomas, however, who insisted that he knew better. 

"Why, Tommy, I am surprised to hear you say you 
don't believe our prayers are answered," expostulated 
the teacher. 

"I know they ain't," persisted Tommy, doggedly. 

"What makes you think so?" asked the teacher. 

"I don't think it ; I know it," replied Tommy. "You 
know the angels brought a new baby to our house 
last week." 

"Yes, I heard about that," said the teacher. "Now, 
surely, that was an answer to prayer, wasn't it?" 

"It was, nit !" replied Tommy, disgustedly. "Why, 
for six months I've been prayin' for a goat!" 



THE CHEF 



33 



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DISCUSSES CAUSES OF HIGH COST 
OF LIVING. 

' I V HE Rev. William Barnes Lower, pastor of 
-*• Calvary Presbyterian Church, one of the import- 
ant congregations of that denomination in the subur- 
ban sections surrounding Philadelphia, commenting 
recently on the higher cost of living, attributed present 
conditions to half a dozen different causes. "No 
nation in all the world wastes as much as we Ameri- 
cans do," he said. "The provisions thrown out of our 
hotels and the homes of the well-to-do and wealthy 
families would almost keep the other and needier 
half. People eat better food than they did formerly. 
No other nation lives so well. 

"Everything we buy to-day is put up in more ex- 
pensive packages than it was formerly and the con- 
sumer pays the bills. The centralization of our peo- 
ple in great urban communities aggravates conditions. 
Hundreds of large and small farms lie untilled within 
thirty to forty miles of Philadelphia. The people de- 
mand more waiting on. The telephone makes order- 
ing easy and the smallest things have to be 'sent,' 
delivered immediately, and the consumer pays. De- 
velopment in taste and social wants is more rapid than 
the power of production. The laboring man, almost 
without exception to-day must have better things in 
his dinner-pail than twenty years ago." 



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good eating, the patrons of our hotels and 
restaurants, with a satisfactory description of 
any dish on the menu. The housewife will 
find in condensed form helpful suggestions 
for the variation of her menus. 



I THE CHEF. 225 Fifth Avenue. New York City. 

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I of Cancel's "Ready Reference of Menu Terms," and 

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34 



THE CHEF 



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THE CHEF 



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when food prices have never been higher, when the cost of living has /^/ 
become the most serious of all problems to the housewife, "THE /£ / Avenue, 

CHEF" is a genuine necessity in every American home. It is /'if/ New York City 

the foremost practical magazine of household economy; and /^/ GmiUmtn 1 enclose $3 75 

each issue contains a mine of suggestions for real and prac- /^y (check, money order or currency). 

tlCal economies in the kitchen, besides the USUal number /*/ 'or which please send me, all charges 

of carefully selected new recipes and novelties which /<<?/ paid ' ' copy o( CAS SELL'S NEW 

alone have made the magazine indispensable. A/ , D '™NARY OF COOKERY, and 

/ ^S / place my name on your mailing list for a year's 

■T Mail the Coupon To=day /// ,, subs , cr "; ,,on '° " THE CHEF " beginnin9 with 

<*» ■ r * / c / the earliest possible issue. 

"THE CHEF" A/ NAME 

225 FIFTH AVENUE 

NEW VORK CI' **If book a lo ne j s desired, remit $3.25. 

II magazine alone, remit $1.00. 



3fi 



THE CHEF 




iku 



(MrcffCo. 



wmm 



is stamped like this- 

Made only by LA LANCE & GROSJEAN K'F'Cj 



ELIE J. MONEUSE, President 



ESTABLISHED 1852 



LOUIS H. HUOT, Vice President 




DUPARQUET, HUOT & MONEUSE CO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



FRENCH COOKING RANGES 

and COOKING EQUIPMENTS of every description for Hotels, Restaurants, Clubs, Families, Institutions, etc. 

Layouts and Details, Also Catalogues, furnished on Application 
43-45 WOOSTER STREET, NEW YORK 

BRANCH HOUSES : 1420 Penn Avenue, N. W., WASHINGTON, D. C; 88-90 North Street, BOSTON Mass. 



$15.00 For Your Besl Recipes $15.00 

THE ABOVE OFFER IS MADE TO 
ALL READERS OF "THE CHEF" 

We want all our readers to 'become interested in 
" The Chef." 

There are many women who have good recipes 
of home dishes. 

We want you to submit them to us for publication, 
under the following conditions: 

For the best recipe submitted before 
June 1st, 1910, "The Chef" will 
pay the sum of .... $5.00 

For the 2d best, "The Chef" will pay 

the sum of $3.00 

For the 3d best, "The Chef" will pay 

the sum of $2.00 

And the five next best will receive one 

year's subscription to " The Chef," $5.00 

We will publish your name with the recipe, unless 
requested otherwise. 

All recipes for this Contest should be addressed 
" Contest Department." 

"THE CHEF" MAGAZINE 

225 Fifth Avenue New York City 




CASEY PBESS, H. Y, 



Lb Mr '12